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"       /    '       i  I 

I  9  ^  J 



OLD  JAPAX  is  now  so  common  an  expression  that  one  may  easily  forget 
how  short  a  period  of  time,  barely  two  score  years,  separates  us  from  the 
era  of  two-sworded  warriors,  whose  legends  and  popular  beliefs  are  fast 
becoming  forgotten,  hidden  or  eradicated  by  the  influence  of  Western 

Legends  and  customs  are,  however,  happily  recorded  in  an  enduring 
manner  in  many  of  the  articles  of  attire,  or  daily  use,  the  exquisite 
workmanship  of  which  endears  them  to  collectors  of  Japanese  Works  of 
Art.  Netsuke,  Inro,  Tsuba,  Prints,  etc.,  embody  in  their  decoration  a  host 
of  subjects,  the  elucidation  of  which  forms  one  of  the  chief  difficulties, 
and  perhaps  also  one  of  the  greatest  attractions  of  Japanese  collecting. 

The  author  has  for  a  number  of  years  given  his  attention  to  Japanese 
Objets  d'art,  illustrating  folk-lore  or  historical  episodes,  carefully  noting  all 
the  information  he  could  gather  respecting  them.  This  work,  undertaken  as 
a  labour  of  love  and  for  private  reference,  wras  illustrated  with  sketches, 
stray  leaves  from  books,  and  photographs  from  his  own  specimens.  A 
special  study  of  Japanese  illustrated  books  helped  to  enlarge  the  scope  of 
this  note  book,  opening  a  fascinating  field  of  research  which  seemed  only 
to  grow  wider  as  the  author's  knowledge  increased. 

Japanese  friends  and  other  collectors,  who  in  many  cases  had  them- 
selves followed  a  similar  plan,  finally  impressed  upon  the  author  the 



desirability  of  publishing  his  bulky  compilation.  Although  this  suggestion 
was  at  first  brushed  aside,  for  the  author  was  conscious  of  many  deficiencies, 
it  was  finally  decided  to  edit  these  notes  iVun  cuvieux,  and  to  offer  them 
to  the  Japonists,  in  the  hope  that  they  might  prove  useful.  This  is 
briefly  the  genesis  of  the  present  volume. 

The  Western  World  from  which  Old  Japan  kept  aloof  for  so  many 
centuries,  was  almost  taken  by  surprise,  when  in  1868,  the  drastic  changes 
following  the  restoration  of  Meiji,  led  the  Japanese  to  part  with  the  bulk 
of  their  arms,  armour,  and  smaller  objects  of  attire,  which  were  as  rapidly 
secured  by  European  and  American  curio  hunters.  For  it  must  be 
admitted  that  at  the  very  beginning  collectors  of  Japanese  works  of  art 
looked  upon  them  more  as  curios,  interesting  for  their  quaint  or 
humorous  side,  and  for  the  perfection  of  their  most  minute  details  than 
from  any  other  point  of  view.  Collections  were  made,  chiefly  composed 
of  pretty  pieces,  the  style  of  which  was  in  its  mignavdise  almost  on 
a  level  with  the  attractive  graces  of  European  eighteenth  century  work ; 
and  to  the  influence  of  this  taste  is  probably  due  the  weakness  of 
the  modern  Japanese  work  with  which  the  market  is  now  flooded. 

It  should  be  remembered  that  with  the  exception  of  paintings  and 
prints,  the  chief  objects  of  interest,  Netsuke,  Inro,  and  sword  fittings,  were 
articles  of  use,  and  that  the  owners  when  parting  with  them  for  a 
monetary  consideration  probably  first  discarded  the  pieces  of  later  date, 
which  were  least  prized  because  of  their  involved  design  and  showy 
decoration  in  precious  metals,  although  this  very  richness  of  material 
was  a  sure  passport  to  the  heart  of  the  Western  collector.  To  some  extent 
this  explains  why  the  older  pieces,  broader  in  treatment,  truer  to  Japanese 
taste  in  their  simplicity,  and  above  all,  in  the  adaptation  of  the  design  to 
the  nature  of  the  object  ornamented  and  the  use  to  which  it  was  to  be 
put,  were  not  for  some  time  found  in  European  collections.  Now,  however, 
a  keener  appreciation  of  the  real  beauties  to  be  found  in  the  older  speci- 
mens of  Japanese  art  prevails,  and  there  is  a  marked  tendency  to  collect 
archaic  pieces,  almost  purely  for  the  sake  of  their  antiquity. 

The  general  survey  of  Japanese  Art  has  been  the  aim  of  a  large 



number  of  writers,  and  although  the  orginal  sources  are  scarce,  and  too 
often  inadequate,  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  various  sections  of  this  wide 
study  will  some  day  be  fully  dealt  with  in  exhaustive  monographs. 

Collectors  and  lovers  of  Japanese  Ob  jets  d'art,  even  when  they  specialise 
in  the  selection  of  their  treasures,  even  when  they  prefer  the  purely  orna- 
mental designs,  all  confess  to  the  attraction  exerted  upon  them  by  the 
subjects  depicted,  the  symbolism  of  the  composition,  the  hidden  meaning 
of  some  scene.  Few  collectors  can  however  be  found,  who  have  not 
sometimes  had  cause  to  bewail  their  inability  to  understand  the  artist's 
intention,  or  to  name  the  personages  represented.  The  vastness  of  the 
field  embraced  is  really  the  best  excuse  for  our  limited  knowledge ;  scenes 
from  the  everyday  life  of  the  people,  Shintoist  or  Buddhistic  symbolism, 
episodes  from  the  life  of  Chinese  poets,  or  Japanese  warriors,  battle  scenes 
from  the  history  of  both  Japan  and  China,  heroes  of  romance,  fairy-lore, 
or  theatrical  plays,  mythical  animals,  jostling  sages  and  magicians  of 
Taoist  fame,  all  contribute  to  form  an  almost  inexhaustible  store  of  sub- 
jects, treated  by  the  artist  or  the  craftsman  with  such  powerful  realism, 
or  such  suggestive  simplicity  as  to  command  the  interebt,  admiration,  or 
even  envy  of  collectors  and  dilletanti  all  over  the  world. 

Although  Japan  owes  to  the  introduction  of  Buddhism  and  the  adoption 
of  Chinese  ideograms  and  culture  the  partial  loss  of  its  ancient  language 
and  history,  and  the  prevalence  of  subjects  of  Chinese  origin  in  its  Art; 
yet  it  is  also  to  Buddhism  that  its  glyptic  and  pictorial  Art  owe  their 
development,  if  not  their  very  origin.  The  endless  reproduction  in  carvings 
or  paintings  of  the  Buddha  and  his  disciples,  led  the  artists  to  turn  their 
attention  to  the  episodes  of  secular  and  military  life ;  from  the  chasing 
of  sacred  invocations  and  holy  figures  upon  weapons  and  armour  to  which 
they  long  confined  themselves,  to  the  utilisation  of  floral  ornament  and 
decorative  compositions  of  a  non-religious  character,  there  was  but  one 
step ;  but  the  change  was  a  slow  one,  which  closely  followed  the  develop- 
ment of  the  pictorial  arts. 

With  the  advent  of  illustrated  books,  the  subjects  more  especially  suited 
to  artistic  treatment  were  committed  to  print  by  artists  educated  in 



ancient  lore,  who  in  many  cases  wrote  the  whole  text  of  the  books,  at 
the  same  time  illustrating  the  legends,  traditions  or  moral  lessons  which 
they  recorded.  Often  these  works  were  merely  intended  as  models  for 
pupils  to  follow,  and  were  devoted  to  the  exposition  of  Chinese 
methods  of  painting,  directions  being  given  for  the  proper  colouring  of 
the  copies.  In  most  cases  an  explanatory  text  was  added,  sometimes 
consisting  of  but  a  few  words,  more  often  covering  many  pages,  when  the 
illustration  becomes  a  mere  accessory,  as  for  instance  in  Elton  Hokan  (1688) 
of  Hasegawa  Toun.  These  illustrated  books  became  from  1670  onwards, 
more  and  more  numerous,  and  at  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  we 
find  that  works  entitled:  "Models  for  Craftsmen,"  "Designs  for  Carvers, 
Laquerers,  etc.,"  are  fairly  common. 

To  Tachibana  Morikuni,  in  the  early  years  of  the  eighteenth  century 
belongs  the  largest  share  of  this  literature ;  almost  every  subject  came 
within  his  ken,  some  fifty  volumes  of  Chinese  history  and  legend,  a  popular 
encyclopaedia  for  the  education  of  children,  volumes  on  trees,  plants,  animals, 
rocks,  follow  upon  pages  devoted  to  weapons,  armour,  domestic  utensils, 
and  popular  customs,  with  a  wealth  of  detail,  an  accuracy  of  drawing, 
an  absence  of  repetition  which  fill  one  with  wonder.  Some  of  Morikuni's 
works  are  more  than  mere  illustrated  books  :  quoting  as  he  often  did  his 
sources  of  information  amongst  earlier  works,  he  has  left  a  survey  of 
Oriental  bibliography  of  real  value  to  the  student.  Perhaps  the  appreciation 
of  Morikuni's  work  has  been  minimized  by  the  interest  evinced  in  the 
gigantic  production  of  Hokusai,  who  did  for  the  artisan  of  the  late 
eighteenth  century,  and  his  followers,  what  Morikuni  had  done  for  the 
previous  generation. 

The  development  of  the  Ukioye  school  of  popular  colour  printing,  whose 
productions,  even  though  we  see  in  them  masterpieces  of  drawing,  colour 
and  technique,  were  despised  by  the  contemporary  educated  classes,  intro- 
duced further  means  for  the  propagation  of  legends  and  traditions,  the 
glorification  of  the  heroes  and  the  dissemination  of  the  playwright's 
imaginative  efforts,  besides  the  immortalisation  of  actors,  geishas  and 
professional  beauties. 


If  we  wish  to  study  the  themes  selected  by  the  Japanese  artist,  or  to 
find  a  faithful  survey  of  old  customs,  it  is  to  these  books  and  prints  that 
we  must  turn  for  our  information.  Much  has  been  done  of  late  years  in 
Japan  to  prevent  the  total  loss  of  the  old  traditions  and  to  keep  the 
details  and  meaning  of  the  old  customs  from  falling  entirely  into  oblivion ; 
but  the  present  generation,  in  its  thirst  for  Western  knowledge  often  over- 
shoots the  mark,  and  studiously  affects  ignorance  of  the  fashions  of  life, 
and  of  the  beliefs  of  its  predecessors.  The  European  inquirer  is  repeatedly 
baffled  in  his  quest  by  evasive  answers,  which  either  conceal  a  real 
ignorance,  under  the  cloak  of  contempt  for  old  ways,  or  are  prompted 
by  a  suspicion  that  the  inquirer  credits  his  friends  with  an  actual 
belief  in  exploded  superstitions.  The  day  may  yet  come,  however, 
when  the  younger  generation  will  regret  this  attitude,  when  folk-lore 
societies  will  find  it  as  difficult  as  they  do  in  Europe  to  gather  and 
interpret  the  scattered  remnants  of  the  ancient  ways. 

In  Europe,  books  and  written  documents  have  survived  revolutions  and 
catastrophes,  thanks  to  the  larger  editions  printed  and  the  care  bestowed 
upon  their  keeping  ;  but  in  Japan,  earthquakes  and  fire  wrecking  the 
flimsy  buildings  have  destroyed  many  books,  creating  a  proportionately 
greater  havoc,  as  the  editions  from  the  wood  blocks  were  necessarily 
limited.  A  greater  evil  still  was  in  store,  in  the  shape  of  curio  dealers, 
European  and  Japanese  themselves,  who  used  prints  as  packing  material 
and  tore  the  books  to  pieces  to  make  fly-flappers. 

Even  when  books  reached  Europe  in  a  fair  condition  they  were  not 
safe  from  the  vandalism  of  certain  persons.  Editions  of  early  illustrated 
books,  the  like  of  which  will  never  be  found  again,  were  ruthlessly  cut 
up,  the  text  thrown  away,  and  the  illustrations  mounted  on  cartridge  paper 
and  presented  to  the  public  for  sale. 

It  will  be  readily  understood  that  the  task  of  the  seeker  after  enlighten- 
ment is  not  altogether  an  easy  one ;  old  books  are  scarce,  in  fact  hardly 
available  outside  some  of  the  great  national  libraries,  and  it  is  a  matter 
of  congratulation  that  besides  the  compilation  of  the  Koji  Ruiyen  now  in 
course  of  publication,  enterprising  Japanese  publishers  are  now  reprinting 



many  works,  amongst  which  for  instance  are  the  whole  of  Hokusai's 
the  Zenken  Kojitsu  of  Kikuchi  Yosai,  and  the  Wakan  San  Sai  Dzue.  But 
in  many  cases,  as  with  the  reprints  of  Utamaro,  and  of  a  number  of 
prints,  the  old  colouring  and  details  of  less  importance  have  been  treated 
with  unwarrantable  licence. 

Not  only  were  the  designs  of  Morikuni,  or  of  Hokusai  for  instance, 
taken  as  mere  guides,  but  the  artists,  carvers  and  chasers  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  who  doubtless  were  themselves  draughtsmen  of  no  mean  merit, 
often  followed  slavishly  the  lines  of  the  illustration.  The  author  has 
purposely  selected  for  reproduction,  a  number  of  specimens  which  show 
how  strong  was  this  influence.  The  prototype  of  a  Tsuba  in  the  author's 
collection  showing  CHINNAN  and  the  dragon,  is  found  in  Morikuni's  Ehon 
0  Shukubai ;  the  same  applies  to  the  unique  Tsuba  in  the  Hawkshaw 
collection,  representing  also  Chinnan,  illustrated  in  the  Arms  and  Armour 
of  Japan  (Japan  Society),  and  another  Chinnan  also  in  the  same  collection 
is  taken  from  the  Shako  Bukuro ;  that  of  CHODORIO,  evoking  the  KARASHISHI, 
can  be  found  in  Ehon  Tsuhosht,  from  which  are  also  taken  KWAXYU  with 
the  brocade  bag  and  the  TOHAKUKWA  in  Mr.  "\Y.  L.  Behrens'  collection ; 
the  modern  Tsuba  showing  HIKO  HOHODEMI,  illustrated  here,  is  from  the 
same  work. 

From  the  Yokioku  Gwashi  was  undoubtedly  copied  an  inro  recently 
seen  by  the  author,  representing  Cheng  She  "\Yang  Ti  seeking  refuge 
under  a  pine  tree,  now  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Oscar  C.  Raphael. 

THE  FUJI  IN  A  SAKE  CUP  is  taken  almost  exactly  from  Hokusai's 
Thirty-six  views  of  Fuji. 

Those  collectors  who  felt  particularly  attracted  towards  the  elucidation 
of  the  scenes  illustrated,  have  as  a  rule  spent  much  time  in  obtaining 
information  from  their  Japanese  acquaintances,  and  stored  it  in  note  books. 
Unfortunately,  much  of  this  knowledge  is  hidden  away,  owing  to  an 
insufficient  exchange  of  ideas  between  collectors.  There  are  quite  a  number 
of  amateurs  whose  collections,  however  large,  are  but  little  known  and  who 
in  turn  know  little  of  the  treasures  in  the  possession  of  others. 

However,  all  owe  a  debt  of  gratitude  to  the  late  Dr.  William  Ander- 



in  f.Ir.  O.  C.  Raphael's  collection 


'1'nc^ibfiua  ,*foriktini  1'otcit/Ki'  Givashi,  /,  9-10 


son,  whose  Catalogue  of  the  Japanese  and  Chinese  Paintings  in  the  British 
Museum  forms  an  inexhaustible  mine  of  information,  not  only  upon  the 
schools  of  painting  and  their  representatives  in  the  collection,  but  also 
upon  the  subjects  treated  by  the  artists. 

The  wealth  of  erudition  displayed  in  this  work,  has  made  it  for  a 
score  of  years  the  key  to  Japanese  art  motives,  indispensable  to  those 
insufficiently  acquainted  with  the  original  literature,  and  the  vade  mecum 
of  every  collector.  Later,  Mr.  M.  B.  Huish  in  Japan  and  its  Art,  gave 
the  Japonists  a  compendium  which,  thanks  to  its  large  number  of  illus- 
trations and  its  chapters  on  legends,  formed  a  welcome  introduction  to 
the  study  of  subjects.  Mention  must  also  be  made  of  the  Dictionary  of 
Japanese  Myths  at  the  end  of  the  monumental  Catalogue  of  the  Tomkinson 
Collection,  and  of  the  pioneer  work  of  Monsieur  L.  E.  Bertin :  Les  Grandes 
Gnerres  Civiles  du  Japan  (1894)  r'rn  in  illustrations  of  legends  and  historical 
subjects,  which  its  author  acquired  during  his  sojourn  in  Japan,  gathering 
from  the  lips  of  the  Doguya  the  tales  with  which  he  relieves  the  chronicle 
of  the  mediaeval  wars. 

These  works  are  now  scarce,  and  in  each  of  them  the  study  of  legends 
has  been  regarded  as  of  secondary  importance  to  the  main  subject  of 
the  book. 

In  the  present  work,  on  the  contrary,  there  is  no  endeavour  to  deal 
with  Art  as  such,  but  merely  with  the  themes  illustrated,  and,  although 
a  few  articles  refer  to  subjects  not  strictly  to  be  described  as  legends, 
the  title  "Legend  in  Japanese  Art"  has  been  selected  for  the  sake  of 

Purely  Buddhistic  or  Shintoist  subjects  are  not  very  common  in  small 
works  of  art,  with  the  exception  of  shrines,  etc.,  which  in  the  case 
of  the  common  divinities  can  be  easily  named,  and  in  that  of  rarer 
types  require  the  use  of  special  Buddhist  works ;  rather  a  large  space 
has  been  devoted  to  the  Sennins,  because  of  the  large  number  of  types 
met  with,  whilst  the  Rakans  have  been  more  rapidly  dealt  with,  as  some  of 
them  defy  all  attempt  at  identification. 

To  facilitate  research  a  special  index  has  been  compiled  under  the  names 



of  prominent  features  or  attributes  which  should  lighten  the  task  of 
finding  by  name  most  of  the  subjects  when  once  the  characteristic 
feature  of  the  specimen  under  investigation  will  have  been  recognised. 

The  Japanese  index  under  radicals  will  enable  the  names  to  be  found 
under  their  respective  numbers  in  the  text  from  their  writing  in  Chinese 
characters,  by  referring  to  the  first  character  only. 

The  Bibliography  covers  chiefly  Japanese  illustrated  sources,  a  few 
European  works  only  being  mentioned,  which  are  of  particular  interest 
from  the  standpoint  of  Legend,  History,  and  Folk-lore. 

It  was  considered  imperative  lavishly  to  illustrate  from  actual  specimens, 
carefully  selected  from  amongst  the  best,  the  stories  concisely  told  in  this 
dictionary,  and  thus  to  supply  pictorial  information  not  hitherto  available. 
Tsuba  and  netsnke  have  been  given  the  preference,  owing  to  their  wider 
distribution,  and  because  they  lend  themselves  more  readily  to  full  size 

The  number  of  subjects  treated  in  small  objects  is  so  large  that  no 
collection  can  be  found  covering  the  whole  field  in  an  altogether  satis- 
factory manner ;  it  is,  in  fact,  questionable  whether  such  a  collection  could 
now  be  made.  A  number  of  collectors  however,  have  attempted  to  get 
together  representative  series  of  the  legends  and  historical  episodes,  and 
of  pieces  illustrating  the  life  of  the  people.  Amongst  su<*h  must  be 
mentioned  the  Franks  collections  of  Netsnke  now  in  the  British  Museum, 
which  shows  the  results  of  a  systematic  search  for  subjects.  But  the 
private  collections  are  by  far  the  richest  in  illustrations  of  this  type,  and 
it  is  chiefly  due  to  the  kindness  of  private  collectors  that  the  author 
is  able  to  present  a  comprehensive  series  of  illustrations  of  the  most 
interesting  subjects  now  published  for  the  first  time.  It  is  his  pleasant 
duty  to  acknowledge  the  valuable  help  afforded  him  by  all  collectors  to 
whom  he  applied  for  permission  to  select  and  photograph  specimen  from 
their  cabinets.  He  is  chiefly  indebted  to  Mr.  Walter  L.  Behrens,  of 
Manchester,  whose  selection  of  Netsnke  especially,  contains  an  extra- 
ordinarily large  number  of  rare  subjects ;  to  Mr.  H.  Seymour  Trower, 
one  of  the  earliest  Japanese  collectors  in  England,  who  has  paid  special 



attention  to  subjects,  and  not  only  allowed  the  author  to  make  a  large 
selection  of  illustrations,  but  also  lent  him  a  copy  of  notes  made 
during  years  of  collecting  by  the  late  Mr.  Gilbertson,  who,  it  appears,  had 
intended  to  crystallize  his  extensive  knowledge  of  things  Japanese  into  a 
work  which  unfortunately  was  never  completed. 

To  Mr.  P.  M.  Saltarel,  of  Paris,  the  author  owes  some  useful  reprints 
of  Japanese  books,  and  the  communication  of  the  descriptive  catalogue  of 
a  collection  of  some  twelve  thousand  prints  and  pictures,  including  many 
pieces  of  peculiar  interest,  and  a  precis  of  the  Ressen  Den,  by  Mr.  K. 
Kawada,  use  of  which  has  been  made  in  the  present  work. 

Thanks  are  also  due  to  Herr  Albert  Brockhaus,  who  kindly  sent  some 
netsnke  from  Leipzig  for  reproduction,  to  Mr.  Michael  Tomkinson  of 
Kidderminster,  to  Sir  Trevor  Lawrence,  Mr.  W.  C.  Alexander,  Professor  J. 
Norman  Collie,  F.R.S.,  Mr.  Wilson  Crewdson,  M.A.,  Herr  Gustav  Jacoby, 
Mr.  Matt  Garbutt,  A.M.I.C.E.,  from  whose  remarkable  collection  of  sword 
furniture  and  prints  a  large  number  of  illustrations  were  selected,  to  Mr. 
O.  C.  Raphael,  Mr.  G.  H.  Xaunton,  Mr.  Henry  J.  Reiss,  Mr.  C.  P.  Peak, 
Monsieur  M.  Bing  of  Paris,  Mr.  J.  C.  Hawkshaw,  M.I.C.E.,  Professor  W. 
Harding  Smith,  R.B.A.,  to  the  authorities  of  the  British  Museum,  the 
Victoria  and  Albert  Museum,  to  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers,  to 
Mr.  E.  Deshayes,  Conservateur  du  Musee  d'Ennery,  who  allowed  the  author 
to  select  in  the  d'Ennery  collection  some  interesting  specimens,  to  the 
Conservateur  du  Musee  Guimet,  M.  de  Milloue,  and  to  the  Gardien 
chef,  Mr.  J.  Dumont,  who  supplied  several  photographs,  to  Madame  Gillot 
for  some  masks  in  the  Gillot  collection,  to  Messrs.  Yamanaka,  G.  H.  Lee 
and  Tregaskis  for  permission  to  photograph  some  pieces  from  their  ex- 
tensive stocks,  to  all  of  his  Japanese  friends  who  have  helped  him  with 
numerous  translations,  amongst  whom  Messrs.  Kato  Yasutaro,  Okada,  Tomita, 
etc.,  and  especially,  the  author  must  tender  the  expression  of  his  deepest  grati- 
tude to  his  friends  Professor  S.  Tanaka  and  Mr.  Kato  Shozo ;  the  former  not 
only  helped  him  with  a  number  of  translations  and  with  commentaries 
which  his  deep  knowledge  of  history  made  peculiarly  valuable,  but  further, 
read  through  the  manuscript  with  the  author  before  it  went  to  press,  and 



by  this  revision  considerably  improved  its  accuracy.  Mr.  Kato  ungrudgingly 
gave  the  author  much  help,  his  lengthy  acquaintance  with  the  customs  and 
the  works  of  art  of  old  Japan,  coupled  with  an  exhaustive  knowledge  of 
the  popular  literature,  have  been  freely  drawn  upon  by  all  his  friends  for 
a  number  of  years,  by  none  perhaps  more  so  than  the  present  writer. 
Mr.  Kato  kindly  lent  for  reproduction  a  number  of  colour  prints,  part  of 
his  own  collection,  wrote  most  of  the  poems  printed  in  the  margins  of 
this  book,  and  generally  speaking,  contributed  information  which  no  mere 
thanks  can  adequately  repay.  The  help  of  the  printer,  Mr.  Jihei  Nakagawa, 
of  the  Tokio  Printing  Company,  of  Reading,  and  the  interest  he  took  in 
this  work  must  also  be  gratefully  acknowledged. 

Readers  who  have  themselves  compiled  note  books  may  be  able  to  add 
to  these  pages,  or  to  correct  them,  and  the  author  will  always  be 
glad  to  hear  from  them  on  such  occasions,  in  fact  lie  hopes  that  his 
compilation  may  load  others  to  make  public  the  result  of  their  researches, 
and  the  contents  of  their  memoranda.  There  must  be  unique  pieces 
scattered  about,  each  telling  a  rare  story,  or  illustrating  a  custom,  the 
description  of  which  would  add  to  our  knowledge  of  the  Art  and 
Ancient  Lore  of  Dai  Nippon,  knowledge  which  can  only  become  more 
extensive  and  more  critical  by  means  of  freer  intercourse  between  collectors, 
and  a  closer  study  of  the  old  Japanese  books. 

The  design  of  cranes  and  pine  embossed  on  the  cover  has  been  repro- 
duced by  permission  of  Monsieur  M.  Bing,  from  a  photograph  of  a  Fukusa  in 
the  collection  of  the  late  M.  S.  Bing,  sold  after  his  decease  in  1906.  The 
figure  on  the  back  representing  Toto  Tenjin  (Sugawara  Michizane,  q.v.), 
has  been  adapted  from  an  old  Japanese  picture. 
















ABE  NO  YASUNA,  from  a  print  by  Kuniyoshi  in  the  Kisokaido 

series   (Author's  Collection)    .......  Frontispiece 

GHOSTS  :  UBUME,  UMIBOZU,  Goblin  Cat,  from  the  Tokaido 
series  of  prints  by  Kuniyoshi  (Kato  Shozo  Collection). 
IGA  xo  TSUBOXE,  from  the  Wakan  Hiakku  Monogatari  of 
Ikkaisai  Yoshitoshi  (Author's  Collection)  .  .  .  .To  face  page  24 

HANGOXKO,    from    a   Surimono   by    Kunisada    (Matt    Garbutt 

Collection) ,,  48 

KKIU,    from    a    print    in    the    Tokaido    series   of    Hiroshige 
(Kato   Shozo   Collection)         .......  ,,  60 

INGO  KOGO,  from  a  print  by  Hiroshige,  in  the  series 
Baiishu  Takasago,  OXOYE  HAIOI,  Matsu  no  Yurai  (by 
courtesy  of  Messrs.  Yamanaka)  ......  ,,  96 

CARUKAYA  DOSHIN,  from  a  print  by  Kuniyoshi  (by  courtesy 
of  Messrs.  Yamanaka)  ........  ,,  120 

VIUNRIU  KOSONSHO,  from  a  print  by  Kuniyoshi  in  the  Suikoden 
(Kato  Shozo  Collection)  ........  ,,  148 

•\BE  xo  NAKAMARO,  from  a  print  by  Kuniyoshi,  in  the 
Hiakku  nin  Isshiu  [no  Uchf]  (by  courtesy  of  Messrs. 
Yamanaka) „  182 

VICHIREX,   from   a   print  by   Kuniyoshi    (Wilson    Crewdson's 
Collection)       ..........  „  224 

HIUSHIXGURA,   from    a    print    by    Kuniyoshi    (Matt    Garbutt 

Collection) „  256 



RAIGO,   from   a   print  by   Chohoro    Kuniyoshi    (Kato    Shozo 

Collection) To  face  page  266 

SOGA  MOXOGATARI,  from   a  print  by  Kuniyoshi  (Matt  Garbutt 

Collection)       ..........  ,, 

SHUNKWAM,     from     a    print     by     Kuniyoshi     in     the    Ogura 

Magai    Hiakku    Xin  Isshiu   (Kato   Shozo   Collection)          .  ,, 

SHIMAMURA  DAXJO,   from    a    mushaye  of    Chohoro  Kuniyoshi 

(Kato  Shozo   Collection)         .......  ,, 

OTO    TACHIBAXA     HIME,     from     a     print    by     Hiroshige,    in 

the     Toto    Kuiseki    Dzukushi     \_Azuma    no    Mori    no     Kaji] 

(Kato   Shozo   Collection)         .......  „ 

YORITOMO,    from     a     print    by    Toyokuni     II.     (H.     Seymour 

Trower  Collection)  ........  ,, 



OWING  to  exigences  of  space  it  has  been  found  impossible  to  give  in 
full  the  names  of  the  owners  of  specimens  reproduced  in  the  plates  ;  Initials 
have  been  adopted  as  follows : 

A.  Author's  Collection. 

A.B.     Albert  Brockhaus  Collection. 

B.  Bing  Collection. 
B.M.     British     Museum 









Chas.  P.  Peak  Collection. 
Fred.  H.  Evans  Collection. 
Gillot  Collection. 
Geo.  H.  Xaunton  Collection. 
Gustav  Jacoby  Collection. 
By  courtesy  of  G.  H.  Lee,  Esq. 





H.  Seymour  T rower  Collec- 

H.J.R.     Henry  J.  Reiss  Collection. 
I.C.E.     Institution  of  Civil  Engineers. 
J.C.H.     J.  Clarke  Hawkshaw  Collec- 

J.N.C.     J.  Norman  Collie  Collection. 
K.B.I.     Kongo  Bugei  Ippan. 
K.S.     Kato  Shozo  Collection. 

Musee  d'Ennery. 
Matt  Garbutt  Collection. 
Musee  Guimet. 
Michael   Tomkinson    Collec- 

O.C.R.     Oscar  C.  Raphael  Collection. 
P.M.S.     P.  M.  Saltarel  Collection. 
T.     By  courtesy   of  James    Tre- 

gaskis,   Esq. 

T.L.     Sir    Trevor    Lawrence    Col- 
V.A.M.     Victoria  and  Albert  Museum, 

South  Kensington. 

W.C.     Wilson  Crewdson  Collection. 

W.C.A.     W.  C.  Alexander  Collection. 

W.H.S.    W.  Harding  Smith  Collection. 

W.L.B.     Walter  L.   Behrens  Collect- 


Y.     By  courtesy  of  Messrs.  Yama- 



IN  the  following  pages  an  attempt  has  been  made  at  grouping  together  in 
alphabetical  sequence  the  principal  emblems  met  with  in  the  Japanese  art,  and 
interesting  either  for  their  own  symbolical  value,  or  as  attributes  of  certain 
personages.  In  many  cases,  especially  in  glyptic  art,  no  criterion  exists  for  the 
identification  of  a  figure  beyond  the  expression  of  the  face,  and  the  emblems,  or 
implements  associated  with  the  individual  depicted.  The  clothing  of  the  subject 
in  general  affords  but  little  guidance,  many  artists  disregarded  entirely  the 
traditional  customs  of  the  personages  which  they  carved  in  wood,  in  ivory,  or 
wrought  in  metals,  to  adopt  some  fanciful  style,  much  in  the  same  way  as 
European  artists  have  clothed  Christ  and  his  Apostles  in  mediaeval  armour,  or 
wrapped  in  roman  Toga  the  limbs  of  some  modern  statesmen.  One  work  how- 
ever, the  Zenken  Kojitsu  gives  a  faithful  presentment  of  the  worthies  of  bygone 
ages,  as  far  at  any  rate  as  their  garments  are  concerned,  for  the  otherwise 
consciencious  artist  Yosai,  often  paid  little  regard  to  the  anatomical  structure  of 
his  heroes. 

A  word  may  be  said  also  regarding  the  curious  associations  of  animals 
and  plants,  to  which  some  symbolism  originally  attached,  but  which 
apparently  have  been  repeated  very  much  like  the  copies  of  Chinese  pictures, 
out  of  respect  for  tradition  only.  Amongst  others  will  be  noted  the  Quail 
and  Millet,  Peacock  and  Peony,  Shishi  and  Peony,  Swallow  and  Willow, 
Tiger  and  Bamboo,  Plum  Blossom  and  Moon,  Chidori  and  Waves,  Deer 
and  Maple,  Boar  and  Lespedeza,  most  of  which  are  of  frequent  occurrence. 
The  Snake  is  also  often  shown  coiled  around  a  Tortoise — sometimes  with 



a    jewel    (Tamo),    reminiscent     of     the     Snake     and     Egg     Myth — and     then 
associated   with    Bishamon. 

Another  group  of  emblems,  in  which  the  association  is  more  strict, 
is  that  of  the  "  messengers "  with  their  respective  Deities :  for  instance, 
the  Deer  is  the  "messenger"  of  the  God  of  Kasuga  Shrine;  the  Crow, 
that  of  the  God  of  Kumano ;  the  Dove  is  consecrated  to  Hachiman,  the 
Monkey  to  the  Sanno  Shrines  of  Ohonamochi,  the  Fox  to  Inari,  and  the 
White  Serpent  to  Benten.  Horary  or  Zodiacal  characters,  in  the  form 
of  animals,  are  also  found  associated,  the  "night"  hour  with  the  "day" 
hour  being  the  usual  combination. 

It    is   almost   impossible   to   make    such   a    list   as   follows   an   exhaustive 
one,    but    an    attempt    has    been     made     to    form     a    compendium    of    the 
information    contained    in    this    work,    and    it    is    hoped    that    it    has   been 
sufficiently   extended   to   be   of   some   practical   use. 

AIR    CASTLE    (Mirage).       URASHIMA,   OTAIFU,   KAMATARI. 
ALGU/E   (see   KOBU).       The   ficus   vesiculosus,    used    in    the    New    Year's 
Eve   Festival,    and   sent   with    gifts. 

AMAKURIKARA,   or   KURIKARA.       See   FUDO   Mio   O. 

ANCHOR   (IKARI).       See  TAKARAMONO.       Emblem   of  Security,   safety. 

,,        one  of  the  attributes   of   IGUCHI   \o   JIRO   KANEMITSU,  or  SENDO 
MITSUYE.MON,   brother   of   TOMOE   GOZEN. 

ANCHOR  or  GRAPNEL,  thrown  by  a  warrior.  See  IGA  xo  KAMI, 

ARM,   cut,   with   or  without   oni.       See  WATANABE. 
ARROW,  shot  through  a  stone.     RIKO  ;  shot  in  a  pot,  TOWOKO  ;  JOSAKEI. 
,,          shot  through  armour  :    YOSHIIYE. 
„          in   the  eye.      KAMAKURA  GONGORO  KAGEMASA. 
„          in   river.      See  TAMAYORI    HIME. 
,,          and   letter  (or  bird).       See   HONMA   MAGOSHIRO. 
„          striking  a  boat.     See  TAMETOMO. 
„          striking  fan.      See  NASU  NO  YOICHI. 

ARROWS  cut  by  sword-play,  chiefly  NITTA  YOSHISADA  ;  OYAMADA  TAKAIYE. 



ARMOUR,   thrown   in   the  waves.       YOSHIIYE. 
„  breaking.       See   SHIKORO   BIKI. 

ASTERS,   Willow   and   Wine   Cup.       TOYEMMEI. 

DAG   of  precious   things,   Takaramono.       See    HOTEI,    DAIKOKU. 

BAG   of  the   winds.       See   FUJIN   (Futen). 

BAG   of   fireflies,    Man   reading   under   a — .      SOXKO    (Shaen). 

BALES,  of  rice.     DAIKOKU.     Usually  with  rats,  sometimes  with  cocks  (q.v.). 

BAMBOO.  The  bamboo  (Take  or  Chiku  *ft)  is  emblematic  of  virtue, 
fidelity,  constancy,  perhaps  as  an  allusion  to  the  other  Chinese  character. 
fp  (Sets//,  CHIEH)  which  means  a  Bamboo  node,  and  also  the  virtues 
alluded  to.  In  the  O-Ei  era,  the  bamboo  was  added  to  the  branches  of 
young  pine  used  in  the  Kadomatsu  on  New  Year's  Eve. 

BAMBOO    SHOOTS   (Take   no   ko).       See   Moso. 

BAMBOO   or  Tree   floating.       See   DARUMA,    KANSHOSHI,   SHACHIUSHO. 

BAMBOO  and  SPARROWS  in  winter  (Take-ni-Suzume),  Emblem  of 
gentleness,  and  friendship. 

BAMBOO  and  TIGER.      See  Tiger. 

BAND   across   the   Forehead,   JINGO. 

BASKET.  See  MOJO  (female  Sennin).  KASENKO,  and  several  less  known 

BAT  (Kawahori  or  Komorii).  Good  fortune,  prosperity,  ornamentally 
treated  as  a  subject  for  netsuke,  sometimes  with  a  coin  held  between  the 
legs  and  wings  and  claws.  Lucky  emblem. 

BEAR.  See  KINTOKI  ;  KUMAGAI  NAOZANE.  Story  of  the  ungrateful 
hunter,  HACHISUKE  JIMMU  TENNO  (Kojiki). 

BEARD,   being  painted   black.      SAITO   BETTO   SANEMORI.* 
„          long  and  black — .     KWANYU. 

BEES,  swarming   in   a  house,   sign   of  prosperity. 

BEES  (or  Wasps),  escaping  from  a  man's  mouth.    SHIKKU  GAN  JIN.   KASENYO. 

(}  SAITO  SANEMORI  ^f  $!£  f£  *$t  is  also  called  Nagaido  Betto  Sanemori  because,  although  born  in 
Echizen,  he  spent  most  of  his  life  \vest,  in  Xagai  (Musashi).  He  was  a  retainer  of  Yoshitomo,  and  the  episode 
of  the  painted  black  beard  relates  to  his  death  (see  YOSHINAKA).  The  armour  he  wore  then  was  called  .Vi's/tifei  no 
Shitatare,  Brocade  dress,  and  had  been  granted  him  by  Munemori  at  his  own  request  before  he  started  back  for 
Echizen  after  the  Taikenmon  fight  in  the  Hogen  war. 



BELL.       BENKEI  ;    ANCHIN   and   KIYOHIME.       TAWARA  TODA. 
BELL,    rubbed    by    a    priest    (Suzu    Aral}.       Perseverance   and   yearning 
after    improvement. 

BELL   (Grelot.)     Moguyo,   attribute  of   Buddhist  priests.     See   DANKA. 
BELLS   (jingling)   on   a  handle.       UZUME,   SAMBASO. 
BESOM    (Broom)    JITTOKU  ;     OLD    WOMAN    OF    TAKASAKO,    (Uba).       See 
CHARMS;    see  also   HSIANG   YEN,   under  JITTOKU. 

BIRD,   Supernatural.       See   HIROARI  ;    DAIKOKUTEN   GHANA   MUCHI. 
BLOWING  liquid  or  clouds,  etc.      RANHA,  RINREISO  OSHI,   TEKKAI. 
BOAR.       See  SANSO  HOSHI  ;    OKIO  ;    NITTAN  NO  SHIRO  ;   SOJOBO  (TENGU)  ; 

BOAR   and   FLOWERS,   or    Lespedeza,    Hana   Garuta   combination. 

BOAT,  Man   in — .      Soso  ;   TEIZENPUKU  ;   SATSUSHUKEN  ;    HANREI. 

BOAT,  Man   leaping.       See  YOSHITSUNE,   NORITSUNE. 

BOAT,  with  fan  on  mast.     See  NASU  NO  YOICHI  MUNETAKA.     See  ANTOKU. 

BOAT,   and    man   fishing.       KENSHI. 

BOAT,   in   the   sky.       RASHIBO,   Sennin. 

BOW,   in   the   water.       See   YOSHITSUNE. 

,,        with   the   string   in    the   mouth ;    Sasaki    and    also    Atsumori    on 
the   Uji   River. 

BOW7,   striking   a   spring   out   of   the   rock.       YORIYOSHI. 
„        writing   on   the   rock.       JINGO. 

„        poked  into  a  tree  trunk.     KAJIWARA  KAGETOKI  and  YORITOMO. 
„        eight-and-a-half  feet   long.       See   TAMETOMO. 

BOW    and    ARROW,    most   warriors.       See   YOYUKI,   YOSHIIYE,   TAWARA 
TODA,   MINAMOTO   NO   YORIMASA  and   INO   HAYATA   (killing   the   Nuye)   RAIKO. 
BOWL   (begging),   with   flowers.       FUKUHIAKU  ;    CHEN   Tu. 

,,  ,,  with   fountain   ascending.       NAKASAINA   SONJA. 

„  „  with    dragon.       HANDAKA    SONJA.       CHINNAN.       As    a 

Buddhistic   emblem    it   is   called    Teppatsu. 



BOX,   empty.      URASHIMA  TARO. 

BOX,   with   goblins  escaping.       See  TONGUE   CUT   SPARROW. 

BOX,   with   mice.       See   ABE   NO   SEIMEI. 

BRASERO   (Kanaye),   GOSHISHO,   SUKUMAMO,   Kou. 

BRIDGE,   BRIDGE   POST,  Chinese   writing   on   a—.       SHIBA  SHOJO. 

BRIDGE   of   BIRDS.       See   KENGIU  and   SHOKUJO,   AMA   xo   GA\VA. 

BROOM.       See   BESOM. 

BRUSH  (writing).      See  KIKUJIDO  (Jino),  KOBODAISHI,  and  all  the  poets. 
,,         inkstone  and   leaf.      TANABATA. 

(Fly)  or  HOSSO.  Nearly  all  the  RAKAXS  (ARHATS),  but 
also  DARUMA. 



CANDLES   (three  on   the  head).       USHINOTOKI   MAIRI.       See   CHARMS. 

CARP   (Koi).       See   EBISU,   KINKO,   SAJI,   KENSU   or   KENSHI. 
„        leaping  a   waterfall :    perseverance.       See   DRAGON. 

CASH.       See  ZENI  ;    also   HANASAKA   Jui ;   TEKKAI  ;    HIEN   YUAN  Tsi. 


CATS.  See  that  article,  and  add  the  Cat  with  two  tails  killed  by 
Inu  Mura  Daikaku  ^  ^"J"  J^  fa  in  the  novel,  Hakkenden. 

CAULDRON,   with   heads.       See   MIKENJAKU. 

CAVE,   of  Fuji,   with   Goddess.       See   NITTAN   xo   SHIRO. 
„        with   spider ;    WATANABE. 
„        and   prisoner ;    MORINAGA. 


CHARRIOT,  in  sky.  KOTEI  ;  OHO  ;  see  SHINANSHA,  SEIOBO  ;  also 
foreigners  from  the  KIKO  Isf  )}£  country  who  "  go  everywhere  in  flying 
charriots,  the  two  wheels  of  which  are  like  paddles."  They  are  figured 
in  the  Todo  Kimmo  Zue,  holding  banners.  Sky  charriot  with  deers,  see  GOMO. 

CHARCOAL  (Sumt),  symbol  of  prosperity,  of  changelessness.  See  also 
CHA  No  Yu. 




CHESTNUT,  dried,  form  part  of  the  emblems  used  on  New  Year's  Eve 
Festival ;  they  represent  Success  by  punning  upon  their  name — Kachiguri, 
Kachi  meaning  Victory. 

CHESTNUT,  MORTAR  and  WASP.     See  story  of  the  Monkey  and  the  Crab. 
,,  tooth-marked.       See   Go   DAIGO. 

CHOPSTICKS,  must  be  laid  on  the  right  of  the  user :  placing  them 
on  the  left  is  an  insult,  as  they  are  placed  thus  for  prisoners  only. 
Made  of  Enoki  wood,  they  prevent  toothache. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM  (Kiku),  the  sixteen  petals  variety  is  the  Imperial 
badge.  The  flower  is  emblematic  of  Purity.  See  KIKUJIDO.  See  Fox. 

CIRCLE,®  of  pilgrims,  holding  a  rope  which  goes  round  the  whole 
group,  a  priest  in  the  centre  beating  a  gong — this  is  called  Hiakkti  man  ben 
"one  million  prayers,"  the  rope  is  "forwarded"  like  a  rosary,  whilst  the 
pilgrims  pray. 

CIRCLE,  of  children,  the  Emperor  on  a  throne,  with  two  officers  carrying 
tablets ;  KAKUSHIGI  |$  -^  /JH  testing  the  knowledge  of  his  offspring. 

CLOAK.       See   KAKUREMINO   (in    the  sacred   treasures). 
„  Feather — .       See   HAGOROMO  ;    TENNIN 

,,  STRAW   COAT,   Mino.      See   OTA   DOKWAN  ;    also   met   with   in 

many   illustrations   of  peasants   and   warriors,    Moso,    KOJIMO. 

CLOUDS,   figures  on — .       SEIOBO,  CHODORIO,   RYUKO. 
,,  monkey   on — .       See   SONGOKU. 

CLOVES   (CnoJi),    in   the   Takaramono,    Sweetness   and    Health. 

HIANG  Yu  If|  Jft,  of  Tsu,  had  a  cock  made  of  iron,  weighing  eight  hundred 
pounds,  and  he  had  eight  thousand  officers  capable  of  lifting  it. 

COMETS,  are  portents  of  calamity,  preceding  war,  famines,  or  earth- 

CRAB.       See   MONKEY   and   CRAB  ;    HEIKE   KAM  ;    SHIMAMURA   DANJO. 

CRANE,    Emblem    of    longevity,   attribute   of   SEIOBO,    JUROJIN,    FUKURO- 

~  Circle  of  people  in  various  costumes ;  at  one  end,  outside  the  circle,  a  man  with  a  soroban  seems  to 
count  them ;   at  the  other  end,  also  outside,  other  individual.       Subject  shown  on  a  Kozuka  in    Mr.    Dehren's 
Collection,  figured  in  Arms  and  Armour  of  Japan  (J.S.),  but  no  explanation  of  which  could  be  found. 
t  'H   A.  -ft  See  ode  of  Seishonagon  in  the  Hiakku  nin  Isshiu  (Dickins  6j). 



KUJIU,     TOBOSAKU,     JoFUKU,     WASOBIOYE,     OSHIKIO,     YoRITOMO,     ToYU,      Jo     and 

UBA,   KOHAKU.     KAXGAI   Sennin ;    ISETSU  ;    KODOKWA  ;    TEIREII. 

CRANE,   paper.       See   JOFUKU,   WASOBIOYE,   JUROJIN,   SENTARO. 

CONCH    SHELL,   emblem   of   the   Yamabushi.       See   BENKEI. 

CONES,   FIR—.       See  AKUSEX,   MOJO. 

CORAL  (Sangoju),  emblem  of  rarity ;  one  of  the  objects  of  the  Taka- 

COWRY    SHELLS,    in    the   Takaramono ;    emblem   of   wealth. 

CROCODILE.  HAX  WAN  KUNG  expelled  one  from  the  river  of  Chao 
Chao,  circa  800  A.D.,  by  means  of  a  magic  spell  and  an  order  to  go 
within  three,  five,  or  seven  days. 

CROWS,    croaking,    is   an   omen   of   misfortune. 

,,  two    in    the   sky,    man    in    boat.       See   Soso    (T'sAo   T'SAO). 

CYMBALS,    used    by   temple   dancers   called   Shasho. 

DEER,  or  Stag,  emblem  of  longevity.  JUROJIX,  TOBOSAKU,  MAPLE, 

tDEER,   killed   by   warrior.      TSUXEMOTO. 
,,        boy   hiding   in    a   deer   skin.       EXSHI. 



,,          Two,    above   tree,   with    man   hidden    in    tree.      YORITOMO. 
DOOR,    under   arm.      HANK  WAI. 

,,  breaking.  ASAHIXA  SABURO  (in  Wada  Kassen). 
TAIO  SEXXIX  (with  musical  instrument),  CHOSOYU.  KIKUCHI  JAKWA,  CHOSHIX  Jix. 
RIHAKU,  T\ISHIN  o  FUJIN.  RASHINJIN  KOJINRAN,  who  every  evening  returned 
home  to  his  wife  five  thousand  miles  away  from  Court  on  dragon.  KIGA, 

DRAGON   AND  DEER  in  sky,  appearing  to  HOKIOSHA. 
DRAGON,   in   Clouds,   across   FUJI  ;    emblem   of  success   in   life. 

„  in    river,    awaiting   the   fall   of   a    man    who    hangs    from    a 



tree,  on  a  cliff,  by  means  of  a  rope,  which  a  small  animal  is  gnawing 
through.  On  the  cliff,  robbers,  or  a  tiger  are  watching  him,  illustration 
of  a  Buddhist  parable  about  the  perils  of  life ;  parallel  to  the  common 
expression,  "between  the  devil  and  the  deep  sea." 

DRAGON",    killing,    with    a    large   axe    $jlj    Bf 
„  Staff  changed  into  —  .     WONINRAN. 

DRAGON  FLY  (Akidzii),  Emblem  of  Japan  (Akidzushima)  and  Victory. 
Also,  when  in  connection  with  a  Gadfly,  allusion  to  the  story  of  a 
Dragon  fly  having  killed  a  horse  fly  which  presumptuously  had  alighted 
upon  the  arm  of  Yuriaku  Tenno  (Kojiki  CLVI.}. 

DROWNING  (Man— himself),  with  stone  in  his  dress.  MUKO  ;  with 
Anchor,  TOMOMORI  ;  with  two  warriors,  NORITSUNE. 

DRUM.       See   RAIJIN  ;    COCK    ox    DRUM. 

DUCKS,    two    in    sky.     OGEI. 

,,          (Mandarin),    emblem    of   conjugal    fidelity. 
,,          under   a   Sennin's   arm.       See   O   ETSU    SHO. 

EAGLE.       See   ROBEX. 

EGG    PLANT  or   FRUIT,   Nasubi.     See   DREAMS. 

ELEPHANT.  Emblem  of  wisdom.  See  FUGEN,  also  DAIBU  ennemi 
of  Buddha.  Commonly  met  on  Tsuba,  by  Yasuchika,  in  commemoration 
of  the  white  elephant  sent  from  Siam  to  Japan  during  the  Kioho  era. 

ELEPHANT,   carried   away   by   a   robber.       See   KOKUSEXXYA. 
,,  and    boy.       TAISHUX. 


FANS.  Finding  a  fan  in  the  roadway  is  an  omen  of  impending  good 
fortune,  meaning  that  the  finder  will  soon  become  a  man  of  importance, 
or  be  ennobled. 

A  fan  attached  to  a  branch  of  Bamboo  carried  on  the  shoulder  was 
emblematic  of  the  owner's  madness,  and  peculiar  to  women.  See  Bakin's 

The  fan  is  a  common  attribute.  The  Sennin  GOMO  has  a  feather  fan. 



FERN  LEAVES  (Urajiro  or  Moromoki),    are   symbolic   of   exuberant    pos- 
terity ;   they  are   used   in   the   New  Year's   Eve  ceremony. 
FIGURE,   in   a   man's   breath.      TEKKAI. 

,,  in   a    monkey's   breath.      SONGOKU. 

,,  out   of  a   man's   heart.      Sometimes    mean    a    dream    (RosEi), 

sometimes  the  story  of  BAISHI  SENNIN,  a  man  of  Danchu,  who,  after 
studying  Taoism  for  twenty  years,  found  on  his  travels  a  small  oak  tree 
growing  out  of  an  acorn.  He  had  it  planted,  and  the  tree  grew 
rapidly  to  a  great  height.  Baishi  lived  on  a  rock  with  a  tame  tiger,  and 
was  able  to  divide  his  body  into  a  number  of  persons,  each  endowed  with 
some  special  branch  of  learning;  he  died  at  the  age  of  ninety-four. 

FIR,   or   PINE   needles   are   symbolic   of   longevity.       See   Jo   and    UBA. 
FIR    CONES.       See   AKUSEN   and   MOJO. 
FIRE    (Sennin    on    Pyre).       YOKO. 

„       (Beacons).       See   T'AKI. 

FISH    and    FISHING.       See    EBISU,   KINKO,   KENSU    or    KENSHI,   SHIYEI  ; 
SAJI,  TAIKOBO.       KARU   (female).       JISSHUDO. 

FLAMES,   emblem   of   wisdom    and   purity.       See   FUDO   Mio    O. 
FLOWERS,  in   alms  bowl.      See  CHENG  Tu ;    FUKUHIAKU  ;    CHOHAKUTAN. 
,,  at   the  end  of  a  writing  brush.     The  Sennin,  KITEKI  ifp  f$j 

dreamt  once  that  some  flowers  were  growing  out  of  his  fude.  In  later  years 
he  became  famous  for  his  caligraphy. 

FLUTE,   "Pan   Pipes."     SHOSHI,   ROGIOKU. 

FUJIWARA  KANEAKI.  Noble  of  the  period  of  Go  Daigo  Tenno, 
depicted  playing  the  flute  under  a  tree,  whilst  a  wolf-headed 
man  listens. 

CHORAN    SAI.       Once    played    the    flute    at    night,    and    a    demon, 
dressed   in   Chinese   costume,   came   and   danced   in   the   road   in 
front   of   his   house. 
FOX.       See   under   that   word. 



FRIENDSHIP,  fast  friendship,  was  sealed  in  China  by  the  act  called 
NIKUTAX  ^j  ^0,  consisting  of  taking  off  one's  dress  so  as  to  expose  one 
side  of  the  breast,  this  was  also  a  mode  of  apologising  for  an  offence. 
In  Japan,  Samurai  vowed  eternal  friendship  by  touching  swords;  this  was 
called  KINCHO  ^  JJ. 

FROG.       See   that   word.       See   also   KARU,   TOKUBEE. 

FUNERALS  are  a  bad  omen  when  they  overtake  the  interested  party,  but 
a  good  one  when  met  coming  from  the  opposite  direction. 

FUNGUS,  Mushroom  and  Fungi,  are  emblematic  of  longevity;  they  are 
frequently  represented,  and  sometimes  masquerade  as  phalli. 


Man  playing  Go  whilst  being  bled ;  Kwanyu  (figured  in  Yehon  Yaso, 
Ujikawa,  of  Kitao  Kosuisai). 


GOHEI,  representing  the  offering  of  clothes  which  it  was  customary  to 
make  to  the  Gods  in  ancient  times,  are  used  in  the  New  Year's  Eve  Festival. 
They  are  characteristic  of  Uzurne,  Shinto  priests  and  wizards  (ABE  NO  SEIMEI 

GOOSE,  the  wild  goose  Jfj|,  YEN  of  the  Chinese  was  emblematic  of  the 
male  principle  and  also  of  matrimony. 

GOOSE,  shot  above  clouds.  See  YOYUKI. 
,,  with  paper  attached.  See  SOBU. 
,,  Flight  of  Geese.  See  HACHIMANTARO,  TAKEXORI,  RYUJO. 

SHORIKEN.  Emblem  of  longevity. 

GOURD  (the  hundred).      See  HIDEYOSHI. 
„         shaped  Pot.     KOKO. 

HAGOROMO  (q.v.),  the  feather  coat  of  the  Tennin.      See  also  KYOCHI. 

HALBERT.  Particular  emblem  of  KWANYU  and  of  BISHAMON,  KUMASAKA 
CHOHAN  ;  used  as  a  weapon  by  court  ladies. 

HAMMER  OF  DAIKOKU,  emblem  of  diligence,  it  is  called  Tsuchi,  and 
is  one  of  the  Takaramono  treasures. 



HARE  (USAGI).      See  that  word. 

„        with   one  string.      See   SONTO   SEXNIN. 

„         breaking   with   an   Axe.      HAKUGA,    after  the  death  of  his  friend. 
HAT,   big.      SAIGIO,  TOBA  (SOSHA),  Oxo  xo  KOMACHI. 
,,      on  the  waters  as  a  boat.      See  CHIXXAX. 

„      of  invisibility :  Kakuregasa,  one  of  the    Takaramono    treasures,    the 
leaning   of   which    is   obscure. 

HAT,  in  the  shape  of  an  upturned  basket,  KOMUSO  ;  also  actors;  a  more 
onical  form,  also  hiding  the  head,  was  worn  by  the  ambulating  song 
oilers,  Yomiuri. 

HEAD,   in   a   cauldron.       MIKEXJAKU. 

,,         of   a   woman,    on   saddle.       See   Yu    Ki. 
HIMONO.      HERRIXG,    IWASHI.       See   under   FISH. 
HORNS,   all   Onis.       See   also   SHIXXO   (SHEXG   NUXG). 

„          SENXIX   with   one — .       IKKAKU. 

HORSE  (q.v.).      See  CHOKWARO,  HAKURAKU,  KOSE  xo  KANAOKA.      HIDARI 
HORSE,   White-.       See   SAXSO    HOSHI. 
„          Hoof  stone.       See   BATEISEKI. 

,,  and  STAG.  Allusion  to  the  Chinese  Eunuch  CHAO  KAO  who 
ice  decided  that  a  horse  could  be  called  a  stag,  and  vice-versa,  and 
•afted  a  decree  to  that  effect,  emblematic  of  a  fool,  a  foolish  thing, 
ieign  of  She  Hwang  Ti,  210  B.C.). 

HORSE,   on   a   Go   table.       See   OGURI    HAXGWAN. 

„          playing   Go   with   his   master.       Story   of  the  Chinese   HANZAN. 
„          Eight    Horses.       See   BOKU   O   (MUM-WANG). 
„          Hundred    Horses,   common   subject   for   artistic   work. 
,,          Stopped   by  a   woman.       See   KUGUTSUME   KAXEKO. 
,,          Stopped   by   a    man.       Ko   U. 
,,          Hobby-,    ridden   by   children   or   TEKKAI'S   soul. 



HOWO,  or  PHCENIX  or  HOHO  (q.v.),  emblematic  of  Imperial  authority. 
See  BAIFUKU  and  ROGIOKU  (female  sennin). 

IDOLS,  Burning.     See  TANKWA. 

IRIS,   emblem  of  Victory. 

JEWEL.  Precious  Jewel,  or  Tama  (q.v.),  or  Hojiu  no  Tama,  symbolic 
representation  of  the  everlasting;  carried  by  the  sacred  Bull,  by  the  SHICHI 
FUKU  JIN,  especially  JUROJIN  and  FUKUROKUJU,  HOTEI  and  DAIKOKU,  forms 
part  of  the  Takaramono.  In  the  form  of  a  crystal  ball,  carried  by  Jizo 

JIMBASSO.       See  ALGU^E. 

KADOMATSU  (GATE  PIXE  TREE),  made  originally  of  pine  branches 
plucked  from  a  young  tree,  to  which  the  Bamboo  was  added  in  the 
O-Ei  era,  and  later  the  branches  of  Plum  tree ;  it  is  placed  on  New  Year's 
Eve  in  front  of  every  door,  and  has  the  symbolic  significance  of  all  its 
components,  viz.  :  Endurance,  strength,  and  longevity  from  the  Pine ;  virtue 
and  fidelity  from  the  Bamboo ;  whilst  the  plum  branches  are  often  replaced 
by  the  sacred  plant  of  Shinto,  the  Sakaki.  See  IKKIU  ;  SAIGIO. 

KANAYE.       GOSHISHO;   Kou. 

KARASHISHI,    and   peonies,   emblem    of   regal   power. 
„  Ridden   by  MONJU   BOSATSU. 

KIRIN.      See   JOGEN   FUJIX. 


KOBAN,   buried,   or   in   a   mortar.       See    HAXA   SAKA   Jui. 

KOBAN  NI  HAKO,  or  Koban  in  Chest,  emblem  of  plenty ;  one  o 
the  treasures  of  the  Takaramono. 

KOMBU,  or  KOBU,  seaweed,  symbolic  of  pleasure  and  joy,  and  usec 
with  the  Jimbasso,  on  New  Year's  Eve,  in  allusion  to  Yorokobu,  "to  rejoice." 

KOTO.       See  KOTO   NO   NAISHI  ;    SONTO   SENNIN.       TOSHIKAGE. 

KOTO,  SHAMISEN  AND  KOKIU,  the  three  musical  instruments  called 
San  Kioku.  See  AKOYA. 

KOTO  BUKI.  The  character  Jiu  ||,  meaning  long  life,  and  which 
is  found  decoratively  inscribed  on  works  of  art. 




See   the   treasures  under   the   word   TAKARAMOXO. 


LESPEDEZA  (sort  of  clover).  Allusion  to  a  legend  that  the  flower 
was  once  a  young  lady  with  whom  a  stag  fell  in  love.  It  forms  a  part 
of  the  offerings  on  ijth  night  of  the  eigth,  or  harvest,  moon. 

LILIES.       See   PAX   FEI   (Fr.i   YIN). 

LILIES,  water.  See  LOTUS.  The  emblem  of  purity,  with  its  beautiful 
flower  above  the  water  remaining  unsullied  by  the  mud  in  which  grow 
its  roots ;  consecrated  to  the  dead. 

LION.       See   KARASHISHI. 

LIZARD,  water.  See  NEWT  under  CHARMS.  Its  ashes  were  supposed 
to  be  a  love  philtre  when  taken  internally,  or  scattered  upon  the  head  of 
the  hard-hearted  maid. 

LOBSTER,  owing  to  its  body  being  bent  double,  is  emblematic  of 
honourable  old  age.  It  is  part  of  the  decorations  used  in  the  New  Year's 
Eve  Festival. 

LONGEVITY,  is  symbolised  by  the  PIXE,  and  the  BAMBOO,  owing  to 
their  evergreen  foliage ;  by  the  CRANE,  the  DEER,  or  STAG,  the  STORK  taking 
sometimes  the  place  of  the  Crane ;  the  TORTOISE,  especially  the  MIXOGAME, 
with  a  tail  of  weeds ;  the  GOURD  ;  the  PEACH  ;  and  the  LOBSTER.  Some 
of  the  emblems  are  of  Chinese  origin.  The  SHO  CHIKU  BAI  is  composed 
of  the  Pine  and  the  Bamboo,  to  which  the  Plum  is  added  for  beauty. 
See  also  KADOMATSU. 

Longevity  is  further  personified  in  art  by  the  representation  together, 
in  groups  or  singly,  of  the  celebrated  personages  SEIOBO  and  TOBOSAKU  (with 
the  Peach),  JOFUKU  and  WASOBIOYE  (with  the  Crane),  MIURA  xo  OSUKE, 
URASHIMA  TARO  (with  the  Tortoise  and  box),  Lu  WEN,  and  the  two  old 
pine  trees  of  Takasago  with  their  genii,  Jo  and  UBA,  sweeping  the  pine 
needles  with  besom  and  rake.  Finally,  it  is  indicated  by  the  character  Jiu 
Sp  often  repeated  in  many  forms.  See  MANZAI. 

LOTUS  FLOWER.  Emblematic  of  purity,  wisdom  and  Buddhahood. 



SEITAKA   DOJI,    KWANNOX.       It   is   an   attribute   of   the   Buddhas  or  Dosatsus ; 
the   white   lotus   is   emblematic   of   death. 

MAGATAMA  (q.v.),  claw-shaped  stone  jewels,  single  or  strung  up. 
They  form  part  of  the  sacred  Japanese  regalia.  See  IZANAMI. 

MAKIMONO,  or  roll  book,  is  emblematic  of  wisdom ;  it  is  the  attribute 
of  JUROJIX,  and  one  of  the  treasures  of  the  Takaramono.  A  makimono 
is  attached  to  the  umbrella  of  OSHO,  and  is  also  the  usual  attribute  of 
the  two  Rakans :  KARI  SOXJA  and  DAKAHARITA  SOXJA. 


MANTIS.      The  praying  mantis  is  emblematic  of  courage. 

It  is  often  associated  with  the  wheel,  as  in  the  proverb:  "Even  the  sharp 
mandibles  of  the  fighting  mantis  are  set  at  nought  by  the  wheel  of  fate" 
(dragon  wheel).  See  Ehon  Kojidan  VI.,  16. 

MAPLE  and  DEER,  emblematic  of  autumn ;  also  with  Tori  in  back- 
ground, allusion  to  the  deers  of  Nara. 

MAPLE  LEAVES  (Iro),  when  sent  to  a  man  by  his  lady-love,  conveyed 
to  him  in  poetical  fashion  the  news  of  his  being  jilted,  the  meaning  being 
that  her  love  (Iro)  also  changes  like  the  colour  of  the  maple  leaves  in  autumn. 

A  favourite  pastime  consisted  in  preparing  tea  over  a  fire  of  maple  leaves; 
this  is  often  illustrated — ,  see  KORE.MOCHI. 

MAT,   on   the   waves.       See   CHOSHIKWA,   and   OTO   TACHIBAXA   HIME. 

MILKY  WAY.       See  AMA   xo   GAWA. 

MIRROR  (q.v.).  See  HIDARI  JIXGORI  ;  MATSUYAMA.  Emblematic  of 
truth  and  of  a  woman's  soul.  Placed  under  the  pillow  of  a  sick  child, 
or  under  his  bed,  it  will  hasten  his  recovery ;  the  same  is  also  said  of  a 
sword  or  a  calcined  bone.  At  two  o'clock  in  the  morning  a  mirror 
predicts  the  future.  A  woman  once  tried  the  experiment,  and  seeing  her 
image  in  the  shape  of  a  beggar,  she  became  quite  parsimonious ;  but  her 
economy  was  of  no  avail — she  died  a  beggar  all  the  same. 

MISOGI,  a  bamboo  split  at  the  top,  and  with  a  prayer  stuck  in.  It 
was  placed  near  a  stream,  on  the  last  day  of  the  sixth  month,  as  an 




crescent  of  the  moon  begins  to  show  plainly  on  the  third  day  of  each 
lunar  month ;  this  is  considered  a  lucky  emblem,  and  as  a  curve  of  perfect 
shape  it  gives  its  name  to  the  Mikatsuki  mamiye,  perfect  eyebrows  of  ladies. 

MOON,    man    reading   by    moonlight   on    snow.       RIUTO. 

MUGWORT  (flower)  is  the  attribute  of  KASEXKO,  who  is  clothed  in 
its  leaves.  (The  coat  of  leaves  is  the  generic  attribute  of  the  Rishis.) 

MULBERRY  TREE,  is  supposed  to  be  a  protection  against  lightning, 
perhaps  because  of  its  diminutive  height.  Its  wood  was  used  for  bows 
because  of  its  resiliency.  In  the  Xo  Hokaso,  Rishogun  a  warrior  armed 
with  such  a  bow,  Kuwa  no  Yumi,  sends  an  arrow  through  a  rock. 


NAILS  (finger).  When  white  spots  occur  on  the  finger  nails  they 
foreshadow  gifts  corresponding  with  them  in  number. 

NAILS,   driven   in  a  tree.      See  CHARMS,   USHI   TOKI   MAIRI. 
,,         driven   in  a  stone.      BENKEI. 

NANTEEN    Plant   and    Berries   are   emblematic   of   better   fortune. 

NET.  Takes  sometimes  the  place  of  the  rope  of  FUDO  Mio  O,  with 
the  same  significance.  Nets  were  thrown  over  litters  carrying  prisoners. 

NET.      Man  fished   in  a  net.      JISSHUDO. 

NOSE   (long).       See   TENGU,   SARUTA   HIKO   NO   MIKOTO. 

OIL,  spilled  from  a  lamp  between  the  middle  of  January  and  the  middle 
of  February  means  destruction  by  fire  during  the  summer.  There  is  a 
counter-charm  of  easy  application :  It  consists  in  pouring  water  upon  the 
head  of  the  guilty  party. 

OIL,  pouring  from  a  bottle,  through  a  ring,  into  another  bottle. 
Allusion  to  the  lesson  given  to  the  archer,  CHIN  NO  KOSHUKU,  by  an  oil- 
merchant,  to  whom  the  warrior  had  asked  whether  he  knew  how  to  shoot, 
and  who,  by  way  of  reply,  poured  some  oil  as  described  above,  the  hidden 
meaning  being :  Every  man  to  his  trade  (Ehon  Tsuhoshi). 

ONI  (demons).     See  ONI  ;  see  ONI  YARAI,  SHOKI,  BISHAMON,  YULI,  CHODORIO, 





YEAR  FESTIVAL.  Oni  eating  wafer  (oni  ni  sembei)  emblematic  of  an  easy  task. 

ORANGES  (DAIDAIJ,  bitter — .  Allusion  to  the  Chinese,  meaning :  For 
generations  unto  generations.  Men  playing  Go  in  the  orange,  see  under  GAMES. 

ORIMONO,  roll  of  brocade,  emblematic  of  splendour,  is  one  of  the 
treasures  of  the  Takaramono. 

OWL,  the  jj|  is  emblematic  of  filial  ingratitude,  it  is  credited  with 
eating  its  dam  when  the  opportunity  arises. 

OX,    BULL,   or   BUFFALO.       Lying   clown   is   emblematic   of   TEXJIX. 

„  ,,  ,,  with  peonies,  and  gilt  horns.      See  SHOHAKU  ; 

see  also   LAO  TSZE  (Rosm),  OSHIKIO,  KIOYO,   KEXGIU,  TAXABATA. 

OX,  with  torches  attached  to  the  horns,  as  a  ruse  of  war,  YOSHIXAKA; 
being  felled  by  a  warrior.  MORITOSHI. 

OX,  warrior  hiding  under  an  ox  skin.  See  KIDOMARU  and  Usui 

OX.       Emblematic   of   the   Zen   Sect   of   Buddhism. 

PAPER.  See  GOHEI.  Cut  paper  called  Xusa  was  used  as  offerings 
to  the  Gods  instead  of  the  original  staff  covered  with  brocade  (Nishiki) 
used  in  old  prayers.  See  MISOGI. 

PAWLONNIA.  Emblematic  of  rectitude ;  with  seven  blossoms,  Imperial 
badge  reserved  to  the  Emperor;  with  five  blossoms,  emblem  used  by  the 
Imperial  family. 

PEACH,  emblem  of  Longevity.  See  SEIOBO,  TOBOSAKU,  KYOSEXHEI, 

PEACOCK.  Mount  of  KOKUZO  (the  Boddhisattva  padma  Akhasagarba) ; 
also  of  Sarasvati  (BENTEN). 

PEAS    (black),   or   MAME,   emblematic   of  strength   and   health. 

„        dried    (SHIRO-MAME),   are   thrown  about  the  floor   on    New  Year's 
Eve  by  the  YAKU   OTOSHI   to  cast   out   devils.       See  Oxi. 



PEONIES.  Emblem  of  regal  power,  associated  with  the  Karashishi 
and  the  Shakkyo  dance.  See  also  SHOHAKU. 

PHOENIX.  See  Howo.  Also  Sennins  SHOSHI,  BAIFUKU,  ROGIOKU,  TOIKU 
SAIJOSEN.  Associated  with  the  Pawlonia  it  is  called  Howo  NI  KIRI. 


Emblem  of  strength,  endurance,  longevity,  because  it  is  believed  that  its 
sap  turns  into  amber  after  a  thousand  years;  the  "Sea  Pine"  is  a  fossilised 
wood,  almost  translucent,  pieces  of  which  were  much  prized  as  netsuke. 

§PINE,    red   and   black,   emblematic   of   happy  marriage. 
,,       See   PINE   OF  TAKASAGO   and   Jo   and   UBA 
• . 
PINE  TREE,  growing  out  of   a    man's    stomach.      TEIKO    ~T    HO    was    a 

minor  official,  who  once  dreamt  that  a  pine  tree  was  growing  out  of  his 
stomach ;  eighteen  years  later  he  was  promoted  from  the  Sosho  class  to 
the  title  of  Sanko  —\  $£,  and  then  he  understood  that  his  dream  was  a 
true  prophecy,  because  the  character  Ko  consists  of  eighteen  ~f~  yV  and 
Prince  Q,  and  means  also  pine. 

PLUM  TREE  (flowering).  UME.  See  LONGEVITY,  Siio-CniKU-BAi, 
SUGAWARA  MICHIZANE,  BENKEI,  and  YosHiTSUNE.  A  Chinese  lady  under  a 
plum  tree  may  be  an  allusion  to  the  story  of  Chao  shi  hsiung,  who  in 
the  pine  groves  of  Mount  Lo-fu  saw  a  maiden  in  the  distance.  He  went 
to  meet  her,  and  noticed  a  strong  perfume  of  plum  flowers,  though  no 
plum  tree  was  near.  He  fell  asleep  while  talking,  and  on  waking  up  found 
himself  under  a  flowering  plum  tree. 

Plum  tree  and  the  Otoguisu  (Nightingale),  allusion  to  a  poem  of 
Hakurakuten ;  a  Daimio  wanted  a  branch  of  a  plum  tree,  then  in  flower, 
but  the  owner  of  the  tree,  a  woman,  declined  to  break  it  by  her  reply,  in 
the  form  of  a  verse  meaning :  "  If  the  branch  is  broken,  where  will  the 
Otoguisu  find  a  resting  place  on  its  return  ? "  (Shaho  Bukuro,  /.). 

PLUM  BLOSSOMS,  in  quiver  (Ebira).  KAGESUYE,  whose  popular  name 
is  Ebira  Genda. 

PLUM  BLOSSOMS,  in  hair.  The  Sennin  Sonkei  Jft  $fc  composing  a 
poem,  which  means :  "  If  I  sit  on  a  pine  root  I  shall  live  one  thousand 



years  ;    If   I   place   a   sprig   of   plum    in    my   hair,    the  snow  of  February  will 
fall   on    my   sleeves." 

PORTRAIT   of  a   lady   being   painted  ;    See   OSHOKUX. 

POT   or   URN.       See   Li   TAI   PEH   (RIHAKU),   KOKO.       SHOJO. 

PUMPKIN,   carried   by   MEISOGEX. 

PRISON   (breaking).       KIDOMARU,   KAGEKIYO  ;    KOSEX,    KING   OF  YETSU. 

RAIN.      See   OMI    HAKKEI 
,,        flying   in  —  .       RESSHI. 
„        and   Sunshine.       See   FOXES'   WEDDIXG. 

RAKE.       See   Jo   and   UBA. 


REFLECTION,  double  reflection  of  a  Sennin's  face  in  a  river  :  OFUSHI 
3E  M  "F"  whose  real  name  was  Hotei.  He  was  a  man  of  Joyo,  who 
supported  his  family  by  his  knowledge  of  medicine.  He  learnt  magic 
from  the  Sennin  Shori  $|f  $f|,  and  afterwards  lived  without  ever  eating 
anything.  One  day,  along  a  river,  people  noticed  his  reflection  in  the 
water,  in  the  shape  of  two  bodies,  and  on  their  expressing  astonishment 
thereat,  Ofushi  showed  them  that  he  had  ten  shadows.  The  matter  was 
reported  to  Shinshu  jf|L  ^,  of  So  (Sung),  who  had  him  imprisoned,  but 
he  escaped  by  miraculous  means  and  disappeared  for  ever. 

RICE.  When  children  dropped  rice  on  their  clothes  they  were  told 
that  they  would  be  transformed  into  cows.* 

RICE  POUNDING,  the  poor  Buddhist  priest,  Daikan  Zengi  (in  tattered 
garments).  ORO  Sennin. 

RICE   STEMS,    throwing   from   clouds.      TANBO,   female   Sennin. 

ROCK,   emblematic   of  stability.       See   FUDO. 

„         being  thrown.      See  ASAHIXA  SABURO,  Owo  IKO,  SANADA  YOICHI, 

ROCK.       Cleaving   with   a   sword.       UYEMOX   xo   KAMI   NOBUYORI. 
„         transpierced   by   an   arrow.       RIKO. 

ROSARY,     the     black     and     strong     smelling    seeds    of    the    >f/£,    Hiian 

Compare  the  other  belief  about  dropping  food,  quoted  in  Andrew  Lang's  Custom  and  Myth. 



tree   were  used   as   beads  for   rosaries  as   it   was    thought    that    their    odour 
frightened   away  evil  spirits ;    See   CIRCLE. 

SAKE    CUPS,   URN   or   DIPPER.       See   SHOJO. 

SCEPTRE,    worn   (rubbing   on   sleeve).       MOKI. 

SCROLL   (see   Makimono).      See   BENKEI    (KAN.HNCHO). 

SEALS,  were  to  be  affixed  an  odd  number  of  times,  otherwise  the 
document  was  unlucky,  and  if  it  were  a  bill  or  note  of  hand  for  instance, 
it  was  commonly  believed  that  it  would  eventually  be  dishonoured  should 
there  be  an  even  number  of  seals  on  it. 

SEAWEED.  See  New  Year's  Festival.  SEAWF.KD  GATHERING  ;  see 

SHARKS.       See   ASAHINA  SABURO   (in    Menken    Kojitsii). 

SHELL  (conch).  War  trumpet.  Emblem  of  the  YAMABUSHI.  See 
BENKEI.  Horafuki,  "Blowing  the  conch"  is  still  proverbial,  meaning  to 
boast  and  make  more  noise  than  work. 

SHELL    (cowry).       Emblem    of   wealth    in   Takaramono. 
„          (Haliotis),    listened   to   by   mermaids. 

SHO,    musical   instrument.       See   OSHIKIO;    SHINRA    SABURO   YOSHIMITSU  ; 


SHOE,   Sennin   with   one — .       RANSAIKWA  ;    also   DARUMA. 
„         Duck   changed    into   a   shoe.     See   OKYO. 
„         Woman   changed    into   a   shoe.      See    HIEN    YUAN    Tsi. 
„         See   story   of   CHORIO   and    KOSEKIKO. 
SNAKE,   white.       See   BENTEN. 

„  See    JIRAIYA,    TSUYENORI,     TAWARA     To  DA,     SUSANO-O,     GOMO, 


SNAKE,   Two-headed,   killed   by  Sze   ma   Kwang. 

„  UWABAMI  (q.v.),   large  snake,   killed  by  Egara  no  Heida  (Wada 

family)   during   the   rule   of   Hojo   Yoshitoki. 

SNEEZING,    has    ominous    meanings :    if    once,    the   affected    person    is 
praised   somewhere ;    if   twice,    reviled ;    if    three    times,    it    is    a    sure    proof 
that   he   has   "  Kaze  wo   Totta"    (caught   the   wind),    i.e.,   a    "cold." 
SPADE.       KAKKIO,   KAKO,    HANASAKA   Jui. 



SPARROWS,   are   emblematic   of   gentleness. 

,,  walking  like  ducks,   with  one  foot   in  front  of  the  other ; 

emblematic   of   a   very   rare   occurrence. 


SPIDER,  in  a  cave.  TSUCHIGUMO.  See  WATANABE  and  RAIKO,  KAMI 

SPIDERS,  are  emblematic  of  craft,  generally  magical  craft,  as  all  spiders 
become  oni  after  dark.  See  BAKKMONO. 

STAFF.  Emblematic  of  most  Sennins  and  Rakans,  and  of  the  three 
Gods,  JTROJIN",  FUKUROKUJIU,  HOTKI.  There  is  often  a  makimono  attached 
to  the  staff.  The  staffs  of  old  men  were  made  in  China,  of  a  knotty 
wood  called  ^J§  Chii.  See  WONINRAN  ;  SHINRAN  SHONIN. 

STAFF,  with  three  or  more  rings :  Shakujo,  emblem  of  the  BOSATSU. 
See  Jizo. 

STAG,    or    DEER.       Emblem    of    Longevity    (q.v.),    companion    of    Jurojin. 

STAG    and    MAPLE    are   symbolical    of   Autumn. 

STAR    (shooting),    is    the   soul    of   a    person    who    lias   just    died. 


STONES.       See    under    that   word. 

STORK,  interchanges  with  the  crane  as  emblem  of  long  life.  See 

STRING.  If  the  string  used  in  binding  the  hair  breaks,  it  is  an  evil 
omen,  and  foretells  the  loss  in  a  short  while  of  a  friend  or  a  husband, 
according  to  sex.  String  used  for  binding  parcels  of  gifts  must  be  of 
many  colours. 

SWORD,   Sennin   on  — .       See   SHORIKEN. 
,,  biting — .       MORINAGA. 

,,  breaking   to   pieces.       Mio    NO    YA   (IVAGEKIYO).       Ri-A. 

„  Two-edged,    Ken,   priest    sword,    praying-for-rain    sword ;     See 

Ama    Kurikara,   attribute    of    wizards    and    rain    priests. 

TABLE,    man   reclining   on — .       TAIKOBO,    ROSEI. 

TIGER   (white).       KOREIJIN. 



TIGER,  killed  by  a  blow  of  the  fist.  BUSHO,  one  of  the  heroes  of 
the  Suikoden. 

TIGER,   killed   with   a   spear.     See   KATO    KIYOMASA.      SHINKI    ^  ^f. 

,,  used  as  a  seat  by  a  Sennin,  from  whose  heart  issue  two  men, 
going  in  opposite  directions,  one  walking  on  a  road,  the  other  going  to 
heaven,*  BAISHIN  $£  ^  f[||  X-  (In  the  work  jj|f  HJ  J||  ^  lye  zu  boku  shu.) 


TIGER    and    LEOPARD.       OKX. 

,,         (Tora).       Sign    of    the    Zodiac. 
,,         and    DRAGON.       See    DRAGON. 
,,         being   painted.       See    MATAHEI. 
TILES,    on    the   head.       See    KAKUDAITSU. 

THUNDER    and    LIGHTNING    issuing     from    picture.        See    CHOSOYU, 


TOAD,    is    credited    with    magic    powers.        See    FROG,    GAMA    SENNIN, 


TORTOISE.  Emblem  of  Longevity.  See  URASHIMA  TARO,  ROKO,  GAMA, 
KOAN  ;  JOREN,  and  under  LONGEVITY.  See  MINOGAME. 

TORCH,  all  night  scenes.  Usui  SADAMITSU,  NITTA  TADATSUNE,  HIRAI, 
ATSUCHI  and  the  Dragon,  SOGA  brother's  revenge,  KOGA  SABURO,  Story  of 
the  lost  Cash,  Seaweed  Gathering. 

TREE,  fabulous;  see  SEIOBO,  HORAI,  MOON,  MOON-CHILD;  the  ^{^ 
Nih  was  said  to  be  a  thousand  feet  high,  it  flowered  only  once  in  a 
thousand  years,  and  its  fruit  took  another  nine  thousand  years  to  reach 
maturity.  The  Tree  or  Wood  7JC  Ki  (Chin.  Muh)  is  one  of  the  five 
elements  of  the  Jikkan  in  Far-Eastern  lore.  The  Magnolia  is  especially 
interesting  because  such  a  tree,  called  ^j|,  grew  on  the  tomb  of  Confucius ; 

0  See  FIGURF. 



the     Buddhists     of   China     set     also     great    value   upon    the    horse    chestnut 
f£J>,    which    they    identify    with    the    Saul. 

TREE   TRUNK,   as  weapon ;    HANGAKU,   TOMOF.   GOZEN. 
„        Man    hidden    in—-.     SHOTOKU   TAISHI;    YORITOMO. 
„        whipping.     KIUSHOKI. 

UDONGE,  is  a  fabulous  flower,  blooming  once  in  a  thousand  years; 
its  name  appears  to  be  familiarly  given  to  a  plant  which  grows  on  ceilings 
in  the  damp  atmosphere,  and  the  advent  of  which  is  considered  to  be  an 
omen  of  impending  success.  It  is  suggested  that  it  is  merely  a  nest  of 
insects  or  a  fungus.  The  Wakan  Sanstn'  Zue  calls  it  a  fig  tree  (Basho,  Ichijiku}. 

VASE    of   Sake.       See   Snojo,    TURKIC    SAKK    TASTERS,    RIHAKU. 
„        man    reclining    by.       See    Li    TAI    I'EII,    TAIKOBO. 
,,        Chinese    boy    breaking     .       See    SIIIBA    OXKO. 
WAR    CLUB.       See   Rocmsmx,   TOSAUO,    BKNKKI. 
WATERFALL.       See   Frno,    LNDO    MORITO,    SOKU. 

WAVES,    man   on.       See    DARTMA,    SiiAsnirsiio,    CIIOSHIUKA,   TOHOSAKU. 
„  woman   jumping   in — .       See   OTO   TACUIBANA    HIME. 

,,  Ghosts    issuing   out    of  -.       See    BKNKKI    arid    HEIKK,    TAIRA   NO 

ToMOMORI,     I 'MI     Bo/CU. 

WAVES,    Sennin    on--,    on    sword.       SIIORIKKN. 

,,  Bell   on--.       See  Bell   of   MEIDIRA. 

„  Buddha's   statue   on — .       See   JIKAKU    DAISHI. 



WHEEL,   flaming—.       See    HELL. 

WHEEL   and    mantis.      See   MANTIS. 


YUZURI.  The  leaf  or  Yuzuri  ha  is  used  emblematically  in  the  New 
Year's  Eve  decorations,  meaning  that  the  father  will  not  die  before  his 
son  is  a  grown-up  man,  as  the  leaf  of  the  Yuzuri  does  not  fall  before 
another  replaces  it. 



i.  ABE  NO  YASUNA  35C  TcM*  ^  Father  of  Abe  no  Seimei,  and  to  whom 
is  sometimes  attributed  as  a  wife  a  white  fox  which  had  taken  the  shape  of  a 
beautiful  woman  to  bewitch  him.  This  story  is  told  to  the  effect  that  once  as 
he  was  walking  in  the  gardens  of  the  temple  of  Inari,  reciting  his  poems,  a 
party  of  nobles  passed  by  in  pursuit  of  a  fox,  which  they  were  hunting  to  kill 
for  his  liver,  then  used  as  a  medicine.  The  fox  ran  into  the  gardens,  stopping 
near  ABE  who  caught  the  animal,  and  hid  it  in  the  ample  folds  of  his  kimono 
before  its  pursuers  could  enter  the  temple  grounds,  thus  saving  its  life.  A  year 
later  ABE  fell  in  love  with,  and  married  a  beautiful  girl  KUZUNOHA,  who  gave 
birth  to  a  boy,  and  soon  after  died  of  some  fever.  Three  days  after  her  death 
she  appeared  to  him  in  a  dream,  enjoining  him  not  to  grieve,  as  she  was  only 
the  fox  he  had  saved.  One  version  of  the  story  says  that  Kuzunoha,  lived  three 
years  with  Abe,  at  the  end  of  which  she  left  him,  and  before  departing,  wrote 
on  the  panels  of  the  room : 


Tazune  kite  miyo, 

Izumi  naru 

Shinoda  no  mori  no 

Urami  Kuzu  no  ha. 

that  is :  L-* 

If  you  are  in  love,  come  and  seek  in  the  forest  of  Shinoda,  in  Izumi,  and 
you  will  find  a  Kuzu  leaf  (Kuzu  no  ha). 

The  Kuzu  plant,  Pueraria  Thunbergiana,  was  used  by  weavers. 




2.  ABE  NO  NAKAMARO   T£  fo  f$  J&  &  was  the  son  of  NAKATSUKASA 
TAYU  FUNAMORI.     He  is  one  of  the  celebrated  poets,  sometimes  included  amongst 
the  thirty-six  poets  (q.v.),  and  ancestor  of  Abe  no  Yasuna. 

Abe  no  Nakamaro  was  sent  to  China  when  16  years  old,  in  the  second 
year  of  Ruki  (A.D.  716)  to  discover  the  secret  of  the  Chinese  calendar.  Suspected 
by  the  Emperor,  he  was  invited  to  a  dinner  on  the  top  story  of  a  high  pagoda, 
and  made  drunk,  after  which,  while  he  was  asleep,  the  Chinese  removed  the  stairs 
and  left  him  to  die  of  hunger.  Legend  has  it  that  he  bit  his  finger  until  the 

^ blood  ran,  and  with  it  wrote  on  his  sleeve : 


^  Awo  una  bara  (Ama  no  hara), 

/I?  furi  sake  mireba, 

Y  1    >  v  Kasuga  nara, 

J  if 
7  \  Mikasa  no  yama  ni, 

u      u  rS  Ideshi  tsuki  kamo  : 

^L.  "  When  I  see  the  heavenly  plain  open,  I  think  myself  at  Kasuga,  contemplating 

the  moon,  rising  above  the  three  summits  of  Mikasa     .     .     Ah ! 

After  his  escape,  he  set  out  for  Japan,  but^being  shipwrecked,  he  went  to 

Annam,  and  again  to  China,  where  he  entered  the  civil  service  of  the  Emperor, 

and  died  (770). 

3.  ABE  NO  SADATO  *£  fg1  j|  ft  The  opponent  of  Kiyowara  Takenori 
at  the  battle  of  Toriumi     (See  Takenori).     He  is  supposed  to  have  been  partly 
of  Aino  blood,  and  was  famous  for  his  huge  stature.     At  thirty-four  years  of  age, 
he  was  nine  feet  high,  and  his  girth  exceeded  the  combined  lengths  of  seven 
arrows.     His  younger  brother  was  ABE  NO  MUNETO  who,  when  defeated  during 
the  nine  years  war  (Zenku  nen  no  Eki),   was   brought   captive   to   Kioto,   by 
Yoriyoshi  (q.v.).     Prior  to  his  execution  a  Kuge,  came  to  him  with  a  branch  of 
the  flowering  plum  tree,  and  asked  him  what  he  called  it.     Abe  no  Sadato's 

f>      -^  reply  in  the  form  of  a  poem  has  been  preserved  : 

*       ^1  Waga  kuni  no, 

-j_  j.j^,  Ume  no  hana  towa, 

7  3  Mitsuredomo, 

Jn    •%- 

Oho  miya  bito  wa, 
Nani  to  yuran. 

<  S- 

u   p 

Q   ~ 


"  In  our  country,  where  I  saw  it  often,  we  call  it  "  [/me,"  but  for  the  true 
name,  we  look  to  a  courtier  to  tell  us." 

4.  ABE  NO  SEIMEI  T£  fn  Bjf  5^  or  KAMO  YASUNARI,  or  KAMO  HOGEN. 
Court  Astrologer,  son  of  Abe  no  Yasuna,  occasionally  shown  with  his  fox  mother 
Kuzunoha,  who  holds  a  writing  brush  in  her  mouth.  He  cured  a  grave  illness  of 
the  Emperor  TOBA,  proving  that  he  was  bewitched  by  no  other  than  his  own 
favorite  concubine  TAMAMO  NO  MATE,  in  whom  Seimei  detected  a  nine  tailed  fox 
(Kiubi  no  Kitsune)  (See  Tamamo  no  Maye).  His  name  is  sometimes  given  as 
Abe  no  Yasunari. 

Once,  having  heard  that  a  bird  disrespectfully  dropped  something  upon  the 
head  of  a  courtier  of  the  rank  of  Kurando,  he  explained  the  incident  as  an  omen 
that  this  noble  would  be  murdered.  The  Kurando  spent  a  night  in  religious 
practices,  and  great  was  his  surprise  in  the  morning,  to  see  a  man  come  to  beg 
his  forgiveness,  as  he  had  intended  to  murder  him. 

On  another  occasion,  the  despotic  ruler  Michinaga,  was  prevented  by  his 
favorite  dogs,  from  advancing  along  a  certain  road ;  Abe  stated  that  some 
miscreant  must  have  been  at  that  time  "praying  at  the  hour  of  the  Ox"  (Us/ii  no 
toki  mairi)  as  an  incantation  against  Michinaga's  life.  He  had  the  place  where 
the  dogs  had  stopped  dug  up,  and  found  concealed  in  a  pot,  a  scroll  with 
Michinaga's  name  written  in  red,  in  a  manner  which  he  said,  was  known  only  to 
a  man  named  Doma  Hoshi.  Whereupon,  he  made  a  magical  paper  stork  which 
immediately  flew  straight  to  Doma  Hoshi's  house,  with  such  startling  effect  that 
the  suspected  man  confessed  his  guilt,  and  as  a  result  forfeited  his  life.  Abe 
no  Seimei  is  also  shown  in  a  wizard's  competition,  conjuring  white  mice  from 
an  empty  box. 

5.  ACARA  (See  FUDO). 

6.  ACHALA  (See  AISEN  MIYO  O). 

7.  ADACHIGAHARA  *£  H  >T  Jj£.  The  Goblin  of  Adachigahara  was 
an  old  cannibal  woman.  She  is  always  represented  with,  a  kitchen  knife,  and 
sometimes  preparing  to  kill  a  child.  In  the  popular  play  she  is  said  to  have 
been  of  high  rank,  and  attached  to  the  court  of  a  prince  who  suffered  from  a 


strange  disease.  The  only  remedy  then  known  consisted  of  the  blood  of  a 
child  born  during  a  certain  month,  and  the  woman  killed  children  to  cure  her 
master.  When  the  cure  was  successful  she  confessed  her  guilt,  but  was  pardoned. 
She  lived  in  Oshu  (Mutsu).  Amongst  other  legends  it  is  said  that  one  winter 
evening,  a  pilgrim  came  to  the  door  of  her  hut  and  asked  permission  to  spend 
the  night  in  her  kitchen.  The  woman  refused  at  first,  but  finally  acceded  to 
his  entreaties,  and  allowed  him  in.  After  a  few  minutes  she  went  out,  forbidding 
him  to  look  in  a  certain  room,  but  the  pilgrim  was  too  inquisitive  to  obey,  and 
whilst  the  woman  was  away,  he  opened  the  door  and  found  the  room  full  of 
human  bones  and  bespattered  with  the  blood  of  the  goblin's  victims.  Taking 
his  hat  and  staff  he  flew  away,  the  old  woman  who  was  then  just  returning,  in 
her  true  shape  as  a  goblin,  running  after  him  (Ozaki). 

8.  ADZUMAYA  KUMI.     One  of  the  personages  of  the  GENJI  MONOGATARI, 
who  elopes  on  the  river  Uji,  with  her  lover  Nio  GIOBU  Kio. 

9.  AGATA.      Divinity  worshipped  at  Uji,   and   who  is  believed  to  cure 
venereal  diseases. 

10.  AGNI  DEVA.     Fire  divinity,  One  of  the  Twelve  Deva  Kings  (Jiu  ni 
Ten)  q.v. :    K  \VATEN  ^  ^. 

11.  AGONAOSHI  JIZO  f|  fR|  j&  |j|  or  Jizo  who  has  no  jaw.     Divinity 
worshipped  at  a  temple  in  Old  as  a  jaw  healer,  because  in  one  of   his  previous 
lives  he  tore  away  his  lower  jaw.     Prayers  are  addressed  to  him  to  cure  toothache, 
another  remedy  consisting  in  using  Yanagi  chopsticks  (q.v.)  (Hearn). 

12.  AIKIO  ^  ^  or  SEGON  or  KWANZEON  BOSATSU,  one  of   the   sons   of 
Benten,  shown  with  a  bow  and  arrow,  transformation  of  Avalokitesvara. 

13.  AIKU  ^  JffiJ  The  concubine  of  SATO  TADANOBU  (q.v.). 

14.  AIR  CASTLE  (Shin  Kiro)  f^  ^  ig£  The  Castle  of  Riujin  the  Dragon 
King  of  the  Sea,  appearing  in  the  clouds  (See  Story  of  Bimbo). 

Mirage  caused  by  the  breath  of  a  clam  rising  above  the  waters,  and 
accordingly  represented,  either  as  a  group  of  small  buildings  inside  the  partly 
open  shell  of  a  clam,  or  as  a  castle  rising  in  the  clam's  breath.  Sometimes  called 


ABIi    NO    NAKAMAKO    (./. 


AMATERASU    (li:i..K.) 


the  Clam's  dream.  The  mirage  is  called  Shin  Kiro,  and  as  an  allusion,  the 
personages  in  Hokusai's  fairy  tale  A  Shin  Kio  have  huge  shells  instead  of 

15  AISEN  MIYO  O  H  ^  HJ3  3£  Transformation  of  ACHALA  the  In- 
satiable or  the  Indomitable.  God  of  love,  although  represented  with  a  fierce 
expression,  three  eyes,  a  halo,  and  six  arms. 

1 6.  AKAHITO  (YAMABE  NO)  ^  A  [Ul  ill  One  of  the  celebrated  poets, 
sometimes  classed  amongst  the  six,  lived  in  the  eighth  century,  and  has  been 
deified  as  God  of  Poetry. 

17.  AKAMBE      ~f    #    :/    -<    4     A    child's     game    sometimes    performed 
with   a   mask  of  Okame   or    some   other  No   character,   corresponds  with  "  Do 
you  see  any  green  in  my  eye?"  (Compare  Bekkako). 

1 8.  AKECHI  $J  |?  (See  ODA  NOBUNAGA). 

19.  AKOYA  PP[  ~t^f  JH.  A   famous  courtesan   of   Gojyo,  near  Kyoto,  who 
having  been  the  mistress  of  the  Heike  captain  KAGEKIYO,  (q.v.)  was  suspected  of 
having  given  him  refuge,  when  he  had  to  flee  for  his  life,  after  Yoritomo's  army 
had  defeated  the  Taira  clan  at  the  battle  of  Dan  no  Ura  (1185).     Torture  failing 
to  bring  any  information  from  Akoya,   one  of    the  Magistrates,   HATAKEYAMA 
SHIGETADA,  had  her  brought  into  court  one  day  in  her  best  attire,  and  after 
reproving  her  for  her  obstinacy,  commanded  her  to  play  on  some  musical  instru- 
ments :  a  Koto  and  a  Samisen,  much  to  the  indignation  of  his  colleague  IWANAGA. 
The  girl  improvised  a  short  poem  containing  a  play  on  the  words  Kage  and 
Kiyoki,  and  by  her  masterful  performance  convinced  him  of   her   innocence, 
because,  as  he  remarked  "  fine  music  can  only  be  played  with  a  pure  heart." 

20.  AKUBO   ^  ^  i  (AKUBOZU)  "No"  character  representing  a  wicked 
priest,  he  wears  a  coarse  beard,  and  carries  a  halbert. 

31.  AKU  HACHIRO  ^  A  IB  Celebrated  warrior,  who  defended  the 
castle  of  Takasagu,  fortified  by  Hata  Kokuzaemon,  against  the  attacks  of  KURD 
IYEMITSU.  He  threw  upon  the  besiegers  a  rock,  so  large  that  fifty  ordinary  men 
could  not  lift  it,  and  so  crushed  to  death  many  warriors,  then  uprooting  a  tree, 



the  trunk  of  which  was  nine  feet  long,  he  executed  a  sortie  single  handed  againsl 
the  enemy. 

22.  AKUMA  ^  |H  (TooRi  AKUMA),  One  of  the  many  Ghosts  or  Goblins 
with   sword   in   hand,   a   huge   head   and   flaming   eyes.      Akuma,   or   Ma  an 
synonymous  and  mean  evil  spirit.      One  day,  a   nobleman    drinking  sake  or 
the  verandah   of   his   house   saw   the    Toori  Akuma   floating    towards   him   ir 
the   sky,    with    a    naked    sword    in    its    hand.       Frightened    by    the    hideous 
apparition  he  hid  himself   under  a  tatami  (mat),  and  peeping,  saw  the  goblin 
enter   the   next   house.      Hearing   a   terrible   uproar   he   went   to  enquire,   and 
found  that  his  neighbour,  thinking  to  kill  the  Toori,  had  slain   his  wife,   his 
children  and  his  servants. 

23.  AKUSEN  fl  f£  (Wu  TS'UEN),  One  of  the  Taoists  Rishis  of  the  Chinese, 
shown  as  a  wild  looking  hairy  man,  clad  in  the  usual  leaf   dress  and  eating  fii 
cones.     He  is  said  to  have  lived  300  years,  gathering  simples  in  the  mountains. 
Once  he  offered  pine  cones  to  the  Emperor  who  refused  to  partake  of   this  food, 
but  those  who  accepted  the  Sennin's  diet  attained  everlasting  life.      He  used 
to  wear  his  hair  very  long,  and  could  run  as  fast  as  the  swiftest  horse. 

24.  AMAKURIKARA,    Abreviated     form     of     AMARIO     NO     KURIKARA 
(/H  ^'J  HP  JH]    RYO.      Name  of  one  of  the  Dragons,  and  sometimes  engraved 
on    swords,    or    wrapped    around   scabbards    as    in    the    Amagoi    ken    of    the 
celebrated    Kobodaishi   (q.v.).      Amario,   meaning  rain   Dragon,   and    Kurikara 
rio  :   Dragon  entwining  a  sword. 

25.  AMANGAKO  (Utatesa  :  Sadness),  one  of  the  demons.     See  Koshin. 

26.  AMA  NO  GAWA  ^©Jl|,  The  Heavenly  River,  the  Via  lactea,  also 
called  Tenga,  or  Ginga,  the  Silvery  river.     See  the  Stories  of  Wu  Un  Jin,  Chan 
K'ien,  and  of  Kengiu  and  Shokudjo  (The  Spinning  Maiden)  and  the  Bridge  of 
Birds  (TANABATA). 

27.  AMA  NO  KAGU  YAMA  ^  f|  \\).     The  mountain  in  Yamato  where 
the  angel  hung  up  her  clothes  in  the  story  of   Hagoromo  (q.v.). 

28.  AMARIO  M  II,  Rain  Dragon. 



29.  AMATERASU  jHMM.itift-  The  "  Heavenly  Shiner."  The  Sun 
Goddess  and  legendary  ancestor — or  rather  ancestral  divinity — of  the  reigning 
dynasty  of  Japan,  born  of  the  left  eye  of  IZANAGI.  Suffering  from  the  insults 
of  her  brother  SUSANO  O,  she  retired  into  a  cave,  casting  darkness  over  the 
world  and  closed  the  opening  of  the  cave  with  a  rock.  OMOHI  KANE  NO  KAMI 
then  had  a  mirror  eight  feet  in  diameter  forged  by  AMA-TSU-MAURA,  and  also 
a  string  of  five  hundred  jewels,  which  were  suspended  in  front  of  the  cave  as 
peace  offerings.  Then  AME-NO  UZUME-NO  MIKOTO,  arrayed  in  a  somewhat 
immodest  garment  of  tree  branches,  began  a  frantic  dance  outside  the  cave  till 
the  eight  hundred  myriad  deities  burst  into  a  huge  roar  of  laughter.  Amaterasu, 
slightly  opening  the  door,  asked  what  was  the  meaning  of  this  rejoicing, 
Uzume  replying :  We  are  glad  because  there  is  a  deity  more  illustrious  than 
your  Augustness.  Meanwhile  the  mirror  was  pushed  nearer  to  the  Goddess, 
who  beholding  her  own  image  came  out  of  the  cave,  and  whilst  AME-NO 
KO-YA-NE  closed  back  the  cave,  TAJI  KARA  drew  across  her  back  the  rope  of 
rice  straw  to  prevent  her  returning  to  the  cave. 

To  the  Sun  Goddess  were  reserved  certain  parts  of  the  sea  shore,  on  which 
fishing  was  strictly  prohibited.  In  the  VHIth  century,  a  samurai  retainer  of 
Yamabuki  Shogen  of  Tamba,  fled  to  Tsu,  after  his  master  had  been  murdured  by 
some  traitor.  He  took  with  him  his  master's  daughter  whom  he  married,  and 
changed  his  own  name  to  Heiji.  Poverty  however  beset  the  couple,  and  the  man 
violated  the  prohibition  mentioned  above.  He  was  found  drawing  his  nets  from 
the  sea,  and  buried  alive  on  the  sea  shore.  His  grave  is  still  shown  at  Akogi-ga- 
Ura,  and  the  name  of  the  place  has  been  bestowed  upon  a  popular  dramatized 
version  of  the  story. 

Amaterasu  O  Mi  Kami  is  also  called  Tenshoko  Daijin ;  Shimmei,  and 

Students  of  comparative  folk-lore  may  see  a  curious  parallel  between  the 
retirement  of  the  Sun  Goddess  in  the  cave  and  the  Greek  myth  in  which 
Zeus  conceals  Dionysios  Dithyreites  from  his  consort  Here  in  a  deep  cave.  It 
is  also  interesting  to  note  that  Japanese  mythology  recognizes  a  Sun  Goddess 
and  a  Moon  God  (Susano-6),  in  contradiction  to  the  Greek  and  Roman 
myths,  but  in  agreement  with  the  Egyptian,  Aryan,  and  Norse  legends. 



30.  AME  NO  MINAKA  NUSHI  3£  fP  r\>  ±.  According  to  the  Kojiki,  the 
God  standing  in  the  centre  of  the  world  before  the  creation,  the  Nihongi  name 
him  Kuni  Toko  Tachi  no  Mikoto.      He  is  the  ancestor  of   the  creative  couple 
(Izanagi  and  Izanami),  who  followed  sixteen  generations  later. 

31.  AME  NO  TAJIKARA  WO  NO  KAMI   5£  ^  -ft  £f  jji$.    The  strong 
God  who  rolled  back  the  door  of  the  cave  after  Amaterasu  had  been  decoyed 
out  of  it  by  Uzume's  dance. 

32.  AMIDA  flSj  gg  P£  (Endless  life),    the  Buddha  Amithabha,  who  with 
Kwannon,  presides  over  the  paradise  of  the  West.     Chief  Buddha  of  the  MONTO 
(SHIN)  Sect. 

33.  AMOSHA  VAJRA  ^  g?  ^  ill  [pif  JH  ^]  (See  Fuku  Kongo). 

34.  ANAN    (ANANDA)  ^  fr$,     also    called    TAMON,    a    cousin   and  the 
youngest  of  the  disciples  of  Gautama  the  Buddha,  believed  to  have  been  endowed 
with  a  wonderful  memory  and  who  remembered  the  whole  of   the  Buddha's 

35.  ANCHIN  T£C  J£-  A  Yamabushi,  wandering  priest  of  the  Shugendo  sect, 
victim  of  Kiyohime  (q.v.). 

36.  ANKISEI    T£  tj}  ^  of    Roya-Fukyo  was  a  well  known  drug  seller 
whom  the  people  of  sea  shore  called  Senzaiko  (Prince  Thousand  Years).     He  was 
kept  speaking  for  three  nights  with  the  Emperor  Shiko  of  the  Shin  dynasty,  who 
offered  him  untold  wealth  in  gold  and  brocade,  but  the  sage  went  away  and  left 
all  the  presents  at  a  place  named  Fukyotei,  with  some  jewelled  red  shoes,  and  a 
few  books. 

37.  ANTOKU  TENNO  T£  f|  ^  Jl.  Grandson  of  TAIRA  KIYOMORI.    This 
child  Emperor  was  overthrown  when  five  years  old  by  the  Minamoto  clan,  and 
replaced  on  the  throne  by  his  brother  Go  TOBA.     He  was  carried  away  by  his 
grandmother  Nn  NO  AMA  to  the  temple  of    Itsukushima,  where  the  priests  gave 
him  a  fan  with  a  red  disc,  which  was  supposed  to  be  the  soul  of   the  Emperor 
TAKAKURA  (A.D.  1169-1180).     Later  in  1185,  this  fan  was  nailed  to  the  mast  of  the 



Taira  ship  at  the  battle  of  DAN-NO-URA,  where  Nii  no  Ama,  and  Antoku  jumped 
into  the  sea  and  were  drowned.  (Compare  the  story  of  Luh  Siu  Fu,  who, 
defeated  by  Kublai  Khan,  jumped  into  the  waves  with  the  boy  Emperor,  last 
representative  of  the  Sung  dynasty  of  China.)  See  YOSHITSUNE  and  NASU 
YOICHI  NO  MUNETAKA.  He  was  thereafter  popularly  believed  to  have  been 
deified,  and  worshipped  under  the  name  Suitengu. 

38.  ANDO    ZAEMON    SHOSHU    £  &  £  $j  ffi  Ig  5f,    One    of     the 

retainers  of  Hojo  Takatoki,  the  last  of  the  Hojo  family  of  regents  of  Kamakura 
(1312-1333);  and  uncle  of  Nitta  Yoshisada's  wife  (q.v.). 


39.  According  to  the  generally  received  opinion,  the  mystic  animals  are  shown, 
the  male  with  the  mouth  open,  to  represent  the  letter  A,  initial  of   the  Sanskrit 
alphabet,  the  female  with  the  mouth  shut,  representing  the  last  letter  N  of  the 
sacred  alphabet.     This  however  does  not  agree  with  the  carved  wooden  Shishis 
guardians  of  the  Temples  Yasa  ka  and  Yakushiji,  figures  of  which  are  given  in 
the  Nikon  Kogio  Shi  Taisho  Zu,  and  in  the  Kokkwa  (177).      These  figures  dating 
from  the  thirteenth  century  present  the  reverse  combination  of  features. 

The  mystic  animals  are  also  embodiments  of  the  Yin  and  Yang  doctrine  of 
Chinese  philosophy ;  besides  the  Chinese  Lion  or  Karashishi  (q.v.),  the  monster 
most  often  represented  as  a  Temple  guardian  is  the  Korean  dog :  Kama  Inu, 
with  two  horns,  and  sometimes  the  Tama  on  its  head,  but  lacking  the  curly 
mane  and  tail  of  the  Karashishi,  which  are  replaced  by  straighter  and  less 
ornamental  appendages.  Descriptions  will  be  found  in  their  alphabetic  order 
of  the  various  Dragons,  Kirins,  Karashishi,  the  Howo  bird,  Tanuki,  the  Fox 
Kitsune,  the  Tiger  Tora,  Namazu,  Baku,  Takujiu,  Kappa,  Nuye,  Kamaitachi, 

To  this  list  must  be  added  the  Suisai  (See  Kirin). 

The  Kecho,  gigantic  bird  killed  by  Hiroari  (q.v.) ;  the  Hakutaku,  figured  by 
Yanagawa  Shigenobu,  appears  identical  with  the  Takujiu  (q.v.),  apparently 
through  a  mistake. 



HIYAKUDORI,  the  two-headed  bird,  with  a  body  like  a  bird  of  paradise,  and 
two  long  tail  feathers,  represents  in  popular  imagination  the  emblem  of  faithful 
love,  embodying  the  spirits  of  Kompachi  and  Komurasaki. 

From  the  Chinese  have  also  been  taken  the  two-headed  pig,  or  sow,  with  the 
second  head  in  lieu  of  tail ;  the  two-headed  snake,  one  of  which  was  killed  by 
Sze  ma  Kwang,  and  of  which  a  strange  specimen  exists  in  a  Netsuke,  in  the 
collection  of  Mr.  W.  L.  Behrens :  the  two  heads  have  taken  the  appearance  of 
witches  heads  with  the  regular  Hannya  mask,  and  the  scaly  body  of  the  creature 
is  wrapped  around  the  trunk  of  a  man.  It  has  been  suggested  that  this  curious 
piece  may  refer  to  the  story  of  Nukwa  (Jokwa)  or  to  that  of  Ippen  Sh5nin  (q.v.), 
but  without  certainty. 

Cobras  with  multiple  heads,  so  common  in  Indian  Art  may  have  inspired  the 
story  of  the  eight-headed  snake  or  dragon  killed  by  Susanoo  no  Mikoto.  A  snake 
several  hundred  feet  long  is  sometimes  depicted,  as  in  the  Houncho  Nen  Dai  Ki 
Dzi  rising  amongst  warriors  whom  he  swallows,  with  their  horses  and  armour,  it 
is  called  the  Tani,  and  in  the  book  quoted  is  depicted  with  its  spirit :  a  warrior 
issuing  from  a  burial  ground.  It  is  the  ghost  of  Tamichi  (367  A.D.)  who  was 
killed  in  Yezo  by  a  poisoned  arrow. 

Amongst  Monkeys,  SONGOKU,  the  companion  of  Sanzo  Hoshi  comes  first,  with 
the  boar  CHOHAKKEI,  a  four-headed  monkey  is  described  by  Chinese  writers  as  an 
omen  of  forthcoming  flood. 

Fishes  of  mythical  character  appear  to  have  been  credited  with  medicinal 
properties.  Anderson  mentions  the  dog-headed  fish,  which  cries  like  a  child,  as  a 
sure  cure  against  madness  ;  and  the  fish  with  one  head  and  ten  bodies,  whose  flesh 
is  a  preventative  of  boils. 

Many  animals  were  endowed  with  magical  properties,  such  as  the  snake,  frog 
and  slug  (see  JIRAIYA),  the  dog  of  Hanasake  jiji,  the  acolytes  of  Sanzo  Hoshi,  some 
cats,  the  invisible  Kamaitachi,  the  Mukade  or  centipede  (see  Tawara  Toda),  the 
newt  used  as  a  charm,  some  are  believed  to  exist  in  the  Moon  (Hare),  in  the  Sun 
(Three-legged  Crow),  in  the  Milky  way  (Tiger  of  a  thousand  years). 

Nearly  all  the  mythical  animals  are  familiars  of  Sennins,  and  as  such  will  be 
found  under  Emblems. 



Semi-human  creatures  may  also  find  place  under  the  heading  of  Mythical 
Animals,  while  the  anthropological  freaks  described  in  all  seriousness  in  the 
Wakan  Sansai  Dzu  Ye,  and  illustrated  in  Hokusai's  Mangwa  have  been  placed 
under  Foreigners  (mythical)  because  they  are  described  by  the  Chinese  as  people 
from  foreign  lands. 

Descriptions  will  be  found  further  of  the  Gario,  the  Ningyo,  Mujima,  Tennin, 
Tengu,  the  latter  perhaps  derived  from  the  mythical  inhabitants  of  Futan,  which 
are  pictured  with  wings,  beak  and  feathers  on  a  human  body  (depicted  under 
the  name  Umin,  by  Hokusai). 

40.  APES   ];£  /£  <jf|.      The   three   mystic  Apes    (SAMBIKI    SARU)   are   the 
attendants    of  Saruta   Hito   no   Mikoto   or   Koshin,    the    God   of   the   Roads, 
they  are : 

MIZARU,  with  a  hand  over  his  eyes,  who  sees  no  evil. 
KIKAZARU,  covering  his  ears,  who  listens  to  no  evil. 
IWAZARU,  his  hand  on  his  mouth,  who  speaks  no  evil. 

41.  ARHATS  (See  Rakans).     The  sixteen  disciples  of  Buddha. 

4.2.  ARAKI  (MURASHIGE)  ^  TJC,  A  Samurai  whom  ODA  NOBUNAGA  wished 
to  kill.  Nobunaga  hit  upon  a  scheme  which  consisted  in  summoning  Araki 
to  his  audience,  placing  himself  in  such  a  position  that  the  samurai's  neck 
came  in  line  with  the  sliding  panels  separating  the  audience  chamber  from 
the  daimio's  room,  and  having  the  shoji  slammed  together  as  the  man  knelt, 
so  as  to  decapitate  him.  Araki,  however,  suspecting  the  trap,  laid  his  iron 
fan  in  the  groove,  jamming  the  shutters,  and  saving  himself.  Another  story 
says  that  Nobunaga  ordered  him  to  eat  many  rice  cakes  (manju)  which  he 
had  threaded  on  his  sword. 

43.  ARIWARA  NO  NARIHIRA  #  M  ^  ¥,  One  of  the  six  celebrated 
Poets  (See  NARIHIRA). 

44.  ASAHINA    SABURO  $§  Jt  ^  H  IB,  Strong  warrior  of   the   Xllth 
Century,  son  of  TOMOE  GOZEN.      His  prowess  and  feats  of  strength  are  often 
found  illustrated,  amongst  others  his  descent  to  Hades  where  he  browbeat  the  old 
hag  of  the  three  roads  SODZUKA  NO  BABA  ;  and  after  defeating  the  Onis  in  a  trial 



of  strength  by  neck  pulling  (Kubi-hiki)  is  entertained  as  a  guest  by  the  King  of 
Hades  YEMMA  O.  He  subjugates  the  Oni  of  Kikai  ga  Shima,  swims  with  a  shark 
under  each  arm  whilst  on  a  cruise  in  Chinese  waters  with  the  Shogun  Sanetomo, 
uproots  a  tree  at  the  battle  of  Hikkane  (1180)  and  uses  the  huge  trunk  as  a 
war  club. 

The  younger  of  the  Soga  brothers,  Juro  Sukenari,  had  for  mistress  the 
woman  Tora  of  Oiso.  One  evening  when  he  was  feasting  at  her  house  with 
Hatakeyama  Shigetada  and  Asahina  Saburo,  Tora  handed  the  cup  to  her  lover 
first,  instead  of  Hatakeyama,  who  was  the  highest  personage  in  the  room. 
Hatakeyama  became  incensed  at  this  lack  of  courtesy,  and  sought  to  be  revenged. 
The  elder  brother,  Goro,  who  was  a  few  doors  away,  had  a  sudden  idea  that  Juro 
was  in  danger,  and  went  to  his  assistance.  As  he  opened  the  door,  Asahina 
Saburo  tried  to  drag  him  in  forcibly,  but  he  stood  his  ground,  and  left  in  the 
hands  of  Saburo  his  Kusazuri  (shoulder  plate  of  the  armour). 

Being  entertained  at  Okuno  by  a  hunting  party  of  Yoritomo's  retainers, 
Asahina  demonstrated  his  strength  by  lifting  a  rock  seven  feet  long  and  throwing 
it  from  the  edge  of  the  cliff  into  the  sea.  Through  an  anachronism,  it  has  been 
wrongly  stated  in  some  books  that  a  youth  of  sixteen  (Sanada  Yoichi)  was 
passing  below  at  the  time,  and  Asahina  (who  had  a  grudge  against  him)  sought 
to  crush  him  with  the  stone,  but  the  youth  received  the  mass  in  his  hands  and 
forthwith  threw  it  back  upwards  to  Asahina.  In  the  true  version  the  incident 
occurs  between  Matana  no  Goro  and  Sanada  Yoichi.  Asahina  Saburo  is  also 
depicted  amongst  dwarfs,  or  breaking  a  door  during  the  Wada  feud. 

45.  ASAMA  g£  fg]  or  KO  NO  HANA  fc  %>  SAKUYA  HIME,  The  Goddess 
of  Fuji,  also  called  SENGEN. 

46.  ASAZUMA  FUNE  ^  lH  $§,  A  woman  standing  in  a  boat,  dressed 
like  Shizuka  with  flowing  robes  and  long  hair  hanging  down  her  back.     She 
was  the  mistress  of  the  fourth  Tokugawa  Shogun  lyetsuna,  who  preferred  her 
company,    in   endless   boating  parties,  to  the  cares  of  government.      A  poem 
referring  to  this  preference  brought  its  author,  Hanabusa  Icho,  the  penalty  of  exile. 

47.  ASHIKAGA  /£  ^Ij,  Family  of  Shoguns  descendants  of  the  Minamoto, 
who  were  in  power  from  1336  to  1573. 


TASL'KI     (.(.) 
NINE    TAIL    BADCKK    (.!/. 
ATSUMORI    (-!/.  7.) 

I1AKU  ("'./.«) 

BUMBl'KU     CHAGAMA    (//.T.7.) 

THE    MACIC    KKTTI.K    (./.) 
TANUKI    NO    HARA   TSUZUM1    (F.H.K.) 


48.  ASHI   ODORI  /£,  jj|j,  A  toy,  representing  a  buffoon's  antics,  a  man 
lying  on  his  back  with  his  feet  in  the  air,  each  foot  carrying  a  Shishi  mask. 

49.  ASHINAGA  (CHOKYAKU)  P  Jt  long  legged  men  generally  shown 
with  TENAGA  or  long  arms.      These  mythical  personages  are  said  to  live  on  the 
sea  shore  in  north  China  near  Hung  Sheung  Tree.      They  live  upon  fish  which 
the  Tenaga  catches  with  his  long  arms,  being  the  while  perched  on  the  back  of 
the  long-legged  Ashinaga  who  wades  into  the  sea.     They  are  often  met  with  in 
various  attitudes  jointly  or  separately. 

50.  ASHUKU  Pnj  (fjjj,  One  of  the  GO-CHI-NYORAI,  the  five  Gods  of  Wisdom 
and  Contemplation. 

51.  ATAGO  (HOMUSUBI)  J|  ^,  Deity  protective  against  fire. 

52.  ATAKA  (Gate  of)  $£  ^,  Place  where  BENKEI  (q.v.)  foiled  SAYEMON 
TOGASHI    and    helped   YOSHITSUNE    to    make    good    his   escape   from   his   half 
brother  and  enemy  YORITOMO.     (Kan  Jin  Cho  episode.) 

53.  ATSUMORI  (TAIRA)  |fc  ^  [^],  also  named  MUKAN  NO  TAYU  $£  f 
^  ^  ATSUMORI,  son  of  FUJI  NO  TSUBONE,  and  adopted  son  of  TAIRA  TADAMORI. 
He  had  been  left  in  1184  when  sixteen  years  old  to  defend  the  town  of  Ichi  no 
Tani,  then  beseiged  KUMAGAI  NAOZANE,  a  general  of  Yoshitsune's  army.  The 
defeat  of  the  Taira  was  so  complete  that  nearly  all  had  escaped  to  their  boats, 
and  Atsumori  was  on  his  way  to  join  them,  playing  the  flute  the  while,  when 
Kumagai  entered  by  the  western  gate  and  heard  him.  He  was  on  the  point  of 
killing  the  youth  when  he  noticed  the  beauty  of  his  face  and  was  reminded  of 
his  own  son.  Atsumori  would  have  escaped  with  his  life  but  for  the  companions 
of  Kumagai  who  taunted  him  for  sparing  a  Taira.  The  Minamoto  general  killed 
Atsumori  and  sent  his  head  and  flute  to  Yoshitsune.  Soon  after  he  became  a 
monk.  Atsumori  is  said  to  have  left  a  widow,  who  became  a  nun  and  is  credited 
with  the  invention  of  the  folding  fan,  by  the  refreshing  use  of  which  she  cured 
the  Abbot  of  a  temple,  of  a  malignant  fever.  This  invention  is  however 
attributed  also  to  a  fan  maker  of  670  A.D.  (See  FANS.)  It  is  worth  noting  that 
Atsumori's  teeth  were  blackened,  a  custom  which  then  applied  to  young  nobles 


of  both  sexes.     (See  also  Kumagai  Naozane.)     A  fanciful  version  of  the  story 
of  Atsumori  forms  the  subject  of  the  popular  play  Ichi  no  Tani  Futaba  Gunki. 

54.  AUSHASHIMA  ^  H  (Burning  Head)  or  Ushijima,  a  divinity  shown 
with  an  Axe  or  a  Dorge  in  its  left  hand,  and  with  its  left  leg  raised  (Buddhistic). 

55.  AWOTO  SAYEMON  FUJITSUNA  W  Wi  £  If  PI  31  IPL  a  retainer 
of  Hojo  Tokiyori  famous  for  his  wit,  and  particularly  for  the  loss  of  ten  small 
coins  in  the  Nameri  gawa.     (See  Lost  Cash.) 

56.  BADGER  (TANUKI)  >§•,  the  Racoon  faced  Dog  (Nyctereutes  Procyonides 
or    Viverrinus)  is  one  of  the  animals  credited  with   magical   or   supernatural 
powers.      As  a  Goblin  it  is  a  peculiarly  mischievous  creature  taking  all  sorts  of 
disguises  to  waylay,  deceive  or  annoy  wayfarers.     Standing  by  the  road  side  on 
its  hind  legs  it  distends  its  belly  (or  rather  Scrotum)  and  striking  it  with  its  fore- 
paws  uses  it  as  a  drum   Tanuki  no  hara   tsnzumi ;    wrapped    in    a    kimono,    it 
begs  like  an  itinerant  monk,  waylays  folks  at  night  across  paddy  fields,  causes 
fishermen  to  draw  up  their  nets  empty  and  only  laughs  at   their  misfortune. 
When   in   priestly   disguise  it  is   called  TANUKI  Bozu.      It    is   often    met   with 
represented  wrapped  in  lotus  leaves  and  with  a  lotus  flower  doing  duty  as  a 
hat,  carrying  in  one  paw  a  bill  for  sake ;   also,  with  distended  scrotum,  Hachi 
jo  jiki   (8   mats  wide)  Kintama  as  a  Kimono,  or  as  a  means  of  smothering  a 
hunter.      Amongst  classical  Tanuki  stories,  see  the  lucky  tea  kettle  (BUMBUKU 
CHAGAMA)  and  the  revenge  of  the  Hare  (Story  of  KACHI-KACHI  YAMA). 

The  Shogun  IEYASU  has  been  irreverently  nicknamed  "  The  Old  Badger" 

A  trinity  of  pot  bellied  personages  sometimes  met  with,  shows  Tanuki  in 
company  with  the  FUGU  fish  and  the  fat,  hilarious  God  of  Luck,  HOTEL 

57.  BAG  OF  HOTEI  ^ff  ^  (See  TAKARAMONO),  the  bag  of  precious  things. 

58.  BAG   OF   PATIENCE  *&  &  gf.    An  invisible  bag,  in  which  a  man 
who  suffers  a  wrong  is  supposed  to  hide  his  mortification.     Used  as  a  model  for 
Netsuke,  with  the  word  Patience  ^  ^  written   on   it,  and  the  owner  tying 
it  up. 



59.  BAGEN  J5  7C-    (See  GAMA  SENNIN.) 

60.  BAKEMONO  fa  $}.    Generic  name  for  GHOSTLY  GOBLINS,  Bakemonos 
are  shown  without  feet,  and  with  long  straight  hair,  BAKEMONO  TOFU  is   the 
goblin  seller  of  bean  cake  who  goes  about  after  midnight  and  with  whom  it  is 
fatal  to  hold  conversation. 

The  BAKEMONO  TORO  is  a  lantern  shown  at  the  temple  of  Futaara  in  Nikko, 
to  which  it  was  presented  in  1292,  by  Kanuma  Gonsaburo.  It  used  to  take 
human  shape  and  attack  the  passers-by,  until  a  plucky  warrior  instead  of  flying 
away  struck  at  the  Bakemono  with  his  sword,  inflicting  a  deep  cut  to  the  top 
of  the  lantern. 

GUMBARI  NIUDO,  is  the  New  Year's  eve  ghoul. 

HITOTSUME  Kozo,  with  one  eye  only,  a  large  hat  on  his  head,  carries  a  ball 
of  fire  in  a  sieve. 

KAKUREZATO,  a  blind  old  man,  with  a  knotted  staff,  whose  business  it  is  to 
carry  bad  people  to  Hades. 

KAZANE  NO  ENKON  Jf|  0)  $5  ^|-  The  ghost  of  Kazane,  depicted  as  a 
female  with  large  round  face,  touzled  hair  and  sometimes  biting  the  blade  of  a 
curved  knife.  She  was  a  jealous  wife  who  was  murdered  with  a  scythe  by  her 
husband,  Yorimon,  and  then  thrown  in  a  river.  Her  husband  married  again 
after  his  crime,  and  the  ghost  of  the  murdered  woman  haunted  him  and  his  new 
wife  night  and  day,  until  the  monk  Yuten  Shonin  (q.v.)  prayed  for  the  disappear- 
ance of  the  ghost.  In  Hokusai's  Mangwa,  she  is  represented  with  one  eye  shut 
(symbolical  of  the  moon)  and  the  other  open  (symbolical  of  the  sun).  His 
pictorial  treatment  of  the  legend  is,  however,  different  in  his  illustrations  to  the 
Skin  Kazane  Gedatsu  Monogatari  of  Bakin  (1807)  a  general  description  of  which 
has  been  given  by  the  Goncourts. 

OKiKU^f;&;C7)$*|lf.  The  Well  Ghost,  popularly  called  Bancho  Sarayashiki 
(Plate-house  of  Bancho)  from  the  name  of  the  street  in  Tokyo,  though  is  supposed 
to  have  originated  at  Banshu  in  Harima.  It  forms  the  subject  of  a  play,  Aoyama 
Tessan  (Shuzen)  was  a  Hatamoto,  and  the  possessor  of  ten  pieces  of  precious  plate 
received  from  the  Dutch,  the  keeping  of  which  was  entrusted  to  a  maid,  O  Kiku, 
who  steadfastly  refused  to  accept  Aoyama's  love.  In  course  of  time  the  desperate 



soldier  hid  one  of  the  plates,  and  suddenly  ordered  O  Kiku  to  produce  the  whole. 
A  hundred  times  she  wearily  counted  them,  but  could  only  find  nine.  Aoyama 
then  suggested  that  if  she  became  his  mistress  he  would  overlook  her  supposed 
carelessness.  She  refused  and  he  killed  her,  throwing  her  body  into  an  old  well. 

Since  then  her  ghost  visited  the  place,  counting  one — two — three nine! 

finishing  with  a  heartrending  wail,  until  Mitsakuni  Shonin  exorcised  the  well. 
In  Mitford's  version,  the  woman  is  said  to  have  actually  broken  a  plate,  and 
being  imprisoned  by  Aoyama,  she  managed  to  escape  and  threw  herself  in  the 
well.  The  ghost  issuing  from  the  well  faces  the  picture  of  Kazane  in  Hokusai's 
Mangwa  (Vol.  X). 

MIKOSHI  NIUDO,  bald  headed,  pulls  its  tongue  and  lolling  it  about,  looks 
over  screens. 

MITSUME  Kozo  or  MITSU  ME  NYUDO,  short  necked  with  a  long  hairy  face 
embellished  with  three  eyes,  one  of  which  is  in  the  centre  of  the  forehead. 
Sometimes  depicted  as  the  ghost  of  the  Palace  of  SOMA,  frightening  a  court  lady. 

TOORI  AKUMA,  hideous  flying  goblin. 

ROKUROKUBI  with  a  long  neck  is  occasionally  shown  as  a  female  with  three 
arms,  often  the  male  and  female  are  depicted  together. 

UBUME,  the  old  woman  of  the  under  world,  who  comes  with  a  child  in  her 
arms  and  beseeches  the  passer-by  to  hold  the  infant  a  while  and  then  goes  away. 
The  weight  of  the  child  increases  by  degrees,  taxing  the  strength  of  the  good- 
natured  individual,  and  finally  drops  to  the  ground  in  the  shape  of  a  huge 
boulder.  This  adventure  is  related  of  Urabe  Suyetake,  retainer  of  Raiko. 

As  a  parallel  to  the  Ubume,  note  the  myth  of  the  old  woman  of 
Miiggelsberger  in  Altmark  near  the  Teufelsee.  She  is  seen  in  the  form  of  a 
beautiful  fair  girl  combing  her  hair  who  wishes  to  be  set  free  from  the 
enchantment  which  binds  her  to  an  underground  castle  : — the  only  way  to 
do  so  is  for  a  man  to  carry  her  on  his  back  round  the  church  three  times 
without  looking  backwards  albeit  strange  sights  and  hideous  beasts  surround 
the  rescuer,  and  the  woman  will  grow  heavier  as  the  task  proceeds  until  the 
man  drops. 

"VAMA  UBA,  the  mountain  nurse  is  another  female  goblin,  occasionally 

1 6 


GHOST   (-/.«.) 

MITSUMli   KO7.O   (.-/./,'.) 

GHOST   (II--.L.K.) 

(JIIOST    (H.S.T.) 

KAZA.Mi    (O.C.K.) 

OKIKU    (//..S.7-.)  HADC.EK    ('.HOST    (;/'./..«) 

CAT  OF   NABESHI.MA    AM)    ROKUUOKUlil    (.I/.C ) 

M1KUSHI    MUDO    (O.H.N.) 


described  as  having  a  mouth  under  her  hair,  the  locks  of  which  transform  them- 
selves into  serpents,  or  catch  small  children,  upon  whom  the  Yama  Uba  feeds. 
Yama  Uba  (q.v.)  mother  of  Kintoki,  however,  differed  from  these. 

YUKI  ONNA,  the  woman  of  the  snow,  seen  in  YABUMURA.     (See  Yuki-Onna). 

TANUKI  Bozu,  the  Badger  disguised  as  a  monk,  KITSUNE  Bi  the  Fox  fire 
(Will-o'-the-wisp)  are  other  goblin  manifestations.  More  will  be  found  under 
FOXES  (KITSUNE).  All  spiders  after  dark  become  goblings,  namely  :  Hiratakumo, 
the  flat  spider,  Jikumo,  the  earth  spider,  Tenaga  Kumo,  the  long  legged,  and 
Tot  ate  Kumo,  the  trap -door  spider. 

THE  NUKE  KUBI  is  a  human  head  that  leaves  its  body  after  dark.  (See 
Hearn's  Ghostly  Japan  and  also  his  chapter  on  Ghosts  in  The  Romance  of  the 
Milky  Way  (1905). 

UMI  Bozu,  the  Sea  priest,  is  a  huge  ghost,  rising  from  the  sea ;  usually 
shown  frightening  Kumanaya  Tokuzo. 

See  also :  Adachigahara,  Abe  no  Seimei,  Akuma,  Cat  of  Nabeshima, 
Kama  Itachi,  Raiko,  Shutendoji,  Watanabe,  Tamamo  no  Maye,  and  Kappa. 

61.  BAKOKU    ^  ||s   (SENNIN)  lived  in  the  cave  Enka,   in   the   Konron 
(Kwen-lun),  where  he  served  the  great  sage   CHOYO-SOSHI  1|t  |||f  jjj§  jljjjj    while 
his  wife  SONSENKO  ^  fill  ^  stayed  at  home  to  compound  some  drugs.     One  day, 
he  heard  some  music,  and  looking  up,  saw  his  wife  in  the  clouds,  with  two  pages 
with  halberts  and  flags.     He  wrote  a  line  on  the  nearest  gate  and  went  away. 
He  is  depicted  as  a  sage  watching  his  wife  riding  in  the  clouds,  surrounded  with 
handsome  attendants. 

62.  BAKU    jf||,    also  called  SHIROKINA  KAMI,  from   a   Chinese  character 
which  used  to  be  hung  in  houses  against  pestilence,  and  is  still  painted  on  pillows 
to  promote  slumber.     A  mythical  animal  who  feeds  on  the  bad  dreams  of  men, 
and  is  invoked  by  the  words  :  Devour,  o  Baku  \  (Baku  Kurae).     It  has  a  hairy 
head  with  a  long  proboscis  like  an  elephant's  trunk,  two  tusks,  a  spiny  backbone, 
a  spotted  hide  and  an  ox  tail,  and  it  is  said  that  one  was  once  met,  which  spoke 
like  a  man.     [Hearn,  Kotto.]     It  is  presumably  inspired  by  the  appearance  of 
the  tapir.     There  appears  to  be  some  confusion  in  Hearn's  paper,  as  he  gives 
the  alternative  name  Hakutaku  which  usually  applies  to  a  different  creature. 



63.  BANYU  GAWA  J|  A  Jl|-    River  which  was  formerly  called  SAGAMI 
GAWA,  though  it  takes  its  source  in  Kai.     It  owes  its  new  name  to  the  following 
incident :    INAGA  SABURO   SHIGENARI,  retainer  of  the  Shogun  YORITOMO,  once 
celebrated  the  opening  of  a  new  bridge  upon  this  river,  in  the  presence  of  the 
Shogun.     Suddenly,  a  dark  cloud  arose  off  the  water,  accompanied  by  a  storm 
and  the  apparition  of  evil  spirits.     Yoritomo's  horse  took  fright  and  jumped  into 
the  river,  where  it  died  at  once.     This  event  took  place  in  the  twelth  month  of 
the  ninth  year  of  Kenkyu,  and  to  this  incident  is  also  attributed  Yoritomo's 
death  a  short  time  later. 

64.  BASEISHI  J|  $c  •¥•     One  of  the  Sennins. 

65.  BASHIKO  Jjji  ffi  j||.     A  Sennin,  the  legendary  Chinese  physician  MA 
SHE  WANG,  said  to  have  lived  from  2697  to  2597,  B.C.,  at  the  time  of  Hwang  Ti, 
and  to  have  been  specially  skilled  in  the  treatment  of  horses.     He  is  represented 
performing  acupuncture  on  the  throat  of  a  sick  dragon,  or  carried  into  the  clouds 
on  the  back  of  his  grateful  patient,  whom  he  had  cured  by  this  operation  and 
a  draught  of  liquorice. 

66.  BATTLES  :— DAN  NO  URA  (1186).     (See  Minamoto,  Taira,  Yoshitsune.) 

UJIGAWA  (1184).     (See  Ichirai,  Sasaki  Takatsuna.) 
ICHINOTAKI.     (See  Yoshitsune,  Tadanori,  Atsumori.) 
ISHIBASHIYAMA.     (See  Yoritomo,  and  Sanada  Yoichi.) 
YASHIMA.     (See  Yoshitsune.) 

67.  BATEISEKI  fijj  $$  ~fc,  or  Horse-hoof  stone,  is  a  jet  black  mineral  like 
obsidian  in  appearance  but  capable  of  being  cut  and  polished  and  made  into 
small  objects.     Its  name  is  due  to  the  legendary  story  of  it  having  been  formed 
when  the  mare  of  SASAKI  TAKATSUNA,  plunged  into  the  waters  of  the  lake  Dogo 
in  search  of  her  drowned  foal,  striking  the  bottom  with  her  hoofs. 

68.  BEAUTIES  OF  NATURE.     The  three  beauties  of  nature  are  the  Moon 
the  mountains,  the  Flowers  in  the  rain  and  the  Snow  on  the  country. 

69.  BEGGARS.       Amongst    picturesque    beggars,     the     most     common 
is     Komuso,     the     disgraced     Rdnin,     playing     the     flageolet     with     a     tall 
basket    resting    on    his    shoulders    hiding    his    head,    two    holes    being    left 


BAIFUKU    (ll-:l..K.) 
BENTEN    (.)/.<;.) 

BEKKAKO    ('f •) 
BAIFUKU    (.-/.) 

BI.IN1)   MUSICIAN    (il.l-;.) 

KOMUSO   (O.i'.K.) 
BEI.l.   OF    MIIDEKA    ( 


for  the  eyes,  he  is  depicted  almost  in  every  ferry  boat,  with  the  Saru 
Mawashi  or  monkey  showman.  But  in  reality  the  begging  monks  are 
probably  the  most  numerous,  the  Sennichi  Bozu  begs  for  a  thousand 
days,  gathering  money  to  help  sick  people,  the  Namatsu  Bosu  begs  for  some 
temple,  and  calls  attention  by  striking  together  two  pieces  of  wood,  the 
Takuhatsu  (Begging  friar),  hails  from  some  buddhist  temple,  with  staff,  bronze 
bell  and  rosary,  to  prove  his  bona  fides.  The  pilgrims  to  the  temple  of  Kompira, 
called  Kompira  Mairi  share  with  the  pilgrims  of  the  Nichiren  sect  to  the  temple 
of  Seishoko  (Kato  Kiyomasa)  a  similar  occupation,  the  latter  accompany  their 
tramping  with  the  clanging  of  hand  drums  and  the  invocation,  Namu  mio  ho 
renge  kio. — In  fact,  most  pilgrims  beg  and  are  called  Junrei.  The  Saimon  Katari, 
plays  the  role  of  a  story  teller  and  beggar,  and  uses  a  conch  shell  as  distinctive 
musical  instrument.  Gozenno  are  blind  women  carrying  Samisen.  Kadotsukc  are 
musical  beggars  in  Tokyo. 

70.  BEIFUKU  or  BAIFUKU  (MEI  FUH)  $£  H-    One  of  the  Sennins,  shown 
riding  on  a  Ho\vo  bird  (Phcenix).     He  was  a  Chinese  governor  of  Nan  Ch'ang 
(Nansho-no-Jo),  who,  disgusted  with  the  corruption  then  prevailing,  resigned  his 
post  in  14  B.C.  and  retired  to  mount  Hiko,  in  Yunnan,  where  he  penetrated  the 
secrets  of  the  genii,  and  having  drunk  of  the  elixir  of  everlasting  life,  returned  to 
his  native  Show  Ch'un.     After  a  short  while,  some  genii  and  a  Lu-an  bird  (Peacock 
or  Phcenix)  swooped  down  from  the  skies  and  carried  him  away  to  the  Taoists 

71.  BEKKAKO    ^  ^>  $*  "2    ^     Derisive  gesture  consisting  in   pulling 
downwards  the  lower  eyelids,  with  or  without  accompaniment  of  putting  out 
one's  tongue,  and  often  both  eyelids  are  pulled  down  by  the  index  fingers,  while 
the  thumbs  are  placed  in  the  corners  of  the  mouth.     The  meaning  is  the  same  as 
in  France  or  in  England  ("  No,  you  won't  or  "  See  my  eye  ").      It  is  commonly 
found  on  representations  of  boys  hiding  some  object,  as  for  instance,  a  mask  in 
the  AKAMBE  Game. 

72.  BELL   OF   DOJOJI  $j[  Jfc  %     SEE  KIYOHIME  (Wrapping  of  the  Bell). 

73.  BELL   OF   MIIDERA  H  ^  ^-    This  bell  was  hung  according  to 



legend,  over  twenty  centuries  ago,  in  the  Temple  of  GION  SOJA  which  the 
Buddha  himself  had  built.  It  got  into  the  possesion  of  RIUJIN,  the  Dragon 
King,  whose  daughter  OTOHIME  later  presented  it  to  TAWARA  TODA  (q.v.).  The 
latter  gave  it  to  the  temple  of  MIIDERA  in  the  famous  Monastery  founded  in 
600  A.D,  by  the  38th  Emperor  of  Japan  TENCHI  TENNO.  It  was  subsequently 
stolen  by  BENKEI  (q.v.).  This  bell  is  five  and  a  half  feet  high,  and  its  dull 
surface  is  accounted  for  by  a  legend.  In  the  old  days  it  used  to  shine  like  a 
mirror,  but  once,  a  Kyoto  beauty  beholding  the  bell,  climbed  upon  it,  and 
wishing  aloud  that  she  might  have  such  a  fine  mirror,  began  playing  her  fingers 
around  the  reflection  of  her  face,  the  metal  shrank  from  her  touch,  leaving  a 
dull  corroded  surface  in  place  of  the  fine  polish. 

The  bell  is  sometimes  shown  carried  over  the  waves  by  oni,  or  represented 
alone,  but  more  often  carried  on  his  back  by  Benkei,  although  the  burden  was 
nearly  half  a  ton  in  weight. 

74.  BENKEI  (MUSASHIBO)  |$  J|  [j£  H  J^],  also  called  SENNINKIRI.  Hero  of 
the  twelfth  century,  whose  history  has  become  wrapped  in  legend.  The  son  of  a 
priest  of  Kumano,  in  Kii,  he  was  of  so  boisterous  a  nature  as  to  receive  the  nick- 
name of  ONIWAKA  (young  demon)  ;  as  such,  he  is  depicted  fighting  with  the 
Yamabushis,  or  capturing  a  huge  fish  in  a  waterfall.  When  seventeen  years  of 
age,  he  started  in  his  career  as  a  wandering  priest  (Yamabushi),  and  is  often 
represented  in  that  dress  with  the  skull  partly  shaven,  and  supporting  a  small 
hexagonal  cap,  or  blowing  in  the  conch  shell,  which  forms  one  of  the  attributes 
of  that  sect,  or  even  inside  a  huge  conch  shell,  drinking  Sake  to  his  heart's 
content.  He  grew  to  a  height  of  eight  feet  and  was  as  strong  as  one  hundred 
men  ;  a  stone  is  still  shown  in  the  gardens  of  the  temple  of  Yoshino  in  which  he 
is  said  to  have  driven  two  big  iron  nails.  Later  in  his  life,  he  posted  himself  at 
one  end  of  the  Gojo  bridge  in  Kyoto,  and  there  challenged  all  comers,  reaping  a 
fine  harvest  of  nine  hundred  and  ninety  nine  choice  swords.  In  vol.  XII.  of  the 
Mangwa,  he  is  depicted  attacking  the  wife  of  a  fencing  master  with  his  spear, 
but  the  woman  (Osono)  caught  the  weapon  under  her  arm,  and  held  it  fast,  and 
escaped  with  her  life.  One  day  to  complete  his  collection,  he  challenged 
YOSHITSUNE,  who,  though  smaller  in  size  easily  beat  him,  thanks  to  his  very 



USHIWAKA    (A-..V.) 
GOJO    NO    1IASIII    (M.I,. 

11ENKEI    AND   THE    BELL    (I--..I.M-) 


KICNKEI    IN    THE    SHELL    (A.) 



thorough  training  as  a  swordsman  under  the  tuition  of  a  Tengu  Sojobo.  Benkei 
then  became  the  most  faithful  follower  of  his  victor,  with  whose  story  his  own 
becomes  linked  till  the  end.  The  fight  on  the  Gojo  Bridge  is  often  met  with 
especially  on  Tsuba,  and  is  sometimes  tersely  suggested  by  the  simple  design  of  a 
pecular  bridge  post.  One  of  the  most  celebrated  of  Benkei's  own  exploits  is  the 
carrying  away  of  the  bell  of  Miidera  (see  above),  which  he  wanted  to  take  to 
Hiyeisan,  and  which  he  actually  took  away  on  his  shoulder  with  the  beam  still 
attached,  and  his  paper  lantern  acting  as  a  balance  weight.  As  soon  as  Benkei 
reached  Hiyeizan,  he  began  to  strike  the  bell  with  the  other  Yamabushis,  but  the 
faintest  of  sounds  could  only  be  obtained,  like  a  dismal  wail,  till  under  the 
repeated  blows  it  grew  louder  and  louder,  distinctly  uttering  "  Miidera  ye  Yuko" 
("I  want  to  return  to  Miidera  .  .  .  ! ").  Benkei,  in  a  rage  shouldered  the  bell  again, 
dropped  it  on  the  edge  of  the  mountain,  and  giving  it  a  running  kick,  sent  it 
back  all  the  way  down  to  the  very  door  of  the  Miidera  monastery.  A  less 
romantic  version  says  that  he  made  such  noise  with  the  bell  for  a  whole  night 
that  the  Abbot  beseeched  him  to  return  it,  and  he  did  so,  on  condition  of  his 
being  given  as  much  Miso  soup  as  he  could  swallow  :  a  boiler  five  feet  wide  ! 

When  Yoshitsune  was  compelled  to  escape  from  his  half-brother  Yoritomo, 
by  flying  from  place  to  place,  he  determined  to  seek  refuge  in  the  castle  of 
HIDEHIRA  the  Daimio  of  Oshu,  whence  he  proceeded  with  Benkei  and  two  others, 
in  the  disguise  of  Yamabushis.  They  found  their  way  stopped  in  Kaga,  by  a 
barrier  which  had  been  erected  at  ATAKA  (San  no  Kuchi),  and  which  was  guarded 
by  a  troop  of  Yoritomo's  men  under  the  command  of  SAYEMON  TOGASHI,  who 
refused  to  allow  them  to  pass  through.  Benkei  remonstrated  with  the  only  result 
that  Sayemon  threatened  to  behead  the  whole  party.  Feining  resignation  to  this 
fate  Benkei  and  his  companions  began  praying  to  prepare  for  death,  thus 
impressing  Sayemon,  who  afraid  to  blunder,  asked  whether  they  had  not 
some  proof  of  their  bona  fides.  Benkei  seized  the  opportunity  by  drawing  from 
his  sleeve  a  roll,  which  he  began  to  read,  taking  care  not  to  let  Sayemon  look 
too  closely  at  it.  The  document  purported  to  be  a  letter  from  the  Abbot  of 
HOKOJI  commanding  them  to  collect  monies  for  the  reconstruction  of  the  Todai 
temple  of  Nara ;  Sayemon  who  according  to  the  Shako  Bukuro,  was  aware  of 
their  identity,  appeared  to  be  satisfied,  when  one  of  his  party  whispered  to  him 



pointing  out  Yoshitsune.  Benkei,  equal  to  the  occasion,  swiftly  turned,  and 
reviling  Yoshitsune  for  what  he  styled  irreverent  demeanour,  gave  him  a  stiff 
beating  and  apologized  to  Sayemon  for  the  disgraceful  conduct  of  that  young 
monk,  thus  succeeding  in  getting  through  the  gate.  This  is  known  as  the 
Kan  Jin  Cho  (subscription  list)  episode.  At  some  previous  time,  when  Yoritomo 
had  sent  Tosabo  Shoshun  to  murder  Yoshitsune  by  stealth,  Benkei  discovered 
him  and  brought  him  to  the  presence  of  his  master. 

He  is  also  shown  attaching,  by  order  of  Yoshitsune,  a  notice  to  the  plum 
tree  of  Amagasaki,  which  had  been  the  subject  of  a  poem  of  the  Emperor 
Nintoku's.  Benkei  is  often  represented  with  seven  weapons,  swords,  bow  and 
arrow,  axe,  kanabo,  etc.  Benkei  died  erect,  pierced  by  numberless  arrows, 
on  the  bridge  of  the  fortress  of  Takadachi,  in  Oshu,  at  the  battle  of  Koromo 
Gawa,  where  Yoshitsume  was  defeated  by  Fujiwara  Yasuhira  in  1189.  But 
legend  says  that  only  a  dummy  was  on  the  bridge,  and  that  he  escaped  with 
his  master. 

75.  BENTEN  p  %  also  BENTEN  SAMA  and  DAI  BENZAITEN  ^ 
~%  J$.  ]£C>  The  only  female  member  of  the  SniCHi-FuKU-JiN  or  Gods  of  Good 
Fortune,  she  is  the  Goddess  of  learning  and  speech,  the  transformation  of 
SARASVATI,  and  her  attributes  are  the  Dragon  and  HAKUJA,  the  white  serpent 
sometimes  shown  with  the  appearance  of  the  former  :  as  an  old  man  with  white 
eyebrows  and  a  crown.  She  is  also  the  Goddess  of  Love,  and  is  particularly 
worshipped  at  Enoshima,  (in  connection  with  this  temple,  see  the  Story  of  Hojo 
Tokimasa)  and  in  the  islands  of  Chikubushima,  Miyajima  (Itsukushima). 

Benten  has  fifteen  sons :  the  fifteen  youths  (Jingo  Dojii)  Aikio,  Hanki, 
Hikken,  Guiba,  Inyaku,  Jusha,  Keisho,  Konsai,  Kwantai,  Sanyo,  Sensha, 
Shusen,  Shomo,  Tochiu,  and  Zensai  (q.v.) 

Benten  is  variously  depicted  with  eight  hands,  vajra  hilted  sword  and 
chakra,  rope,  axe,  bow  and  arrow,  as  the  Happi  Benten,  and  the  Kongo  mio 
Benzaiten,  or  merely  as  Dai  Benzai  ten  with  the  sword  and  Tama.  Her 
worship  replaced  that  of  Itsukushima  (daughter  of  Susano-o),  subsequently  to 
the  introduction  of  the  Shingon  sect  by  Kobodaishi.  (See  Anderson  and 
Butsu  Dzo  Dzui.) 



Benten  is  also  called  Kotokuten  (Kung  Te)  or  Goddess  of  meritorious  works 
and  Ako  mio-on-ten,  Goddess  of  the  marvellous  voice. 

A  popular  story  quoted  by  Puini  (II  sette  genii  della  felicita)  says  that 
Bunsho,  daughter  of  Shimmiyosu  Daimiojin  prayed  to  Benten  to  grant  her 
male  heirs.  One  day  she  gave  birth  to  500  eggs,  and  afraid  least  some  monster 
might  issue  from  the  eggs,  she  had  them  placed  in  a  basket  and  put  in  the 
Rinzugawa  near  by.  A  fisherman  lower  down  rescued  them  from  the  stream, 
and  set  them  in  warm  sand  to  hatch ;  great  was  his  astonishment  a  few  days 
later,  at  finding  instead  of  chicks,  a  crowd  of  boys.  The  poor  man  asked  the 
advice  of  the  head  man,  who  advised  him  to  seek  help  from  the  charitable  lady 
Bunsho,  and  thus  the  boys  were  returned  to  their  progenitor,  educated  as 
befitted  their  station,  and  their  mother  was  deified. 

76.  BEN   WA  ~j\  ^Q.    Chinese  sage,  shown  on  one  side  of  a  river,  with  a 
jade  stone,  whilst  on  the  other,  a  Prince  looks  at  him.     He  brought  the  stone 
to  the  King,  who  would  not  believe  it  was  jade,  owing  to  its  size,  and  sentenced 
him  as  an  impostor,  but  Benwa  stood  his  ground,  and  after  repeated  audiences, 
convinced  the  Prince  of  the  purity  of  the  gem. 

77.  BIDORI.    (See  the  Tongue  cut  Sparrow.) 

78.  BIMBO  j^  2>,.     Bimbo  was  a  poor  farmer  of   Hakuzan  in   Echizen, 
whose  worldly  possessions  after  twenty  years  of  unremitting  toil,  were  barely 
three-quarter  of  an  acre  of  land,  and  who,  having  no  son,  wished  to  adopt  a  boy, 
One  day,  as  he  was  leaving  the  field,  a  storm  broke  out,  and  lightning  fell  at 
his  very  feet,  dazzling  him.    After  many  invocations  to  the  Gods,  he  was  starting 
for  home,  when  he  noticed  a  rosy  little  boy  lying  on  the  ground,  whom  he  picked 
up  and  'took  to  his  wife.     They  called  the  baby  RAITARO  :  The  first  born  of  the 
Thunder  God,  a  Gift  from  RAJJIN.     Prosperity  followed,  and  Bimbo  changed  his 
name  to  KANEMOCHI.     When  Raitaro  was  eighteen  years  old,  he  took  the  shape 
of  a  dragon  and  flew  away  towards  a  castle  shaped  group  of  clouds,  far  away 
above  the  hills.     When  Kanemochi  and  his  wife  were  buried,  their  gravestone 
was  hewn  in  the  shape  of  a  dragon.     (Griffis). 

79.  BIMBOGAMI  J|  ;£  P   The  God  of  poverty,  attended  by  the  poverty 



insect  (Death-watch :  Anobium  notatum)  or  BIMBO  MUSHI,  the  ticking  of  which 
betrays  the  presence  of  the  God.  He  is  black  and  is  the  shadow  of  the  white 
God  of  riches  FUKU  NO  KAMI.  Charms  are  of  very  little  avail  against  his 
presence,  but  one  consists  in  placing  a  copper  rin  in  one  of  those  bamboo  tubes 
used  as  fire  bellows  (Hifikidake),  and  after  reciting  a  magical  sentence,  throwing 
the  lot  out  of  doors.  See  the  story  of  ENJOBO.  (Hearn). 

80.  BINGA  CHO  H  Hm  J|,  "  Angels,"  (See  GARIO). 

81.  BINGO  NO  SABURO  ft  $£  H  MR.  (See  KOJIMA  TAKANORI). 

82.  BINSON  PH  Jf|.     The  Chinese  paragon  of  filial  virtue  MIN  SUN  who  is 
also  named  in  Japanese  SHIKEN.     He  had  a  step-mother  with  two  sons  of  her  own, 
who  treated  him  badly,  left  him  half  starving,  and  clothed  in  rags.     Once  when 
he  drove  his  father's  wagon,  he  was  so  weak  that  he  could  not  keep  the  reins  in  his 
hands,  and  his  father  discovered  the  ill  use  he  had  to  stand.     He  then  proposed  to 
divorce  his  wife,  but  MIN  SUN  intervened  saying  that  it  would  be  better  for  him 
to  die  of  cold  and  hunger  than  to  let  his  step-mother  and  two  half-brothers  be 
driven  away.     It  is  said  that  the  wretched  woman  reformed  her  ways. 

83.  BINZURU  H[  Hf  JH   (JIKAKU   DAISHI).      One    of    the  sixteen  Arhats 
(Pindola)  who  broke  his  vow  of  chastity  by  remarking  on  the  beauty  of  a  female, 
and  is  accordingly  excluded  from  the  circle,  and  his  statues  left  outside  the 
chancel.     Buddha  gave  him  the  power  of  healing,  and  people  go  and  rub  the 
part  of  his  statue  corresponding  to  the  part  of  their  own  body  which  is  in  need 
of  cure.     He  is  said  to  have  been  a  retainer  of  the  King  Udayama,  and  is  often 
confused  with  Ikkaku  Sennin  and  with  Kume  no  Sennin. 

Binzuru's  name  is  also  given  as  Hatsuratasha  in  the  Butsu  dzo  dzui  and 
various  legends  relating  to  him  make  of  this  fallen  Arhat  the  Wandering  Jew 
of  Buddhism.  Indeed  its  story  has  been  discussed  under  that  title  in  Nature 
(1895),  and  later  in  Notes  and  Queries  by  Mr.  Minakata  Kumagusu  (1899- 

84.  BISHAMON  TEN  ?4t  ^  H  ^C  (TAMONKEN),  the  equivalent  of  KUVERA 
the  Hindoo  God  of  riches,  is  also  the  God  of   wealth    in  the  Chinese  Pantheon. 
He  is  one  of  the  Shichi  Fuku-jin,  and  also  belongs  to  the  Jiu-ni-O  (Twelve  Deva 



(Cotlccttons  of  Sltitzo  I'Ctito  and  the  Author) 

trMI    ROZU 


Kings),  and  is  shown  in  full  armour,  with  a  fierce  expression,  carrying  in  his  right 
hand  a  small  pagoda  shaped  shrine,  and  in  the  left  a  lance.  The  latter  attribute 
is  responsible  for  his  erroneous  description  amongst  the  Gods  of  war. 

Identical  with  Vaisramana,  the  Maharajah  of  the  west  he  is  one  of  the  Shi 
Tenno,  and  he  saved  the  life  of  Shotoku  Taishi,  in  the  latter's  holy  war  against 
the  enemy  of  Buddhism  Moriya.  According  to  tradition,  Shotoku  Taishi  had  in 
his  helmet  figures  of  the  four  Maharajah's,  and  Bishamon  appeared  to  him  in 
battle  as  a  venerable  old  man. 

85.  BLIND   MEN,   earn   their  living  as   Shampooers,  money  lenders  and 
musicians.     When  addicted  to  the  first  occupation  they  are  called  Amma  San, 
and  they  form  an  unending  theme  for  funny  carvings  or  other  artistic  presentment, 
either  single  with  a  huge  sponge,  or  in  pairs  with  all  their  working  paraphernalia, 
their  whistles  and  sticks,  or  at  work  on  a  patient,  and  often  in  humorous  groups. 

Blind  men  feeling  an  elephant  is  a  common  subject,  and  there  is  a  story  that 
once  an  Indian  elephant  having  been  brought  to  Japan,  a  party  of  blind  people 
went  to  feel  it,  and  could  not  agree  in  their  opinions  of  the  nature  of  the 
monster,  finding  it  like  a  dagger,  a  snake,  the  trunk  of  a  tree,  as  they  touched  the 
tusks,  the  trunk  or  the  legs  of  the  animal.  And  a  moral  is  deduced  therefrom, 
not  to  judge  of  anything  on  the  impression  caused  by  parts  only,  instead  of  the 
whole.  The  patron  of  the  blind  is  KAGEKIYO,  and  their  headman  holds  an  official 
diploma  and  the  title  Kengyo. 

86.  BOEI  ^  ^  (SENNIN),  ascended  to  heaven  in  a  cloud,  in  the  fourth 
year  of  Shogen,  in  the  reign  of  Sen  of  the  Kan  dynasty.     His  brothers  KI-I  and 
SHIKWA  then  resigned  their  respective  governorships  of  Suikwa  and  Bui,  and 
went  to  the  eastern  mounts  where  he  instructed  them,  (sitting  on  a  cloud). 

87.  BOKKO  ?fC  £  (SENNIN),  controlled  the  inhabitants  of  fairyland  and 
superintended  the  magic  of  the  world.     He  is  represented  standing  on  a  terrace 
from  which  on  the  day  of  Tei-U,  he  looked  over  Tenko. 

88.  BOKU-O  ^  f|  3£  (See   MUHWANG).      Fifth  sovereign  of    the    fifth 
dynasty  of  CHOW  in  China,  reigned  from  1001  till  947  B.C.,  and  his  history  is 
shrouded  in  legend.     Two  episodes  are  most  often  chronicled  ;  one  his  journey  to 



visit  Sei  Wang  Mu  (Seiobo)  in  the  Kwen-lun  mountains  when  but  seventeen  years 
old,  the  other  his  expedition  against  the  tribes  of  Southern  China,  in  a  war 
chariot  driven  by  Tsao-Fu,  and  the  eight  horses  of  which  carried  him  "wherever 
wheel-ruts  ran  or  hoofs  had  trodden."  These  eight  horses  are  also  fairly  often 
met  with  in  Japanese  art. 

89.  BOMO  7$  H!  or  MAO-MENG  of  Kanyo,  one  of  the  Sennins,  shown 
standing  on  the  head  of  a  dragon,  was  a  servant  and  pupil  of  Kikoku  Sensei. 
He  went  to  mount  Ko,  and  was  carried  to  heaven  by  a  dragon  on  the  day  of 
Koshi,  the  gth  month,  the  3oth  year  of  the  beginning  of  the  Shin  dynasty. 

go.  BOKUSH1  |{|  -f-  of  So,  noticed  in  his  sleep  that  a  man  from  mount 
Sayu  was  reciting  books,  and  heaping  clothes  upon  him.  Once  he  watched  and 
when  the  stranger  came  he  asked  him  whether  he  was  the  spirit  of  the  mountain, 
and  if  so  to  teach  him  the  secret  of  immortality.  The  stranger  consented  and 
gave  him  a  sacred  book. 

He  is  depicted  rising  from  his  bed  to  greet  the  spirit. 

91.  BRIDGES— See  :- 

Banyu  Gawa,  Gensuke  (Matsue  Bridge), 

Ichirai  Hoshi,  Kakudaitsu 

Seta  Bridge,  and  Tawara  Toda,         Rohan 

Benkei  (Gojo  Bridge),  Tanabata. 

In  Chinese  romance,  the  LAN  K'lAO  jj^  ^  or  INDIGO  BRIDGE  on  CH'ANG 
NGAN  is  famous  and  emblematic  of  faithful  love,  because,  once  Wei  Sheng  Kao, 
having  been  given  an  appointment  under  the  bridge  by  a  woman,  was  overtaken 
by  a  sudden  flood,  but  let  himself  be  drowned  clasping  a  pillar  rather  than 
abandon  his  tryst,  and  the  Sennin  P'ei  Hang  under  the  Tang  dynasty,  fell  in  love 
with  a  girl  who  lived  near  that  bridge,  and  of  whose  name  he  had  once  dreamt. 
The  Sennin  had  however,  to  spend  a  month  in  search  of  a  jade  mortar  and  pestle 
for  the  girl's  mother,  before  the  wedding  could  take  place. 

92.  BUGAKU   |8|  =H|  or  SAREGAKU,  a  warrior  dance,  anterior  to  the  No. 
Amongst  other  books  see  Bugaku-no-Zu  (1840)  by  Takashima  Chiharu. 

93.  BUJUTSU  (CHO-)  $1  ft  (See  Yojo). 


BISIIAMON    (<;.//..V.) 


BISHAMO.N    (ir.C.,/.) 

BOMO    (If.L.K.) 

BUWO   («'./..y;.) 

BUSHISHI    (//'./.. K.) 

HORSES   OF    BOKUO   (./.) 


94.  BUNGORO  ;>£  jS.  115  (DAIGOZAN-).    The  son  of  BUZAYEMON,  born  at 
Murakami   in   1788,  weighing  then  3%  kilogs,  he  grew  to  two  feet  high  by  the 
time  he  was  nine  months  old,  and  as  a  monstrosity  was  daily  paraded  in  the 
procession  of  wrestlers  before  the  beginning  of  their  matches  (or  Dohyo-iri).     It 
is  sometimes  quoted  as  an  illustration  of  a  large  but  weak  thing,  like  the  big 
trunk  of  the  Aralia  Edulis  aimed  at  in  the  Japanese  proverb  "  Udo  no  Tai-boku." 

95.  BUNKI  MANDARA  ^  H  J|  P£  JH-      When  CHUJO-HIME  41  $f  #15 
daughter   of   Toyonari    Fujiwara   became  a   nun,    in    763,   at  the  monastry  of 
Tayema  Dera  she  prayed  ardently  that  the  Boddhisatvas  might  appear  to  her 
in  the  flesh.     At  last  they  granted  her  prayer,  and  in  a  night  one  of  them  weaved 
before  her,  with  lotus  fibres,  a  picture  of  Paradise,  fifteen  feet  square,  in  a  room 
nine  feet  wide. 

96.  BUMBUKU  CHAGAMA   £  jg  '£  |£.     The  Lucky  Tea  Kettle. 

This  is  one  of  the  Badger  stories  and  relates  to  an  old  tea  kettle,  the  property 
of  a  priest  of  the  temple  of  Morinji  in  the  town  of  Tatebayashi  near  Tokyo. 
One  day  as  the  priest  was  putting  the  kettle  on  the  fire,  he  suddenly  saw  four  legs 
appear  at  the  bottom,  the  spout  change  into  the  neck  and  head  of  a  badger, 
and  a  long  bushy  tail  shoot  out  at  the  back.  The  kettle  also  became  covered  with 
hair,  and  assuming  the  shape  of  a  badger,  started  running  round  the  temple. 
After  a  difficult  chase  it  was  secured,  and  placed  in  a  box,  where  it  resumed  its 
normal  shape.  The  priest  sold  it  for  twenty  vin  to  a  tinker  who,  waking  up  in 
the  night  saw  the  kettle  walking  about  the  room.  On  the  advice  of  a  friend  he 
started  as  a  showman  to  exhibit  this  accomplished  kettle,  and  after  making  a 
fortune,  took  it  back  to  the  temple,  where  it  was  laid  amongst  the  treasures. 

97.  BUNSHO  3t  Jit-  The  Chinese  Sennin  WEN-SIAO,  generally  shown  writh 
his  wife  SHINRETSU  (Ts'Ai  LWAN),  daughter  of  the  paragon  of  filial  virtue  Wu 
Meng  ;  both  of  them  riding  tigers  which  carried  them  to  heaven. 

98.  BUSHISHI   j£  jj^  i-     The    Sennin    Wu-Sm-TszE,   generally  shown 
ascending  to  heaven  on  an  open  scroll,  as  he  was  wont  to  ride  on  a  magic  blue 
scroll  wherever  he  pleased. 



99.  BUTTERFLY  DANCE.     A  woman's  dance  performed  with  butterfly 
wings  attaced  to  the  shoulders.     Its  invention  is  often  attributed  with  that  of 
several  other  dances  to  the  Chinese  P'AN  FEI,   "  in  whose  footsteps  grew  the 

100.  BUWO  ^  3E  (Wu  WANG).     Founder  of  the  SHU  (Cnow)  ^  dynasty, 
who  in  the  semi-legendary  period  (1069  B.C.),  led  the  revolt  against  SHO  (SHANG). 
At  the  battle  of  Bokuya  the  opponent  general  Hoso,  cut  him  down  with  a  spear, 
but  was  put  to  flight  by  a  golden  dragon  with  eight  claws.     Hoso  was  captured 
by  Sangisei  and  Nankinwatsu,  but  Buwo  granted  him  his  life  on  account  of  his 
bravery.      When   however  he   saw  the  troops  of  Sho  defeated,  Hoso  beheaded 

101.  CARP  $$[  (Koi).     Often  represented  leaping  a  waterfall,  in  allusion  to 
a  Chinese  story  of  a  sturgeon  of  the  Hang- Ho,  which  having  swam  up  the  river, 
crossed  the  rapids  of  Lung  Men  (Dragon  Gate),  on  the  third  day  of  the  third 
month,  and  itself  became  a  dragon. 

The  carp  is  an  attribute  of  Kinko,  Ebisu,  Kensu. 

102.  CASH.      Copper    cash    strung  together  are  often  seen  as  netsuke. 
When  fifteen,  they  represent  the  customary  offering  to  the  Gods  of   fifteen  new 
coins,  made  at  the  time  of  every  new  issue  from  the  mint. 

Sixteen  are  emblematic  of  the  sixteenth  day  of  the  sixth  month,  when  from 
from  old  times  sixteen  cakes  were  eaten  as  a  charm  against  pestilence ;  poor 
people  who  could  not  afford  sixteen  cakes,  had  sixteen  cash  worth,  and  in  memory 
of  the  introduction  of  the  Kago  Tsuho  (Chinese  copper  cash)  in  1244  by  Go  Saga 
Tenno,  the  day  is  called  Go  Kajo. 

103.  CASTLE  (See  AIR  CASTLE). 

104.  CATS  3f§.   Japanese  cats  are  like  Manx  cats,  with  stumps  instead  of 
tails,  and  a  long  tailed  one  is  accordingly  credited  with  supernatual  powers  (See 
the  story  of  O  TOYO,  the  goblin  Cat  of  Nabeshima).     Cats  of  three  colors  are 
called  Mike-Neko,  and  are  considered  lucky,  especially  by  sailors,  who  believe 
them  capable  of  keeping  the  0  Bake  (Honorable  ghosts)  away.     If  a  cat  is  left 



with  a  dead  body,  the  corpse  will  get  up  and  dance.     At  the  time  of  Buddha's 
death  (Nehon  no  Shako)  all  the  animals  wept  with  the  exception  of  the  Cat. 

One  meets  sometimes  with  representations  of  two  cats,  one  male  and  one 
female  (0-han  Chio-e-mon-o-michiuki)  representing  the  story  of  two  lovers  who 
eloped,  and  were  transformed  into  cats.  The  Neko  Bake  was  an  old  cannibal 
woman  haunting  the  old  houses  of  Okasaki  on  the  Tokaido  road. 

Maneki  Neko  is  the  Beckoning,  bewitching  kitten. 

A  story  of  two  cats  is  given  in  Mitford's  tales.  A  man  had  a  daughter  who 
was  continuously  followed  by  an  old  torn  cat,  and  thinking  the  torn  might  be 
somehow  in  love  with  his  daughter  and  trying  to  cast  a  spell  upon  her,  he  decided 
to  kill  him.  But  at  night,  the  cat  came  and  told  him  that  really  it  was  an  old 
rat  living  in  the  loft  which  was  in  love  with  the  girl,  and  he  dogged  her  footsteps 
to  protect  her.  He  further  advised  him  to  borrow  a  cat  named  Buchi  belonging 
to  some  Ajikawa  man,  so  that  with  its  help  they  might  kill  the  rat.  The  old  man 
followed  the  cat's  advice,  and  during  the  same  night  was  awakened  by  a  great 
noise,  to  find  that  the  rat  was  nearly  too  strong  for  the  two  cats.  He  thereupon, 
cut  its  throat.  The  two  cats  however,  soon  died  of  their  wounds,  and  were  buried 
in  the  temple. 

NABESHIMA  NO  NEKO  f$  H  ©  $f§.  One  of  the  Daimios  of  Hizen 
had  a  favourite  named  O  TOYO,  who  one  night  was  killed  by  a  large 
cat,  the  brute  burying  her  thereafter  in  the  gardens,  and  assuming  her  shape,  to 
harass  the  prince,  whose  life  ebbed  away  day  by  day.  His  councilors  decided 
that  a  guard  of  a  hundred  men  should  every  night  watch  his  sleep,  but  this 
proved  ineffective,  as  they  were  driven  to  sleep  irresistibly  towards  the  ninth  hour. 
It  was  then  decided  to  get  the  priest  Ruiten  of  Miyo-In  to  recite  prayers,  with 
a  view  to  curing  the  prince.  One  night,  this  priest  noticed  a  soldier  praying  to 
Buddha,  and  on  enquiry,  found  that  he  was  praying  to  the  same  end  as  himself, 
because  being  of  too  small  a  rank,  he  could  not  be  allowed  to  watch  in  the 
Daimio's  room.  Ruiten  arranged  that  this  very  loyal  Ito  Soda  should  watch 
that  same  night.  At  the  usual  time,  all  the  retainers  succombed  to  that  strange 
slumber  except  Ito,  who,  as  he  felt  sleep  overcoming  him,  placed  on  the  mats  a 
square  of  oiled  paper,  and  dug  his  ko-katana  in  his  thigh,  turning  it  in  the  wound 



as  sleep  grew  upon  him.  O  Toyo's  double,  came  and  expressed  her  surprise  at 
this  loyal  spirit,  but  thanks  to  his  watchfulness  she  was  unable  to  harass  the 
prince,  either  then  or  during  the  following  nights.  She  then  desisted  from 
coming  into  the  room  again,  and  thereafter  the  men  did  not  feel  this  over- 
powering sleep.  Ito  expressed  his  opinion  that  this  was  proof  of  the  apparent 
O  Toyo's  witchcraft,  and  induced  Isahaya  Buzen,  the  Daimio's  chief  councillor, 
to  set  an  armed  watch  around  the  castle  whilst  he  went  to  attack  the  witch  in 
her  own  room  ;  when  after  fighting  him  for  some  time  with  a  halberd,  she  took 
the  form  of  a  huge  cat  with  two  tails,  and  escaped,  to  be  later  caught  amongst 
the  mountains. 

105.  CATFISH  jH;.     (See  NAMAZU),  EARTHQUAKE  FISH,  Jishin  uwo. 

106.  CHA  NO  YU  ^  0)  H|.     Reduced  to  a  bare  definition,  the  Cha  no yu, 
tea  ceremony,  consists  in  the  meeting  of  several  guests  in  a  room  of  simple  con- 
struction, to  partake  each  of  a  sip  of  a  cup  of  tea  specially  prepared  by  their 
host,  in  a  solemn  manner,  according  to  certain  intricate  rules. 

The  tea  plant  was  imported  from  China  in  the  VHIth  and  IXth  centuries  by 
Dengyo  Daishi  and  Kobodaishi,  but  its  cultivation,  though  encouraged  by  Saga 
Tenno,  did  not  flourish  until  the  XHIth  century,  when  Yeisai  attempted  to  convert 
the  Shogun  Sanetomo  to  its  use  in  place  of  the  intoxicating  liquors  to  which 
this  ruler  was  addicted.  Shortly  after,  a  Buddhist  monk  brought  from  China  a 
complete  set  of  utensils  then  used  in  preparing  the  ordinary  tea  infusion,  and 
these  impliments  became  the  property  of  the  famous  Ashikaga  Takauji.  By  that 
time  the  plantations  of  tea  trees  made  in  Seburiyama  by  Yeisai  (Senko)  and  his 
friend  Myo-ye  in  Uji,  had  prospered,  and  when  tea  drinking  became  fashionable 
amongst  the  leading  classes,  Shuko,  priest  of  Shomiyoji,  was  entrusted  by 
Yoshimasa  with  the  drafting  of  a  code  of  rules  to  be  observed  in  the  preparation 
of  tea.  It  was  Shuko  who  introduced  the  method  of  grinding  the  tea  to  a 
powder,  a  practice  which  is  followed  to  this  day,  and  has  received  the  name  of 
Ma  cha  (powder  tea). 

Kitanuki  Dochin  and  Takeno  Showo  followed  Shuko  as  tea  experts  (Chajin), 
and  their  pupil  SEN  NO  RIKIU  became  attached  in  that  capacity  to  Oda  Nobunaga, 
and  later  to  Toyotomi  Hideyoshi. 



Rikiu  codified  the  rules  of  the  Cha  no  yu  to  a  greater  nicety  of  detail  than 
his  predecessors,  and,  perhaps  owing  to  the  depleted  state  of  the  country  after 
long  internal  wars,  perhaps  also  from  purely  sesthetic  motives  connected  with 
the  highly  religious  associations  of  the  Cha  no  yu,  he  decreed  that  the  utensils 
were  to  be  without  intrinsic  value,  and  the  Cha  no  yu  rooms,  then  called  Sukiya, 
small  (four-and-a-half  mats),  simple  and  decorated  in  the  plainest  possible  style. 

The  priests  of  the  Zen-Shu  sect  had  from  the  beginning  been  the  apostles  of 
the  Cha  no  yu  they  became  in  time  besides  Chajin,  art  critics,  to  whom  were 
submitted  pictures,  pottery,  carvings,  by  those  desirous  to  obtain  expert  opinion  : 
to  this  state  of  afiairs  the  learned  Keeper  of  the  Musee  d'Ennery,  Mr.  E.  Deshayes 
attributes  the  taste  of  Japanese  for  plain  pottery  in  a  lecture  delivered  at  the 
Musee  Guimet,  in  January,  1898. 

It  is  chronicled  that  the  simplicity  which  had  at  first  been  a  natural  con- 
dition of  the  Cha  no  ym  became  later  affected  and  that  a  sentimental  value  was 
attached  to  tea  bowls,  bamboo  whisks,  kettles,  etc.,  altogether  beyond  sane 
limits.  It  is  questionable  however  whether  the  craze  reached  its  apex  before 
the  sale  held  in  1899  at  Tokyo  and  quoted  by  Brinkley,  when  a  bamboo  flower 
vase  reached  over  five  hundred  yen,  and  a  Kakemono  on  which  the  two  characters, 
Hei-Shin,  had  been  written  by  a  literati  of  the  Tang  dynasty,  nearly  touched 
sixteen  hundred  yen.  .  .  .  An  example  worthily  followed  by  western  amateurs 
in  their  quest  for  archaic  Japanese  works  of  art. 

The  rules  of  Cha  no  yu,  however,  altered  in  the  course  of  time  until  there  are 
at  present  several  schools  of  Chajin,  whose  elaborate  performances  differ  by 
details  of  more  or  less  importance.  Two  kinds  of  tea  are  drunk  :  the  Usu  cha  or 
weak  tea,  and  the  Koi  cha  or  thick  tea,  said  to  resemble  weak  spinach. 

The  general  programme  of  the  ceremony  is  as  follows : — (i)  The  host 
prepares  the  room  ;  (2)  The  guests,  on  arrival,  assemble  in  a  Pavilion  in  a  garden  ; 
(3)  The  guests  are  called  by  means  of  a  wooden  gong,  they  wash  their  hands,  and 
enter  the  special  room  (Cha  shitsu)  through  a  very  small  and  low  opening  ;  (4)  The 
guests  congratulate  the  host,  and  partake  of  a  light  repast ;  (5)  The  guests 
retire  to  the  garden  ;  (6)  They  re-enter  the  room  ;  (7)  The  host  brings  forth 
from  his  kitchen  (Mizu-ya)  the  various  implements  which  are  duly  admired  one 
by  one  in  rotation  and  their  artistic  value  commented  upon ;  (8)  The  host 



places  in  a  tea  bowl  a  spoonful  of  ground  Uji  tea,  pours  water  over  it,  whisks 
the  mixture  to  a  frothy  mass,  and  hands  it  to  the  chief  guest  who  raises  the  bowl 
to  the  level  of  his  forehead,  lowers  it,  drinks,  lowers  it  again,  brings  it  to  the 
level  at  which  he  received  it  from  the  host,  wipes  it,  passes  it  to  the  next  guest. 
The  bowl  makes  a  complete  turn  on  itself  during  the  several  motions  indicated 
above.  When  the  host  receives  it  back,  he  drains  it,  apologizes  for  the  poorness 
of  the  brew,  and  after  wiping  the  bowl  passes  it  round  again  for  examination, 
and  his  guests  leave  with  due  ceremony. 

In  summer  a  portable  furnace  is  used  to  prepare  the  boiling  water,  in  winter 
the  fire-place  in  the  floor  of  the  room  is  made  use  of.  The  Tamagawa  River 
famous  for  the  passage  of  Narihira  is  associated  with  a  Cha  no  yu  garden  called 
Tamagawa  Cha  Niwa  in  memory  of  a  chajin  Rosha  who  lived  near  that  river. 

A  more  detailed  account  of  the  Cha  no  yu  can  be  found  in  the  fifth  volume 
of  the  Trans.  Japan  Society,  by  W.  Harding  Smith ;  a  historical  sketch  in  the 
preface  of  Von  Langegg  Thee  Geschichten,  and  a  general  article  in  "  Things 

As  the  implements  of  the  tea  ceremony  are  of  frequent  occurence  in  art, 
our  illustration  has  been  prepared  chiefly  from  the  Nikon  Fuzoku  Shi,  and 
the  following  list  gives  the  names  of  the  various  utensils,  for  the  convenience 
of  collectors. 

r.     CHA  IRE,  Tea  caddy. 

2.  CHA  IRE  FUKURO,  Silk  bag  for  same. 

3.  FUTA  OKI,  Stand  for  kettle  cover. 

4.  CHA  SEN,  Tea  whisk. 

5.  HABOKI,  Feather  brush  for  ashes. 

6.  KOGO,  Incense  box. 

7.  GOTOKU,  Kettle  holder. 

8.  HAI  NO  NABE,  Ash  box. 

9.  CHA  WAN,  Tea  bowl. 
10.     IDO  CHA  WAN,  id. 

n.     FUKUSA,  Silk  wrapper. 

12.  CHAKIN,  Tea  napkin. 

13.  CHASAZI  or  CHAHI,  Spoon  shaped  tea  measure. 


CHA   NO   VU 


TEA   GATHERER    (./.) 

CHAJIN    (1I.S.T.) 

CHAJIN    (/!/.£.) 
CHAJIN    EXPERT   (f.D.) 


14.  HISHAKU,  Water  dipper. 

15.  HIBASHI,  Fire  tongues  (used  like  chopsticks). 

1 6.  KWAN,  Split  rings  to  lift  the  kettle. 

17.  RAKU,  Nane  of  ware  (Cha  wan). 

1 8.  KAMA,  Kettle. 

19.  FURO,  Stove  used  in  summer. 

20.  Mizu  ZASHI,  Fresh  water  jar. 

21.  HAIJO,  Tool  used  in  arranging  the  ashes  with  a  pattern  on  the  surface. 

22.  CHIZUKEI,  Bamboo  flower  stand. 

22A.  KAKE  HANA  IKE,  Hanging  flower  basket. 

23.  JIZAI,  "Pot  hook"  to  hang  kettle  above  fire. 

24.  KAMA  SHIKI,  Bamboo  mat  for  kettle. 

25.  SETTO,  Cover  for  stove. 

26.  KANKEI,  Lamp  stand. 

27.  Ro,  Fire-place  iron  frame,  for  winter  use. 

28.  SUMI  TORI,  Charcoal  basket. 

29.  SUKIA  ANDO,  Paper  lantern. 

30.  Mizu  KOBOSHI,  Slop  basin. 

31.  CHA  Usu,  Tea  mill. 

A  common  enough  type  of  netsuke  represents  the  Tea  gatherer,  a  bonny 
little  woman  in  gay  clothes,  carrying  a  basket  of  green  leaves  in  her  hands, 
another  common  subject  is  a  gibe  at  the  Chajin,  who  is  represented  asleep  on  his 
tea  mill. 

It  is  reported  of  Itakura  Shigemune  that  when  he  was  called  upon  to  try  a 
case  in  which  he  thought  the  personal  appearance  of  the  parties  might  prejudice 
his  mind,  he  sat  behind  a  screen  grinding  tea  whilst  the  litigants  gave  their 

According  to  tradition,  leyasu  desired  to  be  rid  of  Kato  Kiyomasa  and 
ordered  one  of  his  retainers  to  invite  him  to  a  Cha  no  yu,  in  which  the  tea  was 
mixed  with  poison,  the  retainer  duly  died,  but  some  say  that  Kato  Kiyomasa 
escaped  death. 

It  is  told  of  Rikiu,  that  once  his  servant  having  swept  the  garden  path 
quite  clean  prior  to  a  Cha  no  yu,  the  Chajin  went  out,  and  silently  shook  a  tree, 



the  leaves  of  which  scattering  on  the  path  reestablished  its  natural  appearance. 
He  was  allowed  to  make  a  tea  ceremony  for  himself  before  his  execution. 

107.  CHAN  CHU  ityt  $$i  [M  Ml»  A  Chinese  legend.     Chan  chu  is  the  sacred 
frog  HiA-Mo  symbol  of  the  rainy  moon,  in  earthly  life  she  was  CH'ANG-NGO,  wife 
of  the  archer  How-I.     When  the  moon  was  a  prisoner  in  the  clouds,  and  the  ten 
suns  had  nearly  wrecked  the  world,  How-I  struck  them  with  his  arrows,  and 
delivered  the  moon  ;  in  gratitude,  Seiobo,  gave  him  a  jade  cup  containing  the 
dew  of  Immortality,  but  Ch'ang  Ngo  stole  it  and  flew  to  the  moon,  where  she  was 
at  once  transformed  into  a  frog. 

108.  CHANG-K'IEN.  ?Jt  ^.     Chang  K'ien  was  a  minister  of  the  Chinese 
Emperor  Wu-Ti  of  the  Han  dynasty  about  130  B.C.      He  is  celebrated  for  his 
numerous  journeys  and  embassies,  and  especially  for  his  travels  in  Western  China 
up  to  the  sources  of  the  Yellow  River,  this  journey  being   the  subject  of  the 
following  legend  : 

Chang  K'ien  travelled  for  seven  days  and  nights  up  the  Yellow  River  dis- 
covering vine  trees,  and  meeting  all  the  animals  of  Chinese  Mythology:  the  huge 
tortoises,  the  tiger,  seven  feet  long  and  a  thousand  years  old,  quite  white  and 
bearing  on  its  forehead  the  character  3E  (King),  the  blue  storks  sacred  attendants 
of  Seiobo,  the  Kwei  or  cassia  tree  of  immortality,  ten  thousand  feet  high,  the 
flaming  fruits  of  which  are  more  powerful  than  the  peaches  of  Seiobo,  conferring 
everlasting  life  to  whoever  eats  them  ;  he  saw  the  hare  which  lives  in  the  moon, 
and  the  old  man  who  binds  lover's  feet  ;  finally  on  the  seventh  night  he  noticed 
that  there  were  no  stars  reflected  in  the  waters.  The  following  morning,  near  the 
sources  he  saw  a  woman  dressed  in  silver  cloth  on  which  were  embroidered  figures 
of  stars,  and  who  was  weaving  the  net  of  the  Zodiac.  He  enquired  what  was  her 
name  and  what  was  that  place,  but  she  only  showed  him  her  radiant  shuttle,  telling 
him  to  refer  the  matter  to  the  astrologer  on  his  return.  This  worthy,  Gen  Kum 
Pei  ;|j  ^P,  told  him  that  no  doubt  he  had  been  as  far  as  the  star  Chih  Nil, 
the  spinning  maiden  who,  on  the  seventh  night  of  the  seventh  month  is  allowed 
to  cross  over  the  milky  way,  to  meet  her  lover,  K'ien  Niii,  passing  over  a  bridge 
of  magpies,  (some  others  say  of  red  maple  leaves),  and  that  in  fact  referring  to 
his  observations,  he  had  at  that  very  same  date  noted  a  shooting  star  passing 



near  Chih  Nil.  He  had  therefore  travelled  the  whole  length  of  the  Yellow 
River  as  far  as  the  milky  way,  which  continues  it  into  heaven,  as  decreed  by 
Nil  Kwa. 

The  Chinese  and  Japanese  Repository  says  that  he  brought  to  China  the 
Spinach,  and  that  he  went  south  of  the  Equator,  never  to  return ;  but  his 
oar  was  carried  back  by  a  spirit,  who  dropped  it  from  heaven,  and  stated 
that  the  remainder  of  his  ship  would  soon  follow.  In  allusion  to  his 
journeys,  the  inscription,  "The  sea  is  full  of  propitious  stars,"  is  still  written 
over  the  doors  of  boat  cabins. 

109.     CHANG  LIANG  (See  CHORIO). 
no.     CHAO  YUN  (See  CHOUN). 

in.  CHARMS  (Mamori  fuda)  ^  %\j,  are  carried  by  people,  in  a  small  bag 
the  shape  of  which  is  used  as  a  model  for  netsuke,  and  which  are  called  Mamori 
Bukuro,  or  Kinchaku. 

The  Exorcism  of  Devils  (Oni  Yarai)  is  described  later  on,  the  return  of  the 
Oni  after  being  cast  out  is  prevented  by  driving  in  the  top  joint  of  the  door  frame 
a  wooden  skewer,  passing  through  a  holly  leaf,  and  into  the  split  head  of  which 
is  fixed  the  head  of  a  dried  fish  (Iwashi). 

Hinode  (Sunrise),  grass  if  allowed  to  grow  on  a  roof,  ensures  the  house 
against  fire. 

The  Kusudama  is  a  charm  formed  of  oranges,  white  and  red  flowers,  and 
chrysanthemum  leaves,  used  on  the  boys'  festival  or  Tango  no  Sekku :  The  various 
components  of  the  charm  are  bound  together  by  strings  of  five  colors. 

Amongst  love  charms,  the  ashes  of  the  newt  are  specially  valued,  and  the 
animal  itself  on  being  asked  whether  there  was  any  other  love  philtre,  made  with 
his  toe  a  ring,  meaning  :  only  this  :  Money  ! 

The  Ten  Teri  Bozu  are  rude  figures  of  a  man  and  some  children  cut  out  of 
paper,  which  are  fastened  to  the  doors  of  houses,  or  to  a  species  of  belladonna  to 
obtain  fine  weather. 

Clay  statuettes  of  Hotei  are  bought  by  the  people  on  the  first  horse  day  of  the 
second  month  at  the  temple  of  Inari  at  Miyako ;  if  kept  in  good  order,  on  a 
raised  throne  near  the  kitchen  oven  for  seven  years,  this  is  considered  a  token  of 



good  luck,  the  images  are  then  buried  in  the  garden  of  the  temple,  and  a  new 
series   started. 

Ants  being  unwelcome  visitors,  the  ant  charm  (Ari  yoke)  trades  upon  their 
thrifty  instinct,  and  consists  only  of  a  strip  of  paper  with  the  notice  Ichi  nin  maye, 
jiu  roku  mon,  (each  passer  by  to  pay  sixteen  mon}. 

A  Poem  of  Michizane  was  held  in  great  esteem  in  Kiushu  as  a  protection 
against  the  Kappa  (q.v.). 

Small  Zori  (straw  sandals)  are  hung  in  front  of  doors  to  prevent  children 
from  catching  infantile  diseases. 

Gohei  and  Shimenawa,  identical  with  those  used  in  Shinto  temples,  form 
part  of  the  working  paraphernalia  of  the  Corean  Sorceress.  Sorcery  is 
monopolised  there  by  females. 

Strips  of  paper  or  thin  wooden  laths  with  inscriptions,  or  impressions  of 
sacred  woodcuts,  are  used  as  general  charms.  They  are  obtained  from  temples, 
and  are  placed  above  the  door,  year  after  year. 

Burglars  and  thieves  are  easily  caught  if  one  burns  moxas  on  their  foot- 
prints.    Their  visits  are  avoided  by  pasting  in  the  house  a  print  of  the  Dog  of 
Mitsumine,  or  by  placing  a  kitchen  knife  (hocho)  under  an  inverted  wash  basin, 
.  made  of  brass,  and  called  Kanadarai,  on  the  bottom  of  which  is  placed  a  Zori 
(straw  sandal). 

Unfortunately,  there  is  a  counter  charm  intended  to  bring  sleep  upon  the 
inmates,  and  which  consists  in  the  would-be  thief  performing  in  the  garden  a 
simple  but  indescribable  operation.  The  burning  of  moxas  is  said  to  make  sore 
the  feet  of  the  author  of  the  foot-prints  and  prevent  him  from  fleeing  afar.  It  is 
also  recommended  to  apply  moxas  to  the  getas  (clogs)  of  any  guest  who  remains 
too  long  in  the  house,  bores  being  apparently  common  the  world  over  ;  a  broom 
is  set  upside  down  at  the  same  time,  and  the  unwelcome  visitor  will  then  leave. 

DOG  AND  BABY.  Figures  of  a  dog  and  child,  placed  in  a  room  in  the  raised 
Tokonoma,  are  believed  to  be  a  charm  against  most  evils. 

USHI  TOKI  MAIRI  Q  $f  fa  9  ,  "  Praying  at  the  hour  of  the  Ox "  is  a 
mode  of  incantation  or  envoutement  to  obtain  from  the  Gods  the  speedy  death  of 
an  enemy  or  a  faithless  lover.  The  woman  bent  upon  this  purpose,  goes  at  two 
o'clock  in  the  morning  to  the  local  shrine,  armed  with  a  hammer,  some  nails,  and 


CAT  GHOST   (M.E.) 
CARP  (A  ) 

CHINNAN    (M.E.) 

CHARM   [MITSl'MINK]   (ff.S.T.) 

CHINNAN    (.l/.r.) 
CHIYO'S   BUCKET   (G.H.ff.) 


sometimes  a  straw  doll,  representing  the  doomed  person.  She  drives  the  nails  in 
a  tree  and  prays  for  the  demise  of  her  enemy,  repeating  the  invocations  several 
nights  in  succession.  Usually  the  woman  lets  her  hair  down  her  back,  carries  on 
her  head  an  iron  tripod  with  three  lighted  candles,  and  wears  very  high  clogs. 
See  Bimbogami,  Nanakusa. 

112.  CHENG  (SHE  WANG  Ti)  jgr  rj£  Jl  ^].     Said  to  be  the  son  of  the 
Chinese  Minister  Lu  Pu  WEI,  and  of  the  wife  of  the  Emperor  CHWAN  SIANG  WANG 
whom  he  succeeded  in  247  B.C.     He  is  responsible  for  the  construction  of  the  great 
wall,  and  the  destruction  in  213  B.C.  of  all  the  literary  records,  with  the  exception 
of  a  few  on  medicine,  Feng  Shuy,  and  of  those  which,  according  to  legend,  were 
taken  to  Japan  by  JOFUKU  (Su  She),  though  there  appears  to  be  a  difference  of 
six  years  between  the  two  events.     He  was  highly  superstituous,  and  having  been 
told  that  his  empire  would  be  overthrown  by  Hu,  he  spent  most  of  his  forces  in 
keeping  at  bay  the  northern  tribes  of  barbarians  (Hu),  little  dreaming  that  the 
prophecy  would  be  fulfilled  by  his  own  son,  Hu  Hai. 

A  favorite  representation  shows  him  under  a  pine  tree,  sometimes  as  a  boy, 
(he  mounted  the  throne  when  thirteen  years  old),  in  allusion  to  the  legend  that 
one  day  a  storm  breaking  whilst  he  was  walking  he  ran  for  shelter  under  a 
gnarled  tree,  which  at  once  shot  forth  twigs  and  leaves  to  provide  adequate 
shelter  for  the  august  head. 

113.  CHENG  FEI.  See  CHOHI. 

114.  CHENG  TU  ^  {jlj,  called  the  begging  bowl  priest,  was  a  Chinese 
priest  whose  magic  powers  were  doubted  by  a  magistrate.     In  answer  he  boiled 
some  water  in  his  alms  bowl,  and  from  the  seething  water  he  caused  flowers  to 

115.  CHESTNUTS.      See  Emblems.      Story  of  the  Monkey  and  the  Crab. 
(Tooth- marked),  See  Go-Daigo. 

116.  CHIHAKU|H&.    SeeYojo. 

117.  CHIHAYA=p  J^.    See  OMORI  HIKOHICHI. 

118.  CHINGI  ffi,  f!|,   (leading  an   ox  with  his  wife)  of  Gogun,  learned 



Taoism  in  Shokuchu,  and  acquired  great  merit  in  curing  the  sick.  His  virtue  was 
recognised,  and  Roshi  called  him  to  heaven.  He  ascended  to  the  sky  with  his 
wife  KEISHI  JF  -f  in  broad  daylight,  during  a  frost,  after  which  the  spectators 
below  could  not  see  him,  or  his  wife,  any  more,  but  the  bull  which  was  hitched 
to  their  waggon  remained  in  their  field  marking  the  place  of  their  ascent. 

119.  CHINHAKU  ^  |$,  who  was  also  called  UN-SENSEI  (Mr.  Cloud),  rode 
on  a  donkey,  and  travelled  to  Kwaen  for  pleasure. 

120.  CHINNAN   ^  >fj|).      The   Chinese  Sennin   CH'EN   NAN,   also    called 
SUIKYO  and  NANBOKU,   shown   evoking  a   Dragon   from   a   gourd  or  bowl,  or 
sailing  on  a  large  hat.     Like  many  other  Rishis,  he  is  an  old  man  of  beggarly 
appearance  and  he  was  wont   to    travel    several    hundred  Li  daily  with  his 
hair  flowing  behind  him. 

Legend  has  it  that  he  lived  1,350  years,  mostly  on  dog's  flesh,  making  baskets, 
and  hiding  in  the  dust,  besides  transmuting  metals,  and  concocting  magic  pills. 
Once  passing  through  a  village  in  Sogo,  he  found  the  people  praying  for  rain, 
whereupon  he  thrust  his  stick  into  a  pool  of  dried  mud  in  which  he  detected  the 
presence  of  a  dragon,  and  compelled  the  latter  to  open  the  cataracts  of  heaven 
upon  the  parched  land.  He  is  often  called  the  Dragon  Sennin,  and  his  hat  plays 
the  role  of  a  boat  as  well  as  his  umbrella,  because  he  once  used  it  to  cross  a  river 
as  there  was  nobody  to  ferry  him. 

121.  CHIUYU  ffi  ft,  the  Chinese  CHUNG  YEO  or  TSZE  Lu,  one  of  the  filial 
paragons  who  used  to  carry  ice  blocks  on  his  back  for  the  sustenance  of   his 
parents  in  his  young  age.     He  lived  from  543  to  480  B.C.,  and  was  one  of   the 
disciples  of  Confucius.     According  to  legend,  the  Thunder  God  was  his  father, 
and  he  was  a  very  martial  character. 

122.  CHISHI  (KEISHI),  the  family  name  of  the  Chinese  priest  deified  as 
HOTEI  (q.v.). 

123.  CHIOSU.     During  the  war  between  the  Minamoto  and  Taira,  one  of 
the  retainers  of  the  lord  of  Chiosu,  having  been  sent  on  an  expedition,  encountered 
a  party  of  the  enemy  and  barely  escaped  with  his  life,  his  armour  being  cut  to 



pieces.     On  his  return  he  was  presented  by  his  lord  with  his  own  set  of   armour 
as  a  mark  of  appreciation.     This  story  is  sometimes  found  in  prints. 

124.  CHIUAI   ffl  lik.  Jfc  JE-      One   of    the    Emperors,    the    pusillanimous 
husband  of  JINGO  KOGO  (q.v.).     Kwannon  sent  him  two  dreams,  ordering  him 
to  subdue  Corea,  but  as  he  disdained  them,  sent  him  a  fever,  of  which  he  died. 

125.  CHISHO-DAISHI  |?  gg  ~X  frfi.     Posthumous  name  of  ENSHIN  [H  ^r. 

126.  CHIYO  ^p  ftl  (KAGA  NO).     Poetess  who  once   found  her  water  bucket 
floating  in  her  well,  and  the  well  rope  entwined  by  the  tendrils  of  a  convolvulus. 
Rather  than  disturb  the  dainty  plant,  Chiyo  went  out  and  begged  water  from  her 
neighbours,  saying : 

Asagao  ni, 

Tsurube  torarete, 
Morai  midzu. 

"My  well  bucket  being   taken   from    me  by  the  convolvulus  (Asagao)  gift 
water  ? " 

In  allusion  to  this  story,  flower  arrangements  of   Asagao  are  usually  made 
with  a  water  bucket. 

127.  CHOCHU  5J^  tf.     Sennin  shown  with  a  long  hair  brush  ;  he  wore  an 
iron  cap  from  which  he  took  his  surname  TETSUKAN-DOJIN. 

128.  CHODORIO  UJ|  it  gt     The  Sennin  CHANG  TAO  LING.     He  was  nine 
feet  two  inches  high,  with  features  correspondingly  large.     A  fine  beard,  green 
triangular  eyes,  and  arms  so  long  that  the  tip  of  his  fingers  covered  his  knees  when 
he  stood  upright,  complete  the  picture  given  of  him  in  Taoist  books.     He  was 
born  in  A.D.  34  at  a  place  named  Tien  muh  San,  and  was  the  eighth  descendant 
of  Cho  Shibo  (Chorio,  q.v.).     The  Ehon  0  Shuku  Bai  says  that  when  only  seven 
years  old  he  had  mastered  the  Do  Toki  Kio  of  Lao  Tsze  and  that  he  soon  became 
proficient  in  the  magic  arts.     Ocho  3E  H.  became  his  pupil,  and  they  went,  in 
the  first  month  of  Juntei,  to  Mount  Kakumei,  where  Chodorio,  under  the  name 
Shinjin,  received  further  instructions  at  the  hands  of  various  Sennins.     Later  they 
both  repaired  to  Mount  Seijo,  where  they  met  six  large  devils,  the  chief  of  which 
at  once  set  to  exterminate  Ocho,   who  threatened  him  with  his  magic.      The 



demon,  Rokudaijin,  thereupon  called  some  of  his  followers,  whom  he  transformed 
into  eight  large  tigers.  Shinjin  created  a  magic  Kamshishi,  which  put  the  tigers 
to  flight,  but  other  demons  came  in  the  form  of  eight  large  dragons.  Shinjin 
then  produced  a  Kinchiso  (bird  with  golden  wings)  which  sprang  on  the  dragons 
and  bit  their  eyes  out.  The  chief  dragon  lay  at  Chodorio's  feet,  and  he  threw 
upon  the  monster  a  block  of  rock  weighing  ten  thousand  Kin,  upon  which  he 
placed  two  long  fibres ;  mice  came  out  of  the  ground  and  pulled  on  both  ends  of 
these  fibres.  The  pressure  thus  produced  upon  the  dragon  caused  it  to  crave 
Chodorio's  forgiveness,  which  was  granted.  Shinjin  received  the  title  Sei  itsu 
Shinjin,  and  Lao  Ts/.e  himself  honoured  him  with  a  magic  book.  After  spending 
some  years  on  the  Lung  Hit  mountains,  Chodorio  compounded  an  elixir,  and  at 
the  ripe  age  of  123  became  one  of  the  Immortals.  His  son  Chang  Heng  followed 
in  his  steps,  and  according  to  Mayers  his  descendants  were  invested  with  the 
hereditary  title  "  Preceptor  of  Heaven,"  the  spirit  of  Chodorio  passing  by 
transmigration  from  the  dying  representative  to  some  young  member  of  the 
family,  in  the  same  way  as  with  the  Dalai  Lama. 

Chodorio  is  depicted  as  a  martial  figure,  sometimes  standing  on  a  cloud. 
Our  illustration  depicts  the  fight  with  Rokudaijin  from  a  Tsuba,  the  treatment 
of  which  almost  reproduces  Tachibana  Morikuni's  composition  in  Ehon  0  Shukit 

129.  CHOGEN  JH  $fj  or  SHI'XJO.     Old  priest  who  reconstructed  the  Todaiji 
temple  after  its  destruction  by  lire  in  1180,  the  work  lasting  ten  years,  and  temple 
being  consecrated  by  the  Emperor  Go  Toba  in  1195.     Following  the  example  of 
one  of  the  Emperors  who  had  received  voluntary  contributions  for  the  building  of 
a  temple,  Shunjo  went  mounted  on  mule  and  armed  with  an  imperial  rescript, 
begging  for  alms  v\  herewith  to  prosecute  the  work.      He  is  represented  on  his 
mule  and  carrying  the  order  in  his  hand. 

130.  CHOHI  H.  ff.     See  TENAGA,  or  Long  arms. 

131.  CHOHI  J|  ffi.  (CHANG  FEI).     A  famous  Chinese,  who  after  being  a 
butcher   and  a  wine  seller,  became  a  sworn  brother  in  arms  of   KWANYU  and 
GENTOKU,  with  whom  he  led  the  wars  of  the  Three  Kingdoms  in  184.     One  of 
his  exploits  is  commonly  represented  and  called  the  Story  of   the  Undefended 



City.  Finding  himself  in  the  presence  of  a  large  body  of  Tsao-Tsao's  troops,  he 
sent  his  army  away  leaving  only  three  or  four  men,  one  of  whom  sat  above  the 
main  gate  playing  the  harpischord,  whilst  another  swept  the  road  in  front.  His 
troops  effected  a  flanking  movement,  and  joining  some  of  his  allies  he  attacked 
Tsao-Tsao  on  the  rear  and  defeated  him.  Chohi  was  murdered  by  Fan  Kiang 
in  220.  He  is  characterised  by  his  stature,  flowing  hair,  fan-like  beard,  and 
a  straight  double-edged  spear.  See  Kwanyu,  Gentoku  (Riubi). 

132.  CHOJI  H.  lEf.     Mythical  beings  in  human  shape  and  with  long  ears. 
These  strange  creatures  are  mentioned  in  the  Xllth  Century  romance  Huon  de 
Bordeaux   (Ed.  Geo.   Paris,   p.    73)    "  dans   la   terre   des    Comains,   ce   sont   des 

gens  qui  ne  connaissent  pas  le  ble et  couchent  en  plein  air, 

se  couvrant  de  leurs  oreilles." 

133.  CHOKIAKU  j|  P.    See  ASHINAGA  (long  legs). 

134.  CHOKITSU  J|.  "p^.     Taoist  worthy  who  was  blind  of  both  eyes,   he 
declared  himself  120  years  old.     He  is  shown  groping  with  a  cane.     (See  KIGA). 

135.  CHOKO   (CHANG   HIAO)   <JH  §£  and    CHOREI    $|  jjj§    (CHANG   Li) 
were  two  brothers  who  looked  after  their  mother  in  her  old  age.     Once  the  first 
one  was  bringing  home  a  cabbage  when  he  was  set  upon  by  robbers,  and  as  he 
could  not  give  them  anything  they  decided  to  kill  him,  but  agreed  to  stay  the 
deed  until  he  had  delivered  the  cabbage  to  his  mother.      His  young  brother 
happened  to  be  hard  by  and  came  to  offer  his  own  life  in  exchange  for  his 
brother's,  and  the  robbers  set  them  both  free. 

136.  CHOKWARO  51  ^  or  TSUGEN  $&  £.     The  Chinese  Sennin  CHANG 
KWOH  ;  one  of  the  eight  chief  Rishis  of  the  Taoists,  said  to  have  lived  at  the  end 
of  the  seventh  century.     He  died  during  the  reign  of  Wu  Hii  but  came  to  life 
again  after  a  few  days.     Ming  Hwang,  in  723,  sent  three  messengers  to  invite 
him  to  court,  the  first  two  fell  with  disease  on  their  way,  but  the  third  brought 
with  him   the  Sennin,   who   delighted   the  Emperor.       He    refused    the    hand 
of   a    princess    and    declined    the    honour    of    having    his    portrait    placed    in 
the  Hall  of  Ancestors  and  finally  refused  the  offer  of  a  high  priestly  office  at 
court,    preferring    his    wandering    life    in    the    company    of   his   magic   mule. 



This  wonderful  animal  could  carry  him  for  thousands  of  miles  at  a  time, 
and  required  no  fodder,  the  Sennin  keeping  it  in  a  gourd  when  not 
otherwise  in  use,  and  simply  spraying  water  from  his  mouth  upon  the  dried 
up  and  shrivelled  form  to  get  it  ready  for  a  fresh  trip.  Chokwaro  is  always 
shown  with  his  gourd,  and  the  mule,  or,  as  a  pun,  the  Koma  (horse)  pawn 
of  the  game  of  chess.  Often  the  mule  is  shown  alone,  in  netsuke,  escaping  from 
the  gourd,  or  wrapped  in  cobwebs  inside  the  gourd.  In  the  first  case  it  is  not  as 
might  be  thought  emblematic  of  Chokwaro,  but  of  the  proverb  Hyotan  kara 
Koma  (Detta)  meaning :  horse  out  of  a  gourd  (coming)  is  a  very  unexpected 
occurrence  [compare  Dragon]  which  may  however  have  originated  with  the 
legend  of  Chokwaro. 

137.  CHOKIUKA  $|  Jl  If  (CHANG  Kiu  Ko).     Toaist  sage  who  lived  in 
the  Keireki  period,  under  the  So  dynasty.     It  is  said  that  he  wore  thin  unlined 
clothes,  even  in  the  depth   of   winter.      Once  he  was   invited  to  court,   and 
exhibited  his  magic  powers  to  the  Emperor  En,  by  cutting  pieces  of  his  own 
clothes,  which  became  transformed  into  butterflies,  but  resumed  their  original 
nature  and  position  when  he  clapped  his  hands.     This  original  version  has  been 
modified  to  the  effect  that  he  remonstrated  with  the  Emperor,  because  the  latter's 
clothes  were  too  thin,  and  that  his  magic  operation  was  performed  upon  the 
monarch's  robes. 

138.  CHORIO  §H  j£,  The  Chinese  CHANG  LIANG,  one  of  the  Three  Heroes 
of  China,  said  to  have  been  a  governor  of  the  province  of  Han,  and  despoiled  by 
the  Emperor  of  Tsing,  whom  he  tried  to  defeat,  failing,  however,  at  the  battle  of 
Hsiai  Hai,  after  which  he  led  a  wandering  life  until  he  joined  Liu  Pang,  in 
208  B.C.      He  is  usually  depicted   under  a  bridge,  picking  up  a  shoe,   and 
threatening  a  dragon  with  his  drawn  sword.     According  to  a  Taoist  legend,  he 
was  one  day  crossing  the  bridge  of  the  river  I,  when  there  passed  mounted  on 
a  mule,  an  old  and  poor  looking  man  whose  sandal  had  dropped  from  his  foot 
to  the  bank  of  the  river.     According  to  one  version  the  old  man  commanded 
Chorio  to  pick  up  the  shoe,  which  he  did,  moved  to  pity  for  the  old  man,  though 
feeling  very  much  the  indignity. 

A  more  often  accepted  story  is  that  he  picked  up  the  shoe  of  his  own  free 


CHORIO   (.l/.G.) 

THE   EMPTY   CITY.       (K.S.) 

CI10KIO    AM)    KOSEKIKO   (,/.) 


will  and  gave  it  back  to  the  passer-by.  This  individual  was  no  other  than 
HWANG  SHI  KUNG,  the  Yellow  Stone  Elder,  KOSEKIKO  (q.v.),  and  he  asked 
Chang  Liang  to  meet  him  five  days  later,  at  a  certain  place,  as  he  intended 
to  give  him  a  slight  reward.  Chang  Liang  arrived  after  Kosekiko,  and  the 
elder  postponed  the  gift,  doing  so  again  the  second  time,  until  at  last  on  the 
third  appointment  he  was  satisfied  that  Chorio  had  respectfully  preceded  him  by 
a  sufficiently  long  interval.  He  then  gave  him  a  roll  of  manuscript,  and 
told  him  that  the  man  who  read  that  book  would  become  the  preceptor  of 
the  King. 

This  book  is  said  to  have  passed  from  China  to  Kiichi  Hogen,  and  to 
have  been  studied  by  Yoshitsune,  and  later  Kusunoki  Masashige. 

He  also  told  him  that  thirteen  years  later  Chorio  would  meet  him  at  Kuh 
Cheng,  in  the  form  of  a  yellow  stone,  as  in  fact  did  happen.  The  shoe  incident 
is  often  presented  in  art,  one  of  its  variants  showing  Chorio  astride  a  Dragon  in 
the  river  and  handing  the  shoe  to  Kosekiko.  Chang  Liang  was  one  of  the  first 
adherents  of  Liu  Pang  in  his  revolt  against  the  Ts'in,  which  led  to  the 
foundation  of  the  Han  dynasty.  He  became  one  of  its  ministers,  but  retired 
from  public  life  in  order  to  pursue  a  magical  career  with  CHIH  SUNG  TSZE. 
This  supernatural  being  who  had  visited  Seiobo  was,  however,  unable  to  help 
Chorio  in  his  search  for  the  elixir  of  eternal  life,  and  as  the  latter  had  nearly 
given  up  the  use  of  ordinary  food,  his  demise  followed  speedily  in  198  B.C. 

Chorio  was  taught  the  value  of  patience  on  another  occasion  by  seeing  an 
old  woman  grinding  down  a  big  iron  rod  to  make  a  needle. 

Chorio  is  said  to  have  once  called  at  the  camp  of  Kanshin,  describing 
himself  as  a  country  friend.  On  meeting  the  hero  he  told  him  that  for  many 
years  his  family  had  treasured  three  swords,  but  that  he  had  decided  to  sell  them 
to  people  worthy  to  possess  them.  The  Emperor's  sword  (Tenshi  ken)  he  had 
sold  to  Haiko  (Gentoku),  the  Saisho  no  ken  or  Prime  Minister's  sword  he  had  sold 
to  Shoga,  and  he  held  before  him  the  Genju  no  ken  or  General-in-Chief's  sword. 
Kanshin  examined  the  blade  and  asked  him  whether  he  was  not  Cho  Shibo 
(as  Chorio  was  then  called),  and  upon  his  affirmative  answer  asked  him  how  he 
could  join  the  Prince  of  Han  (Kan  no  Koso).  Chorio  then  instructed  him 
and  departed  (Shaho  Bukuroi). 



139.  CHOSANSHU  $|  H  -jr,  or  KUMPO,  had  a  body  like  a  tortoise,  big 
bones,  round  eyes,  large  ears,  a  beard  like  horse  hair,  and  he  was  seven  feet  high. 
He  plaited  his  hair  in  a  cue,  wore  in  all  seasons  a  fur  coat  and  a  hat,  and  carried 
a  short  dagger  in  his  hand. 

140.  CHOSHI  (KiANG  SHE).     See  KIOSHI,  one  of  the  twenty-four  paragons 
of  filial  virtue. 

141.  CHOSHIKWA  $|  jg  Tffl  (CHIH  Ho),  lived  in  the  reign  of  Shukuso  of 
To,  and  could  drink  up  to  three  to  (nearly  twelve  gallons)  of  wine  without  losing 
his  head  or  feeling  tired.     He  could  sleep  in  the  snow,  and  the  water  could  not 
wet   him.      His  bosom   friend   was   GWANSHINKEI,   and  once  after  banqueting 
together,   Choshikwa    spread    the   mat   on   a  pond    and   sat    on    it    drinking 
alone,  a  crane  flying  from  the  sky  alighted  upon  his  head.      He  is  depicted 

142.  CHOSHINJIN  i|j|  J|L  X  was  a  wizard  of  mount  Seijo  in  the  time 
of  the  Emperor  Bun  of  Zui.      He  became  governor  of  the  Shokugun,  a  district 
in  which  a  certain  river  was  infested  by  a  mischievous  dragon,  which  sometimes 
stopped  the  flow  of  the  water  and  killed  people  on  the  banks.      He  had  the 
dragon  challenged   with   trumpets  and   gongs  and   leapt  into  the  river,  soon 
coming  back  with  the  monster's  head  in  his  left  hand  and  a  dagger  in   the 

143.  CHOSOYU   $1  flf"  $$   (CHANG  SANG-YU)   was  a  Chinese  painter  of 
the  sixth  century.     Once  he  painted  a  dragon,  and  as  he  put  the  last  touch 
of  his  brush,   a  black  cloud  arose  from   his  paper  accompanied   by   thunder 
and  lightning,  and  the  dragon  escaped  from  the  room.     Professor  Giles  gives  a 
variant  according  to  which  the  two  dragons  were   painted,  without  eyes,  on 
a  wall  of  the  Temple  of  Joy  ^  ^  ^p  at  Nankin.     Later  a  disciple  of  Chosoyu 
painted  the  eyes,  the  dragons  flew  away  and  the  wall  was  shattered  to  pieces. 
The  same  story  is  told  of  various  painters ;   see  Godoshi. 

144.  CHOUN  iH|  @.    The  celebrated  CHAD  YUN,  one  of  the  adherents  of 
Riubi  (Liu  Pei  or  Gentoku)  whose  son,  A  Tow,  he  rescued  and  carried  away  on 
his  saddle  at  the  battle  of  Ch'ang  Fan  Kiao,  when  Riubi  was  defeated  by,  and 


CHOHI   (ir.r.K.) 

CHOKWARO    (./.) 
CHOKVVARO    (xf.) 

C1IOK1UKA    (T.I..] 

CHOUN    (J.) 



had  to  fly  from,  the  troops  of  his  opponent  Tsao  Tsao  (208  A.D.).  Choun  is 
represented  as  a  handsome  warrior  of  powerful  stature,  on  horseback,  and  some- 
times jumping  a  river,  with  the  boy  hidden  in  the  bosom  of  his  cloak. 

145.  CHUGORO  J&  jfL  IB-     A  lad  living  in  the  Koishikawa  quarter  of 
Yedo,  met  a  beautiful  girl,  standing  near  the  bridge  Naka  no  Hashi  and  fell  in 
love  with  her.     After  several  meetings,  she  gave  him  an  appointment  to  visit  her 
home  under  the  river.     The  boy  thinking  himself  in  the  same  vein  of  luck  as 
Urashima  Taro,  accepted,  and  one  night  went  to  meet  the  girl.     They  descended 
to  the  brink  of  the  river,  when  she  changed  into  a  gigantic  frog,  and  killed  the 
boy  to  suck  his  blood. 

146.  CHUJO  HIME  *$  ffi  jg.     See  BUNKI  MANDARA. 

147.  CHUNG   KO   LAO.     Sennin  holding  a  musical  instrument  made  of 
bamboo  and  sometimes  described  as  another  presentment  of  Chokwaro  (q.v.). 

148.  CHU-KO-LIANG.    See  KOMEI. 

149.  COCK   ON   DRUM.     This  is  a  very  common  subject  in  art  treatment 
as  an  allusion  to  a  Chinese  story.      In  the  legendary  times,  a  large  drum  was 
kept  on  the  main  gate  of  the  palace  to  assemble  the  troops.     Under  the  rule  of 
the  famous  Emperor  Yao,  peace  being  general,  the  drum  fell  into  disuse,  and 
became  a  roosting  place  for  fowls,  whilst  the  people  themselves  used  to  come  and 
beat  it  to  call  the  attention  of  the  officials  when  they  had  to  seek  redress  for 
some  grievance.     Kotoku  Tenno,  on  the  fifth  day  of  the  eighth  month  of  645, 
introduced  this  custom  in  Japan,  and  decreed  that  a  KANKO  (drum)  should  be 
provided,  with  also  a  box  to  receive  the  petitions  of  the  people.     The  Shoguns 
of  Kamakura  followed  his  example.     The  drum  is  usually  ornamented  with  the 
Mitsu-tomoye  design  of  three  comma  shaped  figures,  the  points  of  which  are 
elongated  to  form  a  complete  circle,  and  which  is  held  to  be  symbolical  of  luck 
and  good  fortune.     This  design  is  also  found  on  the  drums  of  the  Thunder  God 
RAIJIN  and  sometimes  on  the  hammer  of  DAIKOKU  (q.v.),  and  the  "  two  comma  " 
with  the  Hakke  (divination  sign)  are  found  on  the  national  Corean  flag. 

COCK-CROW.     Once  the  Chinese  hero  Prince  Tan  Chu,  son  of  Yao,  being  a 
prisoner  in  the  town  of  Kan  Kok  Kan,  the  doors  of  which  were  closed  from 



sunset  till  the  cock-crow,  attempted  to  escape  in  the  night  with  his  retainer 
Keimei.  They  would  never  have  succeeded  in  their  design  but  for  the  skilful 
imitation  of  the  cock-crow  which  Keimei  gave  as  they  neared  the  gate  of  the 
town.  The  guards  suddenly  woke  and  opened  the  door  to  the  fugitives  without 
any  questions.  The  story  is  also  given  under  the  name  of  Moshogun,  and  is 
attributed  to  several  warriors. 

COCK  FIGHTING  was  practised  at  the  time  of  Yuriaku  Tenno  (465  A.D.)  as 
appears  from  the  Story  of  Sakytsuya  in  the  Nihongi,  and  such  rights  are  some- 
times represented  ;  in  fact,  the  beautiful  appearance  of  the  animal,  especially  the 
Japanese  bird  with  its  long  tail  feathers  is  a  common  theme  for  artistic  treatment. 
DAIKOKU'S  son  (Koto  Shiro  Nushi  no  Mikoto),  however,  appears  not  to  be  an 
admirer  of  chickens,  and  his  hatred  results  in  a  scarcity  of  poultry  at  Mionoseki. 
See  Ebisu.  For  some  unexplained  reason  Cocks  are  nearly  always  associated 
with  Dutchmen  by  Netsuke  carvers. 

150.  CONFUCIUS  JL  &  ^P-      See  KOSHI  ;    Three  Sake  tasters.     He  is 
sometimes  depicted  standing  by  a  well  with  three  buckets,  one  of  which  is 
emptying  itself.     This  is  an  allusion  to  his  visit  to  the  tomb  of  the  Emperor 
Hwang   Kung ;    he  explained    to    his   disciples  that   the  three  buckets  were 
emblematic  of  moderation :  filled  up  to  the  level  of  their  trunnions,  they  retained 
the  water,  but  if  the  water  level  was  above  the  pivots  they  toppled  over  and 
emptied  themselves. 

CONFUCIUS,  TEN  DISCIPLES  are  worshipped,  in  a  position  immediately 
inferior  to  the  four  Assessors ;  they  are  given  in  the  work  of  Bumpo  Sanjin,  the 
Five  hundred  worthies  }j£  ]Jb  ^  jjff  Bumpo  Kangwa  (1803),  as 

The  most  virtuous : — GWANEN,  BINSHIKEN,  SENPAKUGIU,  and  CHUKYU. 

The  best  speakers  : — SAIGA  and  SHIKO. 

The  administrators  : — SENYU  and  KIRO. 

Those  with  literary  talents  : — SHIYU  and  SHIKA. 

151.  CROW  J^.     A  three-legged  crow  is  a  good  omen,  it  is  called  YATA 
GARASU,  and  was  one  of  the  messengers  of  the  Gods.     Its  origin  is  traceable  to 
the    Chinese    myth  of  the  three-legged    crow  which  lives  in  the  sun  and  is 
responsible  for  the  sun  spots,  besides  being  endowed  with  numberless  mythical 


COCK   ON    DRUM    (/'./..) 
DA1KO1UJ     (C..H.L.) 

DAIKOKU    (.I/.  7'.) 
CONFUCIUS   («..!/.) 

SAN    MEN    DAIKOKU    (j/.(.V.) 


powers  and  significances.  Crows  are  often  depicted  in  silhouette  partly 
covering  the  disc  of  the  Sun. 

The  croaking  of  an  ordinary  crow  is  held  to  be  unlucky,  and  this  is  quite  in 
agreement  with  European  tradition. 

Two  crows  passing  in  the  sky  caused  the  Chinese  Emperor  Tsao-Tsao  (Soso) 
to  stand  in  his  boat  and  compose  a  poem,  and  he  is  often  thus  depicted. 

152.  CUCKOO  %$  £,  also  f±  ||  and  fc  £  £  £"  1~,  and  the  moon. 
The  Cuckoo  bird  is  called  Hototoguisu,  from  its  note,  and  it  has  been  the  subject 
of  several  poems  and  allusions,  amongst  others,  the  following  story.  A  court 
noble  hearing  a  Cuckoo  whilst  presenting  Yorimasa  with  the  sword,  Shishi  no  0 
(King  of  wild  boars),  sent  by  Narihito  Tenno,  made  the  verse* : 

"  How  does  the  Cuckoo  rise  above  the  clouds  ?  " 
The  occult  meaning  of  which  is : 

"Like  the  Cuckoo,  so  high  to  soar,  how  is  it  so?" 


to  which  allusion  to  his  own  fame,  Yorimasa  replied  by  another  verse"]",  also 
capable  of  two  interpretations  : 

"The  waning  moon  does  not  set  at  command," 

"  I  only  bent  my  Bow  and  the  Arrow  sped." 

This  last  meaning  being  an  allusion  to  Yorimasa's  prowess  in  shooting  the  Nuye, 
cause  of  the  Emperor  Konoye's  illness  in  1153.  (See  Yorimasa.) 

Another  poem  dating  from  the  twelfth  century,  says  :  "  When  I  gaze  towards 
the  place  where  the  Cuckoo  once  sang,  nothing  remains  but  the  moon  in  the 
early  morn  :  " 


Nakitsuru  kata  wo, 

Tada  ariake  no, 
Tsuki  zo  nokoreru. 

*  Hototoguisu  naoba  kumoi  ni  agurukana.  t  Yumihari  tsuki  no,  irunimakasete. 



153.  CUTTLE  FISH  (TAKO).     The  Octopus  is  an  article  of  diet  of  the  poorer 
classes,  and  its  strange  appearance   is   often  met  with  in  art  so  treated   as   to 
make  its  features  suggest  some  impish,  almost  human,  face.      It  is  sometimes 
shown    as   an   incense   burner,   with   the  long  arms  and  tentacles  forming   the 
base,    or    it    is    entwined    around    the    legs   of    Ashinaga,    walking    about    the 
mainland,  eating  sweet  potatoes  and  frightening  paysans,  or  retaliating  upon 
the  fisherman  who  cuts  it  into  pieces ;    or  the  dried-up  head  only  is  shown,  as 
a    representation    of    the    piece    of    cuttle    fish    which    used    to    be    sent    with 
presents.      Its  large  head   does   duty   for   the   elongated  brain  pan  of  Fukuro- 
kujiu.      His  many-sided  talents  are  put  to  full  use  by  his  master,  Riujin,  the 
Dragon  king   of  the  waters,  to    whom    he   acts   as    Physician-in-waiting,    and 
occasionally    as    "  Maitre    de    Chapelle."      We   find    O   TAKO    in    attendance, 
extricating  the  hook  of  HOHODEMI  (q.v.)  from   the   throat  of  the  Funa  fish,  or 
prescribing  for  his   royal  master  (see  Story  of  the  Monkey  and  the  Jelly  fish). 
In   another   legend,   he    brings   back   to   Japan   the   sacred  image,  now  in  the 
Taku  Yakushi  temple  of  Meguro,  which  Jikaku  Daishi  (q.v.)  had  been  compelled 
to  throw  into  the  waves.     Covering  with  its  tentacles  a  bell,  or  an  upturned 
vase,  it  suggests  the  story  of  Kiyohime.      See  also  Go  DAIGO. 

154.  DAIGO  TENNO  1H  Hjjj  ;?C  j|l.     In  930  a  thunderstorm  broke  over  the 
palace  of  Seirioden,  killing  the  Dainagon  Fujiwara  Kiotsura,  Taira  Mareyo  and 
several  others,  Daigo  Tenno  took  refuge  in  the  Jonaiden  palace.     In  the  fire  which 
succeeded  the  storm  the  sacred  Mirror  was  found  to  have  removed  itself  from  the 
palace  and  deposited  itself  in  a  tree,  where  a  court  lady  discovered   it.      See 

155.  DAI  JIN  ^C  ^  or  TOCHIU  %$  %&.     One  of  the  Fifteen  sons  of  Benten, 
shown  with  sheaves  of   rice.     It  is  indentified  with  MONJU  BOSATSU,  (q.v.)  the 
attributes  of  which  are  however  different. 

156.  DAIJINGU  Jt  0$  H£      The  Shinto  Goddess  Amaterasu  O  Mikami 

(q.v.).  •,,-••' 

157.  DAIKOKU  ;fc  H&,  or  DAIKOKU  TEN.     One  of    the  SHICHI  FUKU  JIN, 
Seven  household  Gods,  or  Gods  of  Luck.     His  Shinto  name  is  OHO  KUNI  NUSHI 




(Mall  Gnrl'titt  collection} 


No  KAMI,  or  Deity  master  of  the  great  land.  He  is  particularly  worshipped  at 
Kitzuki,  the  streets  of  which  he  is  said  to  honour  by  riding  through,  on  the 
bronze  horse,  on  Miniye,  the  festival  of  the  Body  escaping.  He  represents  also 
the  Buddhist  God  MAHAKARA,  the  black  God  (Daikokujin),  so  named  because  of 
the  colour  of  its  image  after  being  rubbed  with  oil.  According  to  legend,  he  was 
revealed  to  KOBODAISHI,  who  introduced  the  attributes  with  which  he  is  repre- 
sented :  his  Hammer  bears  the  sign  of  the  Jewel  (Tamo)  of  pyriform  outline  and 
with  three  rings  across,  embodying  the  spirit  of  the  JIN  (Yin)  and  Yo  (Yang),  or  male 
and  female  principles,  in  token  of  the  God  being  a  creative  divinity;  this  hammer 
is  also  shown  with  the  Tomoye,  figure  of  the  two  commas  or  the  Mitsu  tomoye  of 
three  commas  (see  Cock  on  Drum),  and  a  stroke  of  this  lucky  attribute  confers 
luck  and  wealth  to  its  recipient.  (Fairy  tale  of  the  Lucky  Mallet.)  The  Rat  is 
his  second  attribute :  finally  Daikoku  is  dressed  in  Chinese  guise  as  a  prosperous 
individual,  with  a  peculiarly  shaped  cap  or  hat,  and  usually  shown  standing  on 
bales  of  rice  (some  say  one  of  rice  the  other  of  tea),  and  with  a  bag  of  precious 
things  on  his  shoulder.  A  common  variant  shows  him  seated  on  his  bales,  or 
showing  his  treasures  to  a  child,  or  holding  the  red  sun  against  his  breast  with 
one  hand,  and  grasping  his  mallet  with  the  other.  A  common  group  is  that  of 
Daikoku  and  his  son  EBISU,  either  as  serious  minded  individuals,  as  for  instance 
in  the  figures  in  the  somewhat  rough  style  called  "  a  coups  de  serpe  "  (Nata  tsu 
kuri]  sold  in  pairs  at  the  Kammiyama  temple  in  Ise,  or  irreverently  as  revellers, 
sometimes  masquerading  as  drunken  Dutchmen. 

His  familiar,  the  rat,  has  been  held  to  have  an  emblematic  and  moral  meaning 
in  connection  with  the  wealth  hidden  in  Daikoku's  bag,  and  which  like  all  other 
riches  requires  constant  care  and  watch  to  prevent  it  from  dwindling  away  under 
the  tooth  of  the  parasite.  This  rat  is  often  pictured,  either  in  the  bale  with  just  its 
head  protruding,  or  on  it,  or  playing  with  the  hammer ;  sometimes  a  swarm  of 
rats  is  shown,  and  the  rodent  plays  the  main  role  in  the  following  story :  The 
Buddhist  idols  wished  to  be  rid  of  Daikoku,  to  whom  the  Japanese  were  still 
daily  offering  prayers  and  incense  after  their  introduction.  YEMMA  O,  the  regent 
of  Hades,  agreed  to  send  his  most  cunning  Oni,  SHIRO  ,to  get  Daikoku  out  of  the 
way.  The  Oni,  guided  by  a  sparrow,  went  to  Daikoku's  castle,  which  he  found 
void  of  its  owner.  Finally  he  hit  upon  a  large  storehouse  in  which  he  saw  the 



God  seated.  Daikoku  called  his  chief  rat  and  ordered  him  to  find  who  was  near. 
The  rat  saw  the  Oni,  and  running  into  the  garden  brought  back  a  branch  of  holly 

with  which  he  drove  the  Oni  away  right  to  the  door  of  Yemma  O,  beating  him 

the  whole  way.     This  is  said  to  be  the  origin  of  the  New  Year's  Eve  charm  (q.v.) 

consisting  in  a  holly  leaf  and  a  skewer,  or  simply  a  sprig  of  holly  wedged  in  the 
lintel  of  the  door  of  a  house,  to  prevent  the  return  of  the  Oni  after  the  Oni  Yarai 
proceedings.  The  bag  of  Daikoku,  like  that  of  Hotei,  contains  the  Takaramono 
or  precious  things  (q.v.),  and  sometimes  Hotei  is  shown  seated  in  the  bag  which 
Daikoku  is  pulling  along. 

The  rat  is  also  said  to  be  Daikoku's  emblem,  because  his  festival  is  held  on 
the  day  of  the  rat,  the  Katsushi  of  the  Cycle,  and  on  the  Kinoye  days  one  hundred 
black  beans  are  offered  to  Daikoku. 

ROKU  DAIKOKU  (The  Six  Daikoku)  are  given  in  the  Banbutsu  Hinakata  as : 
Makura  Daikoku,  ordinary  form  with  hammer  on  lotus  leaf, 
Ojikara  Daikoku,  youthful,  with  sword  in  the  right  hand  and  vajra 

in  the  left, 
Bika  Daikoku  as  a  priest,  with  shaven  pate,  hammer  in  the  right 

hand,  vajra  hilted  sword  in  the  left, 
Yasha  Daikoku,  youth,  with  the  wheel  of  the  law  (Rimbo  or  Chakra) 

in  his  right  hand, 

Shinda  Daikoku,  a  boy  seated,  holding  a  crystal  in  his  left  hand, 
Mahakara  Daikoku,  seated  female  with  a  small  bale  of  rice  on  her 


As  a  modification  of  the  Hindoo  God  of  War  MAVISHI  TEN,  he  is  also  shown 
with  MARISHITEN  and  BISHAMONTEN,  as  the  San  Senjin,  or  Three  Gods  of  War,  in 
the  form  of  a  man  with  three  heads  and  six  arms  riding  on  a  boar.  This  form  is 
also  known  as  SANMEN  DAIKOKU,  or  three-faced  Daikoku,  and  is  called  San  Tenjin 
Daikoku  in  the  Shaho  Bukuro. 

158.  DAI  MOKUREN  ^  g  f£  jg.  One  of  the  disciples  of  Buddha  who, 
seeing  the  soul  of  his  mother  in  the  Hell  of  Hungry  Spirits  (Gakido),  sent  her 
some  choice  food  which  became  transformed  into  flames  and  blazing  embers  as 
she  lifted  it  to  her  lips. 



He  asked  the  Buddha  for  an  explanation  of  this  occurrence,  and  was  told 
that  in  her  previous  life  his  mother  had  refused  food  to  a  wandering  mendicant 
priest,  and  that  the  only  way  to  obtain  her  release  from  perpetual  hunger  was  to 
feed  on  the  tenth  day  of  the  seventh  month  the  souls  of  all  the  great  priests  of 
all  countries.  Notwithstanding  the  difficulty  of  this  undertaking,  Dai  Mokuren 
succeeded,  and  in  his  joy  at  seeing  his  mother  relieved,  started  to  dance.  This 
performance  is  said  to  be  the  origin  of  the  Bon  Odori  dances  during  the  Festival 
of  the  Dead  (July  13-16). 

159.  DAI  NICHI  NYORAI  ;fc  B  #11  3fc.     One  of  the  personages  of  the 
Triratna  or  Buddhist  trinity,  VAIROTCHANA  TATHAGATA,  the  deity  of  wisdom  and 
perfect  purity-     His  name  (Chinese  TA  SHI  SHULAI)  means  Great  Light ;  he  is  the 
personification  of  the  supreme  intellect  of  the  Buddha,  and  the  spiritual  father 
of  FUGEN  BOSATSU  (q.v.).     He  is  somewhat  similar  to  Jizo  in  appearance  and  is 
generally  shown  seated,  as  KONGO-KAI  DAI  NICHI,  with  the  left  hand  closed  upon 
the  index  of  the  right  hand,  in  the  Dharma-Datsu  Mudra,  or  gesture  peculiar  to 
the   Dai   Nichi   of    the  Spiritual  World.     As  Dai  Nichi  of   the  TAIZO  KAI  or 
Material  World  he  is  seated,  in  a  meditating  attitude,  and  wearing  a  tiara. 

1 60.  DAI  ITOKU.    MAHADEVA.    See  Mio  O. 

161.  DAI  TENGU  ;fc  ^  $J.    See  TENGU. 

162.  DAKIU  K;  PJ.    The  Game  of  Polo.     See  Games. 

163.  DANKA.     Skeleton  of  a  priest  beating  a  wooden  drum,  in  the  form  of 
a  jingling  bell  (Mokugyo),  or  a  fish  head  (Waniguchi). 

164.  DARUMA  ^  Jff ,  BODHI  DHARMA.     Sage  to  whom  the  introduction  of 
the  Zen  sect  of  Buddhism  in  China  is  attributed.     He  is  said  to  have  been  the 
son  of  a  Hindoo  King,  and  to  have  left  his  teacher,  Panyatara,  and  retired  in  520  to 
Lo  Yang  where  he  remained  seated,  absorbed  in  meditation  for  nine  years,  during 
which,  temptations  were  heaped  upon*  him  by  the  evil  spirits  without  any  result ; 
and  he  is  accordingly  often  shown  surrounded  with  demons  of   both  sexes,  like 
Saint  Anthony,  or  being  bitten  in  the  ear  or  other  parts  of  his  holy  person  by  rats. 
At  the  end  of  that  period  his  legs  had  "rotted  away"  under  him.     The  humorous 



treatment  of  his  long  retreat  is  an  unending  theme  for  artists ;    netsuke  carvers 

represent  him  stretching  himself,  or  stretching  his  arms  above  his  head,  or,  and 


more  often,  without  legs,  entirely  enveloped  in  his  garments,  shaped  like  a  bag, 
from  which  emerges  his  swarthy  scowling  face,  shorn  of  eyelids,  because,  having 
once  fallen  asleep,  on  waking  up  he  cut.  them  off  as  a  penance.  The  eyelids, 
thrown  on  the  ground,  took  the  form  of  the  Tea  tree.  A  less  common,  though 
quite  as  irreverent  a  presentment,  shows  the  Sage  surrounded  with  cobwebs,  and 
even  a  female  Daruma  may  be  met  with,  sarcastically  directed  at  the  weaker 
sex,  no  member  of  which  could  remain  in  meditation  for  nine  years,  or  resist  the 
temptation  to  talk.  An  owl  is  sometimes  shown  in  the  garb  of  Daruma. 

As  the  28th  patriarch  of  Buddhism  in  succession  to  Kasyappa,  he  is  pictorially 
treated  as  a  swarthy  Hindoo  priest  with  a  short  spiky  black  beard.  His  journey 
to  Japan  is  pictured  in  a  similar  way,  the  figure  standing  on  the  waves,  supported 
by  a  millet  stalk,  or  a  bamboo  or  a  reed.  He  died  circa  A.D.  529. 

He  is  often  found  as  a  toy,  sometimes  with  one  eye  open  and  one  shut,  and 
is  the  favourite  snow-man  of  the  Japanese  boys.  Humorous  prints  show  the  toy 
taking  life  on  the  eyes  being  marked  out,  in  allusion  to  the  popular  belief  that 
images  of  holy  personages  become  alive,  or  at  least  effective,  when  their  "eyes  are 
opened"  by  the  priests,  who  bless  the  figures,  after  which  they  can  see,  hear  and 
revenge  themselves  when  irreverently  treated. 

Daruma  sometimes  is  shown  with  one  bare  foot  and  carrying  a  shoe  in  his 
hand.  Legend  has  it  that  three  years  after  his  death  and  subsequent  burial, 
he  was  seen  travelling  towards  India,  in  the  western  mountains  of  China, 
with  one  shoe  in  his  right  hand.  The  Emperor  caused  Daruma's  tomb  to 
be  opened  and  it  was  found  empty,  but  for  a  cast  off  shoe  which  the  saint 
had  left  behind  him. 

165.  DEMONS.     See  ONI. 

1 66.  DENSHIN  |B  jg,  DENKEI  0  J|  and  DENKO  B  J|f  were  the  three 
Chinese  brothers  TIEN  CHEN,  KING,  and  KWANG.     They  inherited  a  rose  tree  at 
the  death  of  their  father,  and  as  they  could  not  agree  as  to  ownership,  they  split 
the  tree  in  three,    when   of  course   it   died.      After   this   event   they   remained 
together  in  complete  union. 


DARUMA    ON    REED    (lI'.L.K. 





167.  DOG  HUNTING  ^  }6  $j,  by  horsemen  (!NU  OMONO),  with  bows  and 
arrows,  was  a  pastime  introduced  by  the  Emperor  Toba  in  the  i2th  century.     It 
is  represented  as  being  followed  to  commemorate  the  delivery  of   the  Emperor 
from  Tamamo  no  Maye,  because  dogs  chased  her  upon  the  moor  of  Nasu  when 
she  fled  from  Abe  no  Seimei's  exorcism  in  the  shape  of  a  nine-tail  fox.      (Shaho 
Bukuro,  Vol  I.) 

It  forms  a  part  of  a  No  dance. 

168.  DOJOJI  NO  UTAI.     See  KIYOHIME. 

169.  DOJOJIN  it  ff  JjitjJ.     The  all-hearing  genius  of  Hell. 

170.  DOKEI  jj|i  H?.      Name  assumed   in    1473   by   Ashikaga   Yoshimasa, 
when  he  entered  the  priesthood  after  his  retirement. 

171.  DOLPHIN.     Ornamentally  treated,  the  Dolphin  receives  some  of  the 
characters  of  the  Koi  or  sacred  Carp.     Golden  dolphins  (KiN  NO  SACHI  HO  Ko), 
eight  feet  seven  inches  in  length,  made  of  solid  gold,  and  said  to  be  worth  nine 
thousand  pounds  each,  were  made  by  order  of  Kato  Kiyomasa  in  1610,  and  placed 
on  the  top  of  the  roof  of  the  donjon  (Tenshu)  of  the  Nagoya  Castle,  in  Owari. 
One    of   them,  which  many  years  before  had  been  the  aim  of   a   thief,    was 
exhibited,  in   1873,  at  the  Vienna  exhibition.     The  story  says  that  Kakinoki 
Kinsuke,  to  win  the  love  of  some  woman,  attempted  the  theft  by  means  of  a 
big  Kite,  after  which  Kite-flying  near  the  temple  was  forbidden. 

172.  DOMEJIN  JH  Wft  j$.    The  all-seeing  genius  of  Hell. 

173.  DOSOJIN  if  H  1$  (SAi  NO  KAMI),   God  of  the  Roads.    See  Koshin. 
Children's  God,  one  in  each  village,  whose  feast  is  celebrated  by  the  boys,  with 
decorated  bamboo,  which  were  burnt,  on  the  i4th  of  January,  with  all  the  writings 
made  on  the  first  and  second  day  of  the  year  ;  and  Mochi  (rice  cake)  was  cooked 
on  that  fire. 

174.  DOYO,   usually  called  YUTEN  SHONIN  jjffi  ^  _h  A>  was  a  priest  of 
the  temple  of  Fudo  at  Narita,  who  spent  a  hundred  days  in  contemplative  prayers 
and  meditation  in  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century.     The  God  then  appeared 
to  him,  and  offered  him  as  penance  for  his  sins  the  choice  between  two  swords,  a 



blunt  one  or  a  sharp  one,  to  be  swallowed.  Doyo  selected  the  keen  blade,  and  as 
Fudo  drove  it  in  his  throat  all  his  bad  blood  ran  out,  and  after  this  operation  he 
became  deeply  learned.  His  blood  was  used  to  dye  some  priestly  robes,  and  he 
instituted  a  three  weeks'  fast  to  be  practiced  yearly  as  a  commemoration  of  his 

175.  DRAGON  f|.  Of  all  the  array  of  supernatural  creatures  forming 
the  mythical  fauna  of  Japanese  lore,  none  perhaps  is  more  commonly  represented 
in  art  work  than  the  Dragon.  Imported  from  China,  its  appearance  does  not 
greatly  differ  from  that  of  the  Chinese  Dragon,  except  in  the  matter  of  claws, 
three  of  which  only  are  vouchsafed  to  the  ordinary  Japanese  Dragon  and  five  to 
the  Imperial  or  Chinese  monster,  also  found  in  Japanese  art.  The  ordinary 
Chinese  Dragon  has  four  claws  only  on  each  of  its  four  limbs. 

The  Dragon  is  full  of  remarkable  powers,  and  seeing  its  body  in  its  entirety 
means  instant  death ;  the  monster  never  strikes  without  provocation,  as  for  instance 
when  its  throat  is  touched.  The  Chinese  Emperor  Yao  was  said  to  be  the  son  of 
a  dragon,  and  several  of  the  other  Chinese  rulers  were  metaphorically  called 
"dragon  faced."  The  Emperor  of  Japan  was  described  in  the  same  way,  and  as 
such  hidden,  by  means  of  bamboo  curtains,  from  the  gaze  of  persons  to  whom  he 
granted  audiences,  to  save  them  from  the  terrible  fate  otherwise  inevitable. 

In  Gould's  book,  Mythical  Monsters,  the  dragon  is  dealt  with  at  length,  the 
translation  from  a  Chinese  Encyclopaedia  of  an  article  upon  the  dragon  being 
given  in  extenso  (page  243).  An  exhaustive  description  is  also  given  by  the 
Japanese  novelist,  BAKIN,  in  Hakkenden.  [See  Griffis  Mikado  s  Empire,  1896,  page 
478  &  seq.]. 

The  Chinese  call  the  Dragon  Lung  because  it  is  deaf ;  it  is  the  largest  of 
scaly  animals,  and  it  has  nine  characteristics.  Its  head  is  like  a  camel's,  its  horns 
like  a  deer's,  its  eyes  like  a  hare's  (?  a  devil's),  its  ears  like  a  bull's,  its  neck  like  a 
iguana's,  its  scales  like  those  of  a  carp,  its  paws  like  a  tiger's,  and  its  claws  like 
an  eagle's.  It  has  nine  times  nine  scales,  it  being  the  extreme  or  lucky  number. 
On  each  side  of  its  mouth  are  whiskers,  under  its  chin  a  bright  pearl,  on  the  top 
of  its  head  the  POH  SHAN  or  foot  rule,  without  which  it  cannot  ascend  to  Heaven. 
The  scales  of  its  throat  are  reversed.  Its  breath  changes  into  clouds,  from  which 


CHINESE   DRAGON    (/<"./..«.) 
AMAKUR1KARA    (iy.L.K.) 

RAIN    DRAGON    (G.H.lf.) 


SHIFUN    (//'./-.«.) 

DRAGON'    AND   TAMA   (ll'.L.K.) 

DRAGON   AND   WHEEL   (ll'.L.n.) 




come  either  fire  or  rain.  The  dragon  is  fond  of  the  flesh  of  sparrows  and 
swallows,  it  dreads  the  centipede  and  silk  dyed  of  five  colours.  It  is  also  afraid 
of  iron.  In  front  of  its  horns  it  carries  a  pearl  of  bluish  colour,  striated  with 
more  or  less  symbolical  lines.  It  has  the  power  of  invisibility  and  of  trans- 
formation at  will,  it  is  able  to  shrink  or  to  increase  in  size  without  limits. 

In  both  the  Chinese  and  the  Japanese  mythology,  the  watery  principle  is 
associated  with  the  dragon,  and  especially  with  the  rain  dragon  Amario,  or  U-ko, 
or  U-shi,  also  with  the  storm  dragon.  The  ruler  of  the  waters,  Ryu  o  Kio,  or 
Ryujin,  or  Ryujin  Sama,  lives  beneath  the  seas,  or  at  the  bottom  of  lakes  in  the 
Ryugu-jo,  the  dragon  palace.  See  Tawara  Toda,  Urashima  Taro,  and  Air  Castle, 
Monkey  and  Jelly-fish  ;  see  the  story  of  the  happy  hunter  Hikohohodemi  no 

Riujin  has  a  messenger  in  Ryuja  sama  or  Hakuja,  the  small  white  serpent 
with  the  face  of  an  ancient  man ;  and  he  carries  the  precious  jewel  (Tama,  the 
Mani  of  the  Buddhists)  or  the  two  jewels  of  the  ebbing  and  of  the  ilowing  tide, 
the  " Tide  ruling  gems"  which  he  presented  to  Jingo-Kogo,  to  Hikohohodemi 
(q.v.),  etc.  See  RIUJIN,  KAMATARI,  etc. 

The  Dragon  (TATSU)  is  one  of  the  signs  of  the  zodiac;  the  four  seas,  which, 
in  the  Chinese  astronomy  limit  the  habitable  earth,  are  ruled  over  by  four 
Dragon  Kings. 

The  celestial  dragon  presides  over  the  mansions  of  the  Gods  and  keeps  them 
from  decay. 

The  spiritual  dragon  ministers  to  the  rain. 

The  earth  dragon  marks  out  the  courses  of  rivers. 

The  dragon  of  hidden  treasures  watches  over  the  precious  metals  and  stones 
buried  in  the  earth. 

There  is  a  hornless  dragon,  the  Chinese  Kiu  lung.  The  Chinese  winged 
dragon  Ying  lung  is  the  Hai  Ryo,  shown  with  feathered  wings  and  tail  and 
birds  claws,  besides  the  dragon's  head,  they  are  also  called  Tobi  Tatsu  and 
Shachi  Hoko. 

A  white  dragon  which  lived  in  a  pond  at  Yamashiro  in  the  province  of 
Kyoto,  and  changed  every  fifty  years  into  a  golden  bird,  the  0  Goncho,  with  a 
voice  like  a  wolf's  howl,  and  whose  apparition  was  followed  by  terrible  famine 



and  pestilence.  Another  white  dragon  was  the  transformation  of  Raitaro 
(see  the  story  of  Bimbo). 

The  yellow  dragon  is,  however,  the  most  honoured  of  the  whole  family.  The 
Chinese  attribute  the  origin  of  their  system  of  writing  to  the  yellow  dragon,  who 
presented  to  Fuh  Hi  a  scroll  inscribed  with  mystic  characters  as  the  sage  was 
gazing  upon  the  waters  of  the  Yellow  River. 

BAKIN,  in  his  description  of  the  dragon  family,  enlarges  considerably  upon 
the  four  dragons  of  the  Chinese,  as  described  later  by  Mayers  : 

Sui  Riu,  a  rain  dragon  which  causes  the  rain  to  fall  when  in  pain,  the  water 
presenting  a  reddish  colour  due  to  his  blood. 

HAN  RYU  is  striped  with  nine  different  colours.  It  is  forty  feet  long  and 
sometimes  has  red  stripes  with  dark  blue  bands. 

KA  RYU  is  a  fiery  dragon  of  scarlet  hue,  only  seven  feet  long. 

The  dragon  of  good  luck  is  FUKU  RYU,  that  of  whom  the  luck  is  bad  or 
indifferent  becomes  HAKU  FUKU  RYU. 

Ri  RYU  has  a  wonderful  sight,  hundreds  of  miles  being  as  nothing  to  this 

Some  dragons  cannot  reach  heaven,  the  long-bodied  HAN  RYU  in  particular. 
Dragons  can  breed  by  intercourse  with  ordinary  animals,  with  a  mare,  a  Ryu-Me, 
with  a  cow,  a  Ki-Riu. 

The  Dragon  Queen  is  occasionally  shown,  dressed  in  shells  and  corals,  with 
other  marine  attributes. 

As  an  emblem  the  dragon  represents  both  the  male  and  female  principle,  the 
continous  changes  and  variations  of  life,  as  symbolised  by  its  unlimited  powers 
of  adaption  accommodating  itself  to  all  surroundings,  therefore  never  finished, 
like  the  everlasting  cycles  of  life. 

In  connection  with  a  Tiger,  generally  crouching  near  a  cave  or  some  bamboos, 
the  dragon  in  the  sky  represents  the  power  of  the  elements  over  the  strongest 
animals.*  The  association  of  the  two  creatures  was  meant  in  Chinese  to 
represent  the  Emperor  and  his  ministers. 

The  dragon  is  associated  with  numerous  personages  and  stories.    See  Bashiko, 

*  Anderson  calls  it  U-Chiu  no  Tora,  and  says  that  it  is  emblematic  of  the  power  of  the  faith  (C.B.M.-p.  53). 



Chinnan,  Shoriken,  Handaka  Sonja ;  also  Tokimasa's  crest,  Ojin  and  Take  no 
Uchi,  etc.,  mentioned  under  Emblems  and  Attributes. 

For  the  eight-headed  dragon,  see  Susano-o. 

The  rain  dragon  entwined  around  a  sword  is  a  frequent  theme,  the  sword 
being  as  a  rule  the  Vajra  hafted  ken  of  Kobodaishi. 

Another  sword,  connected  with  a  dragon  legend,  is  the  Kuzanagi,  one  of  the 
three  relics  of  the  Japanese  regalia,  the  fire  quelling  sword  used  by  Yamato 
Take,  and  which  Susano-o  no  Mikoto  had  drawn  from  the  tail  of  the  eight- 
headed  dragon. 

Two  dragons  "affrontes,"  with  the  Tama  between  them,  form  the  handles  of 
bells,  whether  large  temple  bells  or  small  grelots ;  it  is  also  a  very  common  mode 
of  decoration  of  sword  guards,  called  Namban  Tsuba. 

Dragon  netsukes  were  the  specialite  of  Tomomasa. 

A  dragon  ascending  Fuji  in  a  cloud  is  symbolic  of  success  in  life. 

BENTEN  is  often  shown  with  a  dragon,  and  her  intercession  in  Enoshima 
against  the  troubles  caused  by  such  a  creature,  belongs  to  the  story  of  Hojo 
Tokimasa  (q.v.).  In  fact  this  Goddess  is  said  to  be  "  partly  "  a  dragon. 

KWANNON  is  also  represented  in  company  with  a  dragon  upon  whose  scaly 
body  she  stands. 

A  dragon  issuing  from  an  ash-pan  or  Hayifuki  (in  the  hibachf)  frightening 
the  man  who  uses  this  implement,  represents  the  story  of  the  boaster,  and 
illustration  of  the  saying  : 

Hayifuki  kara   Riu  (or  -       -  Ja  detta)  almost  identical  with  Hyotan 
Kara  Koma :  "It  is  the  unexpected  that  happens." 

The  Kumozui  Taisei  (Encyclopaedia  for  children)  gives  two  more  types  of 
dragons,  one  with  wings  called  Shi  fun,  and  one  with  large  scales,  spiny  fins,  and 
the  body  of  a  fish,  which  is  named  Makatsugyo. 

KAN  NO  Koso,  SUSANO-O,  etc.,  are  shown  killing  dragons.  Another  dragon 
slayer  was  T'an  T'ai  Mieh  Ming,  disciple  of  Confucius,  whom  the  God  of  the 
Yellow  River  caused  to  be  attacked  by  two  dragons,  to  rob  him  of  a  valuable 
gem,  but  T'an  T'ai  slew  the  dragons,  and  to  show  his  contempt  of  wordly  goods 
threw  the  treasure  in  the  river.  Twice  it  leapt  back  into  his  boat,  but  at  last  he 
broke  it,  and  scattered  the  fragments. 



176.  DREAMS  ^.  Dreams  are  often  occasioned  by  demons,  and  in 
particular  evil  dreams,  are  the  work  of  the  Oni  RINGETSU,  but  they  form  the 
food  of  the  mythical  animal  Baku  (q.v.).  Lucky  dreams  may  be  induced  by 
placing  in  the  drawer  of  one's  pillow  a  picture  of  the  Takarabune  (q.v.).  The 
Clam's  dream  is  another  name  of  the  Air  Castle  (q.v.). 

Rosei's  dream,  illustrating  the  fallacy  of  worldly  honours  is  frequently 
represented  and  sometimes  attributed  to  Lii  Yen.  See  Rosei,  Soshu. 

A  classical  dream  is  that  of  a  Chinese  Sage,  CH'UN  Yu  FEN  ^jjk  -f  ^,  who 
thought  that  he  had  lived  for  several  years  in  a  palace,  and  on  waking  up  after 
a  while,  under  a  tree  in  his  garden,  told  the  story  to  his  friends.  They  said  that 
as  he  fell  asleep  an  ant  came  down  from  his  beard,  and  went  into  a  hole  near  by ; 
thinking  there  might  be  a  connection  between  the  Ant  and  his  dream,  they  dug 
up  the  place,  and  found  an  Ant's  colony  built  exactly  as  he  had  described  the 
palace  of  his  dream.  Ch'un  yu  had  dreamt  that  the  King  of  that  underground 
realm  had  married  him  to  his  daughter,  and  given  him  the  governorship  of  his 
Southern  provinces,  hence  the  names  Nan  Ko  Che  Meng  given  by  the  Chinese  to 
this  fairy-tale,  the  author  of  which  is  said  to  have  been  Li  Kung  Tso.  It  is 
called  in  Japanese  Nan  Ko  no  Yume,  and  its  curious  resemblance  to  the  dream  of 
Rosei  will  be  readily  noticed. 

Another  dream,  famous  in  Chinese  lore  and  sometimes  illustrated,  is  that 
of  Tsai'  Siang  given  as  a  moral  example  in  the  Kan-in-pien  >(C  Jl  ^fi  J$|  JH. 
Tsai  Siang  loved  to  eat  quails,  and  one  night  in  a  dream  he  saw  a  young  man 
clad  in  yellow  who,  in  eight  verses,  reproached  him  the  hecatombs  of  living 
creatures  necessary  to  satisfy  his  appetite.  Tsai  Siang  went  at  once  to  his 
kitchen,  where  he  liberated  some  scores  of  quails  then  awaiting  the  cook's 
attention.  During  the  following  night  an  equal  number  of  adolescents  dressed 
in  grey  came  to  thank  him  in  another  dream.  The  glutton  mended  his  ways 
and  later  became  a  minister.* 

Another  dream  forming  the  theme  of  prints  or  pictures  is  that  of  Raiko 
being  presented  with  bow  and  arrows  by  a  Goddess. 

0  The  dream  of  the  quail-boys,  or  Hantan's  dream  is  easily  confused  in  pictures  with  the  feather-clad  dwarf 
god  Sukuna  Hiko  no  Mikoto  A?  ^  $3  ^  (q.v.),  also  called  Sukuna  Bikona. 



j  \y 


Dreams  of  Fuji  Yama,  of  two  falcons  or  three  fruits  of  the  egg  plants  are 
considered  lucky  omens,  predicting  long  life  to  the  dreamer.  Ichi  Fuji,  ni  taka, 
san  nasubi  is  the  Japanese  proverb  expressing  this  belief.  See  Sagami  Takatoki, 
who  dreamt  that  Tengus  were  hovering  around  him  in  his  sleep. 

177.  EARTHQUAKE   FISH  Jjjj  f|  ^,  or  NAMAZU  or  JISHINUWO.    This  is 
the  catfish  to  which  earthquakes  are  due;  the  creature  has  a  body  like  an  eel,  a 
large  flattened  head,  and  long  feelers  on  both  sides  of  its  mouth,  it  lies  with  its 
tail  under  the  provinces  of   Shimosa  and  Hidachi,  and  when  angry,  wriggles 
about,  shaking  the  foundations  of  Japan.     A  large  stone  rests  on  its  back,  the 
Kaname  Ishi,  protruding  in   the   garden   of   the    temple   of   the   God    KASHIMA 
DAIMIOJIN  (Takemika  Tsuchi  no  Mikoto).     This  stone  goes  deep  into  the  bowels 
of  the  earth,  it  is  the  rivet  (Kaname)  which  binds  the  world  together :    when 
KASHIMA  and  KADORI  MIOJIN  came  from  Heaven  to  subdue  the  world,  Kashima 
thrust  his  sword  through  the  earth,  the  mighty  blade  shrank  and  became  the 
Kaname  Ishi  which  Kashima  alone  can  move.     Kadori  Miojin  is  Futsu  Nuchi  no 
Mikoto,  he  has  a  gourd,  and  with  that  gourd  and  the  help  of  Kadori,  this  God 
keeps  the  fish  quiet.     Mitsukuni,  Daimio  of  Mito,  grandson  of  Tokugawa  leyasu, 
with  a  Saint  Thomas  bent  of  mind,  had  the  earth  dug  around  the  Kaname  Ishi, 

•  but  his  men  could  not  get  at  the  base  of  it.  Kadori  and  his  gourd,  hugging  the 
Namazu,  is  sometimes  a  subject  for  artistic  treatment.  His  efforts  are  little 
thought  of  if  one  believes  the  proverbial  sentence  :  A  Gourd  against  a  Namazu 
(meaning  useless  effort)  alluding  to  the  slipping  of  the  gourd  on  the  fish's  skin. 
Earthquakes  are  also  attributed  to  a  beetle,  named  the  JISHIN  MUSHI  or  Earth- 
quake beetle,  with  a  dragon's  head,  ten  legs  like  spider's  and  a  scaly  body, 
which  is  supposed  to  live  deep  under  the  earth. 

178.  EBISU  lj$.  jfc  ^jf,  or  YEBISU,  one  of  the  Shichi  Fukujin.     Sometimes 
also  named  HIRUKO.     He  is  the  third  son  of  Izanagi  and  Izanami,  Koto  Shiro 
Nushi  no  Kami,  though  sometimes  said  to  be  the  son  of  Daikoku. 

Ebisu's  name  as  a  luck  bringer  shares  with  Daikoku  the  honour  of  a  place 
in  a  cradle  rhyme  celebrating  the  arrival  of  the  Takarabune  on  New  Year's 
Eve  quoted  by  Anderson  : 



Sendo,  mando,  o  fune  wa  gichi  gichi 

Ebisu  Sama,  Daikoku  Sama, 
Fuku  no  Kami  yo 

Gichi,  gichi  kogeba. 


Most  of  which  consists  of  onomatopoeia. 

His  particular  temple  is  at  Mionoseki,  where  figures  made  of  pottery,  and 
metal  ornaments  for  pouches,  bearing  his  traditional  appearance,  are  regular 
articles  of  trade.  Legend  has  it  that  he  originated  the  clapping  of  hands,  usual 
in  Shinto  temples  to  call  attention  of  the  Gods  to  the  prayers. 

Ebisu  is  deaf,  so  much  so  that  he  cannot  hear  the  summons  which  in 
October  calls  all  the  other  divinities  to  the  temple  of  Izumo.  This  infirmity 
forms  the  pretext  for  a  festival,  the  Ebisu  Ko,  falling  on  the  twentieth  of 
October.  It  is  probable  that  originally  Ebisu  was  an  Aino  divinity.  His  very 
name  means  "  The  laughing  God,"  and  his  countenance  is  altogether  that  of  an 
happy  individual.  Bearded,  smiling,  or  laughing,  on  his  head  a  cap  with  two 
points,  or  a  bonnet,  generally  sitting  on  his  crossed  legs  and  holding  a  fishing 
rod  and  a  big  Tai  fish,  Ebisu  cannot  be  mistaken.  He  is  often  shown  with 
Daikoku  (q.v.),  in  more  or  less  humorous  groups,  and  his  own  emblems  are 
somewhat  varied  in  their  treatment :  he  may  be  cutting  up  his  fish  ;  or  hugging 
it ;  or  trying  to  cram  the  animal  into  a  basket  several  sizes  too  small ;  striking 
with  his  rod  one  of  Daikoku's  rats  having  a  fight  with  the  Tai ;  or  dancing  with 
the  fish  strapped  on  his  back,  etc. 

Ebisu  is  the  God  of  honest  dealing,  he  is  also  the  patron  of  fishermen  and 
the  God  of  food;  often  coupled  with  Daikoku  as  the  two  Gods  whose 
shrines  are  the  most  common  in  households.  This  God  has  a  peculiar  hatred  of 
cocks,  hens  and  chickens,  responsible  for  the  paucity  of  eggs  at  Mionoseki. 
Hearn  (U.  J.  I.  p.  231)  gives  a  humorous  description  of  the  troubles  which  befall 
anyone  carrying  as  much  as  the  image  of  a  chicken  in  defiance  of  the  deity's 
wrath.  It  seems  that  the  God  used  to  spend  some  of  his  time  fishing  at  Cape 
Miho  at  night,  and  it  is  even  hinted  that  his  occupations  were  not  always  of  so 
simple  a  nature,  so  that  he  had  made  it  the  cock's  duty  to  crow  loudly  at  sunrise 
to  warn  him  that  it  was  time  for  him  to  return.  Once,  however,  chanticleer 


IKKIlt    ANT)    THK   JOKO 
(Sheza  Kato  collection) 


failed  in  his  duty,  and  Koto-Shiro,  on  the  return  journey,  having  lost  his  oars, 
had  to  paddle  with  his  own  august  hands,  which  the  fishes  sorely  bit.  Hence 
his  hatred  of  chickens,  the  effects  of  which  the  native  simple  folks  dare  not  bring 
upon  themselves. 

179.  EISHUKUKEI  Hf  ^  JJpp.      (A  man  on  precipice,  bowing  to  Sennins 
playing  Go  above.)     One  day  the  Emperor  Bu  of  Kwan  wanted  to  know  where 
Eishukukei  lived,  as  it  was  known  in  his  native  district  of  Chuzan  that  he  eat 
mother-of-pearl,  and  he  passed  for  a  wizard.     So  he  sent  to  Hakuryo  for  the  son 
of  the  sage,  named  TAKUSEI  j|£  •{£,  and  ordered  him  to  go  to  Mount  Kwa  to 
hunt  up  his  father.     The  son,  when  he  reached  the  mountain,  saw  his  father, 
seated  on  a  rock  floored  with  jewels  and  shaded  by  a  purple  cloud,  occupied  at 
playing  with  several  other  sages  a  game  of  Go.      He  inquired  who  were  the 
players,  and  his  father  told  him :    Kogaisensei,  Kyoyu,  Sofu,  and  Ojishin.     He 
then  reproved  him  for  his  interference,  and  telling  him  that  there  was  a  talisman 
hidden  under  the  pillar  of  his  house,  sent  him  home.     (Ehon  Kojidan.} 

1 80.  EMMA  O,  EMMA  TEN.     See  YEMMA,  Regent  of  Hell. 

181.  ENCHIN   H  %,   Buddhist   priest   (814-891),    founder   of   the   Jimon 
branch   of   the   Tendai   Sect.      He    received   from    Go    Daigo    the    posthumous 
title  of  CHISHO  DAISHI. 

182.  ENDO    MORITO    ^  ^  ^  ^,    (MONGAKU    SHONIN)  ^C  ^  _h  A 
also  called  ENDO  MUSHA  MORITO  ^  |ffc  3^  ^  ^  ^,  from  his  military  grade, 
Mushado   Koro,   was  a  captain  living  in  Kyoto,  who  fell  in  love  with  KESA 
|S|  He,   wife   of   a   Samurai,   WATANABE  WATARU  fj|f  $§£  ^,    in    1143.      As  she 
resisted  his  entreaties,  he  vowed   to   kill   her  family,  unless   she  allowed  him 
to   kill   her   husband   and   became   his   wife.      She    made   an   appointment    to 
receive  him   in  her  house  at  night,   when  he   would  find  her  husband  asleep 
in   a   room,   alone,   and   could   kill   him.      Endo  came,   and   cut   off  the  head 
of  the  sleeping  individual  he  met  in   the  appointed   room,  only  to  find  that 
it   was  the  lady  herself,  who,   taking  the  opportunity   of   her   husband  being 
on   a   journey,  had   dressed  herself  in  some  of  his  clothes,  and  sacrificed  her 



life  to  save  her  honour.  Endo,  finding  his  mistake,  was  overcome  with 
grief,  and,  repenting  his  evil  ways,  shaved  his  head  and  became  a  monk, 
under  the  new  name  of  MONGAKU.  He  retired  to  the  district  of  Oki,  and 
for  twenty-one  days  remained  naked,  holding  in  his  teeth  the  dorge-shaped 
handle  of  his  bell,  counting  his  beads,  and  praying  under  the  waterfall  of 
Machi  (Kumano,  Kii).  Another  version  says  that  he  began  his  penance  on 
the  2oth  day  of  the  i2th  month,  and  that  three  days  after  his  body  froze, 
but  FUDO  Mio-6  and  his  two  attendants  lifted  him  from  under  the  icicles 
and  brought  him  back  to  life.  One  of  the  Mountains  of  Oki  bears  the 
name  of  Mongakuzan,  in  his  honour,  and  in  commemoration  of  the  holiness 
which  he  managed  to  attain.  Mongaku  doing  penance  is  a  pretty  common 

He  is  said  to  have  been  sent  to  Izu  in  1179,  and  to  have  incited 
YORITOMO  to  fight  the  TAIRA,  and  later  to  have  been  exiled  to  Okishima, 
where  he  died,  because  of  a  plot  against  the  Emperor  TAMEHITO  (Tsuchi 
Mikado)  in  1199,  a  behaviour  hardly  to  be  expected  from  a  man  who  had 
acquired  such  a  store  of  merit. 

183.  ENJOBO  was  a  priest  of  Owari,  whose  claim  to  celebrity  consists  in 
his  having  got  rid  of  BIMBOGAMI,  the  God  of  Poverty,  by  means  of  a  charm,  used 
whilst  imitating  with  peach  tree  twigs  the  action  of  pushing  someone  out  of 
doors,  and  forthwith  shutting  the  doors  of  the  temple.      This  operation  took 
place  on  the  last  day  of  the  year,  but  Enjobo's  slumbers  were  troubled  the  same 
night  by  a  dream,  in  which  the  skeleton  of  a  priest  came  and  reproached  him  for 
having  thrown  away  his  companion  of  so  many  years.     (See  Bimbogami.) 

184.  ENKO   DAISHI   M  ;)fc  ;fc  ^ifi.      Posthumous    title    bestowed    upon 
the   monk  GENKU,  also  called  HONEN  SHONIN  (1133-1212),  who,  after  passing 
four  years  in  the  monastery  of   Hiyeizan,  without  finding  the  complete  truth 
he    was    seeking,    left    it    when    eighteen    years    old    to    go    to    Kurodani, 
and,   rejecting   the   practices   of   the    Tendai    sect,   became   the   first   exponent 
of   the   Jodo  sect.      He   is   said  to  have  limited   his   prayers   to  the  repetition 
sixty  thousand  times  daily  of  the  name  of  the  Buddha  Amithaba. 



185.  ENOKI    ;fif.       The    Enoki    tree    is    the    Celtus    Sinensis    or    Celtus 
Wildenoiviana ;   it  is  sacred  to  the  God  KOJIN,  and  it  is  considered  a  goblin  tree, 
inhabited  by  malevolent  onis.     Its  wood  however,  when  made  into  chopsticks,  is 
supposed  to  cure  toothache.     There  is  near  Tokio  a  tree  called  Yenkiri  Enoki 
(Union  breaking  tree),  to  which  jealous  lovers  pray.     According  to  legend,  there 
was  in  Omi,  an  Enoki  tree  over  one  thousand  years  old,  which  grew  amongst  a 
forest  of  pines  near  the  estate  of  a  Daimio  called  SATSUMA  BISHIZAEMON.     The 
latter  decided  to  have  the  tree  felled,  as  it  interfered  with  the  landscape,  seen 
from   the  castle,  obstructing  the  view  of  a  beautiful  lake.     The  Daimio  was 
beseeched  not   to  carry  out  his  idea,  but  without   avail.      During  the  night 
preceding  the  day  fixed  for  the  work,  a  dragon  appeared  to  Satsuma's  mother, 
predicting  the  end  of  her  son's  race  if  he  did  not  desist ;  Satsuma  was  deaf  to 
all  prayers,  and  the  work  was  proceeded  with.     As  the  tree  fell  to  the  ground,  a 
terrible  noise  like  a  loud  moan  was  heard,  and  Satsuma's  mother,  his  wife,  his 
children,  his  retainers,  and  finally  himself   started  to  howl  and  run  like  mad 
animals.     The  Daimio  hanged  himself,  and  his  mansion  was  deserted,  until  a 
princess  of  the  Satsuma  family,  who  had  become  a  nun  under  the  name  of  Jikin 
in  the  neighbouring  Yamashiro  temple  of  Kwannon,  was  prevailed  upon  to 
exorcise  it.     (See  Shungyo  in  the  Shobo-nen-jo-kio.} 

1 86.  EN-NO-SHOKAKU    ^  /h  £j.       One     of     the     earliest     Buddhist 
Prophets    of    Japan    living    in    the    seventeenth    century,    and    who    ascended 
several    of   the   highest    mountains,    Hakusan,    Tate   Yama,    Daisen,    etc.,    to 
consecrate  them  to  Buddha.     During  his  climbing  expeditions,  Enno  Shokaku 
was  accompanied  by  two  demons,   Goki   and  Zenki,   whom  he  had  made  his 
servants.      Both   were  endowed   with   great  magical  powers,   and   they  built, 
under    their    master's    direction,    several    bridges    over    mountain    chasms    and 
torrents.     The  popular  name  of  Shokaku  is  Yenno  Guioja.      His  supernatural 
powers  were  objected  to,  and  he  died  in  exile  at   Oshima.      He   is   depicted 
in  an  okimono  preserved  at  the  Musee  Guimet,  amongst  the  patriarchs  of  the 
Shingon  sect  of  Japanese  Buddhism. 

187.  ENRYAKU-JI  $E  H  ^f.     The  temple  founded  on  the  Hiyeizan  by 
SAICHO    (later    dignified   with    the   title   DENGYO    DAISHI)   in   788,   during   the 



Enryaku  Nengo  (782-805).  More  than  three  thousand  temples  followed  its 
erection;  they  were  then  called  Hokurei,  and  became  the  headquarters  of 
the  Yamabushi,  whose  dissolute  ways  led  them  to  terrorise  the  whole  town 
of  Kyoto,  and  to  rebel,  with  ASAKURA  ECHIZEN  NO  KAMI,  against  Nobunaga, 
who  in  1573  captured  all  the  temples  and  purified  them  by  reducing  the  lot 
to  ashes. 

1 88.  ENSHI   $\\  ^.      The   Chinese  paragon,  YEN  TSZE,  depicted  hidden 
in  a  deer's  hide.     His  mother  suffered  from  an  eye  disease  for  which  the  milk 
of  deer  was  reputed   the   only   remedy.      He   went    to    the    mountains    to    get 
some,  hiding  in  the  hide  of  a  stag,  and  laid  in  wait  for  a  doe.      All   he   got 
was    a    severe    hiding    from    a    party    of    disgusted    hunters,    who,    however, 
pardoned  him  his  disguise  when  they  understood  his  story. 


189.  The   fan    is    characteristic    of    the    Japanese ;    in    olden    times,    i.e., 
before  1868,  it  was  the  attribute  of  every  individual — man,    woman,  coolie   or 
prince — and   likewise   it   was   put   to  every  possible  use,   doing  duty  either  as 
an  insignia  of  commandment  or  as  a  substitute  for  fire  bellows. 

Fans  are  of  two  sorts :  the  flat,  or  Chinese,  fan,  named  Uchiwa,  and  the 
folding  fan,  Ogi,  Hi-Ogi,  or  Awo-Gi.  The  Uchiwa  was  imported  from  Corea, 
and  remained  in  general  use  up  to  the  fifteenth  century.  It  is  the  attribute  of 
Fukurokujiu,  Jurojin,  Benten,  Bishamon,  Seiobo  and  the  Queen  of  the  Sea,  etc. 

The  folding  fan,  however,  displaced  it  amongst  the  male  population,  and 
even  took  the  place  of  a  short-tapered  staff,  called  Shaku,  which,  ceremonial 
decreed,  had  to  be  held  against  the  belt,  at  a  certain  angle,  to  give  its 
holder  a  dignified  appearance  when  appearing  before  the  Imperial  family. 

The  invention  of  the  folding  fan  is  attributed  to  the  widow  of 
Atsumori  (q.v.),  who  is  credited  with  having  cured  the  abbot  of  Meido  by 
her  use  of  the  folding  fan.  Another  story  attributes  the  invention  to  a  fan 
maker  of  the  Tenji  period  (668-672)  living  near  Kyoto,  at  Tamba,  and 
whose  name  has  been  forgotten.  The  poor  man  was  married  to  a  shrew, 
and  one  night  a  bat  came  into  their  room ;  the  woman  started  to  revile  her 
husband  for  not  getting  up  to  throw  the  vampire  out ;  the  poor  animal 


ENSI1I    (//..V.7-.) 

FOX   GHOST   (.;.) 


K\l)0    MOKITO    (ir.!..K.) 
FOXES    WEDDING    (/t.S.T.) 

EARTHQUAKE    FISH    (t:./f.\.) 

1-ROG,    SNAKE,     SLUG    (II'.L.K.) 

FOXES   AND   BI.1NDMEN    (C.//..V.) 


came  in  contact  with  the  lamp  and  scorched  its  wings,  falling  to  the  floor. 
As  the  man  picked  it  up  to  put  it  out  of  doors,  one  of  the  wings  opened, 
and  gave  him  the  idea  of  a  folding  fan  which  could  be  carried  in  one's 
sleeve.  The  first  one  which  he  made  was  composed  of  twenty-five  slats  of 
Hinoki  wood,  hence  the  name  Hi  Ogi  given  to  it. 

The  slats  are  fixed  between  two  Ova  hone,  or  parent  sticks,  slightly 
curved  inwards  to  keep  the  fan  compact  when  closed,  and  the  whole  is 
rivetted  by  means  of  a  bit  of  tube  and  two  washers,  called  the  Kaname 
(Crab's  eye). 

Daggers  (Tanto)  are  often  made  with  the  scabbard  and  handle  shaped 
like  a  closed  fan. 

War  Fans  were  made  of  metal,  iron  or  bronze  as  a  rule ;  those  used 
by  Generals  bore  on  one  side  the  red  Sun  of  Yamato  on  gold  ground,  and  on 
the  other  the  moon  or  dragons  and  groups  of  stars ;  but  the  decoration  of 
metal  fans  varies  much. 

The  following  list  gives  the  names  of  the  chief  varieties  of  fans  :— 

Akoya  Ogi,  of  sixteen  blades,  painted  with  emblematic  designs  and 
from  the  two  outside  sticks  of  which  depended  bunches  of  long  streamers. 
(Isai  Gwcishiki,  1864.) 

Akome  Ogi.  The  folding  fan  attributed  to  Atsumori's  widow,  composed 
of  thirty-nine  inside  blades,  painted  white,  and  decorated  with  the  emblems 
of  longevity :  the  Chrysanthemum,  Ume,  and  Matsu  figured  in  lacquer.  This 
type  of  fan  was  used  by  the  court  ladies  until  1868. 

Chukei.     A  fan  carried  by  priests  and  nobles. 

Gumbai  Uclriiva,  made  of  two  pieces  of  leather,  or  of  iron,  fastened 
together  on  either  side  of  the  straight  stick,  and  used  in  war  only. 

Gun  Sen.  Also  a  war  fan,  either  flat  or  folding,  and  made  of  metal, 
chiefly  iron. 

Hi  Ogi,  made  of  twenty- three  inside  blades  of  Chamaerocyparis  obtusa 
and  used  as  a  court  fan  from  the  Xlth.  century. 

Jin  Sen,  a  camp  fan  made  of  feathers,  frequently  shown  in  the  hands  of 
warriors,  the  feathers  of  the  peacock  or  of  the  pheasant  being  most  often 
used.  It  has  the  shape  of  an  Uchiwa,  with  the  feathers  pointing  separately. 



Komori.  Open  court  fan,  with  fourteen  bamboo  sticks,  upon  which  is 
pasted  coloured  paper  of  any  shade,  except  the  unlucky  green  and  light 

Mai  Ogi.  Dancer's  fans,  used  from  the  XVIIth.  century.  They  are  built 
upon  ten  ribs  only,  and  held  together  by  a  leaden  rivet.  They  are  covered 
with  thick  monochrome  paper,  with  a  Man  painted  on  it. 

Maki  Uchhva.  These  fans  are  so  built  as  to  allow  of  their  being  rolled 
up  like  an  umbrella  around  the  central  stick. 

Mizn  Uchhva.  Fans  made  in  Fukui,  with  waterproof  paper,  and  which 
are  occasionally  dipped  in  water  to  reduce  the  temperature  when  in  use. 
They  were  invented  about  the  end  of  the  XYIIth.  century,  and  are  often 

Mita  Ogi,  are  huge  fans  carried  by  firemen,  and  used  in  processions 
and  festivities.  They  are  seven  feet  long,  and  are  made  of  six  blades  of 
Hinoki  wood. 

Rikin  Ogi.  Tea  ceremony  fans,  dating  from  the  beginning  of  the 
XVIIth  century ;  they  have  only  three  sticks,  and  were  designed  by  SEN- 
NO-RiKir,  of  tea  ceremony  fame.  See  Cn.v  NO  Yu. 

Shibu  Uchhva,  are  used  for  kitchen  purposes ;  they  are  liberally  coated 
with  the  evil-smelling  mucilage  made  from  unripe  persimmons,  and  from 
which  they  take  their  name. 

Suye  Hiro  Ogi,  are  very  flexible  fans  used  in  the  No  dances,  and  the 
skeleton  of  which  consists  of  fifteen,  eighteen,  or  twenty-five  sticks. 

Tetsn  Sen,  are  the  folding  war  fans,  with  ten  iron  ribs,  dating  from 
the  Xllth.  century,  the  covering  of  which  consists  of  stiff  monochrome  paper, 
with  designs  of  the  red  sun  and  the  moon. 

Uma  Jirushi  (horse  ensign),  was  a  huge  fan  with  silk  covering  and 
sticks  five  feet  long,  mounted  at  the  end  of  a  pole  some  fifteen  feet  long ; 
it  was  used  as  an  ensign  by  the  Tokugawa  Shoguns. 

For  an  extensive  illustrated  monograph  on  fans,  see  Mrs.  Salwey's 
book  and  her  Japan  Society  paper,  which  have  been  to  some  extent  used 
in  the  above  article. 



The  fan  plays  a  role  in  a  great  many  stories,  amongst  which  see 
VASHI  the  wrestler.  See  also  EMBLEMS,  ATTRIBUTES,  and  OMENS. 

190.  FAN   DANCES.      The   fan   is   the   attribute   most    commonly   used 
in    dances :    it    is    generally    shown    in    the    hands    of    the    Kagura    dancers 
(see  Manzai  dancers)  or  of  the  performer  with  the  Shishi  mask.     The  Kagura 
dance   is   said    to    commemorate    the    performance    of    UZUME    when    getting 
Amaterasu   out   of   the   cave.      In    the   Fan    Dance,   which    is,    however,    more 
of   a   juggler's   performance   than    a    dance,    the   fan   represents   the   leaves   of 
a   pine   tree,   and   the   performer   adds   to   the    number   he   carries   until   some 
are   balanced   on   his   forehead,   nose   or   mouth,   hands   and   feet. 

191.  FAN   GAMES.      See   GAMES. 

192.  FAN   LI   ^  ?H.      See   HANREI. 

193.  FIREFLY   LOVER.      See   HOTARU    HIME. 

194.  FISH    ^&.      See   EARTHQUAKE   FISH. 

195.  FISH    ^   (DRIED)   or    HIMONO   -f  *$} ,    forms    often    a    motive    for 
Kodzukas  and    Netsuke.      Given    as    a    present    to    anyone    entering    upon    a 
journey,  it     has     a     hidden     meaning,     and    expresses     the    wish     that     the 
recipient  will   be   "well   preserved"    in   health. 

It  is  also  given  with  some  peas  (mame),  the  allusion  being  a  pun  on 
mame  (busy  or  healthy),  and  expressing  the  same  wish.  A  grilled  HERRING 
has  also  a  hidden  meaning ;  KONOSHIRO  means  "  burnt  castle,"  and  this 
unlucky  double  entente  made  it  a  very  ominous  food,  of  which  nobles  took 
good  care  never  to  partake,  fearing  lest  the  omen  should  apply  to  their 
own  castles.  IWASHI,  a  sardine,  like  the  Himono,  is  used  to  prevent  the 
return  of  the  demons  after  their  expulsion  on  New  Year's  Eve,  as  described 
under  CHARMS.  This  custom  has  given  rise  to  a  proverb :  Iwashi  no  atama 
mo  shinjin  gara — "  Even  the  head  of  a  sardine  can  do  something  for  you 
if  you  pray  (to  it)  long  enough."  And  the  proverb  is  sometimes  found 
illustrated  in  print,  an  Iwashi  head  surrounded  with  rays  being  prayed  to 
by  several  individuals  prostrated  before  it. 


KAZUNOKO  (dried  roe  of  herring),  means  many  children,  .and  as 
expression  of  this  wish  is  used  in  the  New  Year's  festival. 

FISH  HEAD.  A  wooden  hollow  fish  head  is  used  as  a  sort  of  drum  in 
Shinto  temples;  it  is  commonly  called  Waniguchi  (crocodile  mouth).  Wooden 
gongs,  made  in  the  shape  of  a  fish,  and  hollow,  are  used  in  China. 

FISH  (made  of  paper).  On  the  Tango  no  Sekku,  or  boys'  festival, 
taking  place  on  the  5th  of  May,  huge  Carps,  made  of  paper  or  of  cotton 
cloth,  are  attached  to  masts  and  poles,  one  for  each  boy  in  the  household, 
as  an  allusion  to  the  emblematic  perseverance  of  the  A'oz,  which  swims 
against  the  current  and  even  attempts  to  leap  waterfalls  (see  CARP).  In 
a  like  manner,  the  boy  is  expected  to  fight  against  adversity  and  reach  a 
fortunate  position  in  the  world. 

196.  FISH    SAVE.      A   Japanese   Ambassador    to    China,    married    there, 
and   after   his  departure  for   his  native   land,  his   Chinese  wife   gave  birth   to 
a   son.       The    father    refusing    to    return    to    live    witli    his    wife   and    offspring 
in    China,    the    mother   cast    the  boy   into    the   sea,    where    a    fish    picked   him 
up   and   carried   him    to   the  coast  of  Osaka,   landing  him  just    as   his  father 
passed   by.      The   boy   was    given    the   name   of   Fish   Save. 


In  Hokusai's  Mang-wa  are  pictured  a  series  of  mythical  creatures,  whose 
bodies  are  partly  related  to  the  genus  Homo,  and  which  are  called  Mythical 
Foreigners  in  Anderson's  Catalogue  of  pictures,  etc.,  in  the  British  Museum  :— 

CHOHI    or   TENAGA,    long   arms. 

CHOKYAKU   or  ASHINAGA,   long   legs. 

CHOJI,    long   ears. 

GEKIBOKU,  tailed  men,  carrying  on  the  shoulder  a  hoe,  to  dig  holes 
in  the  ground  for  their  tails.  See  Telliamed,  1748,  for  a  similar  myth. 

HITOBAN,  flying  head,  probably  one  of  the  Bakemono,  but  the  hands 
of  this  creature  can  also  fly  away  in  opposite  directions  during  the  night, 
and  return  to  the  body  in  the  morning. 

IPPI,   half   man,   shown   walking   with   his   mate   (Vol.  III). 

JIURI,   one   arm   and   one   leg   only. 



KAFURI  UMIN,  flying  men,  shown  in  Vol.  III.  with  a  bird's  bill, 
and  in  Vol.  XL  with  a  human  face.  They  are  said  to  live  in  Funtan. 
See  TENGU. 

KOGAN,   nape   eye,    with   bow   and   arrow. 

KOBITO,   pigmies,    nine   inches   high. 

KOKEI,   crooked   legs. 

KUKOKU,  dog's  head  (has  a  wife  of  normal  appearance,  shown  next 
to  him). 

MUFUKU,    no   belly. 

MITSUME  KOZO,  with  a  third  eye  in  centre  of  forehead,  is  one  of 
the  Bakemono 

ROKUROKUBI,    whirling   neck. 

SANSHIU,   triple  face. 

SANSHIN,    triple   body   with   one   head   only. 

SENKIO,  perforated  chest.  q.v.  Anderson  gives  the  name  Kenkio, 
although  the  Kana  transliteration  in  the  Mangwa  reads  Senkio  A^jMJj&j 

TEIREI,   horse   legs. 

UMIN,    flying   men   (same   as   Kafuri   Umin). 

Several  of  these  are  also  described  as  Goblins.  Most  are  drawn  from 
the  chapters  on  the  Ethnography  of  the  foreign  and  barbarous  countries 
in  the  Wakan  san  sai  Dzuye  and  from  other  Chinese  sources ;  Japanese 
artists,  however,  have  not,  as  a  rule,  given  much  prominence  to  these 
creatures ;  the  Dutchman,  the  curly  haired  foreigner  with  a  long  trumpet 
(like  the  Tibetan  ones)  and  his  female  companion,  of  shorter  stature, 
with  long  straight  hair,  leading  a  Karashishi  at  the  end  of  a  chain  are 
more  commonly  met  with. 

Coral   divers   are   always   depicted   as   black   men   with   curly   hair. 

198.  FOX  ^.  The  Fox  bears  the  name  of  Kitsune,  and  is  reputed  an 
evil  creature,  a  great  many  degrees  more  so  than  the  Badger  (Tanuki) 
(q.v.),  and  capable  of  demoniacal  powers,  such  as  possession.  This  form  of 
misfortune  bears  the  recognised  name  of  Kitsune-tsuki,  and,  according  to 
B.  H.  Chamberlain  (Demoniacal  possession  in  Things  Japanese),  the  belief  in 



it  is  still  strong,  even  in  these  years  of  enlightened  scepticism.  The 
belief  in  foxes'  magic  came  from  China  about  the  tenth  century,  and 
the  mere  description  of  the  evil  deeds  of  foxes  would  fill  a  volume. 
An  essay  on  the  subject  will  be  found  in  Lafcadio  Hearn's  Unfamiliar 
Japan,  Vol.  /.,  pp.  316,  &  seq.  The  Inari  fox,  by  exception,  is  a 
well-disposed  creature,  perhaps  the  messenger  of  the  God  of  rice  and 
harvest  had  to  become  benevolent,  but  the  others,  the  field  fox,  the 
Kokko,  the  Jenko,  Reikko,  are  bad,  and  worse  than  all  is  the  man  fox, 
the  Ninko,  or  Hoto  Kitsune. 

Foxes  are  long-lived  animals ;  at  the  age  of  a  hundred  they  may 
possess  human  beings,  or  delude  them  by  taking  the  form  of  women  (see 

A  fox  with  a  brush  in  its  mouth,  and  nursing  a  baby,  represents 

When  a  thousand  years  old  they  become  either  white  or  golden,  and 
their  powers  are  extremely  great ;  they  have  nine  tails,  and  take  the  name 
Kiubi  no  Kitsune.  In  Ehon  Wakan  Homare  such  a  fox  described  as 
"  golden  hair  nine  tail  evil  Fox,"  is  depicted  with  human  hands,  flying 
away  from  a  warrior,  and  on  the  following  page  YUN  CHU  TSZE  (Unchiushi) 
HI  f4*  ""?*  is  shown  contemplating  a  picture  of  a  fox  dressed  as  a  courtier, 
when  he  predicts  the  ruin  of  his  country  at  the  battle  of  jj:^  jiff  |lj  Mount 
Shunan.  According  to  legend,  TA  Ki  J&  ti>  the  favourite  of  Chow  Sin, 
was  a  fox  in  woman  form  (see  the  story  of  Go  TOBA'S  concubine, 

The  fox  forms  the  popular  representation  of  Inari  Sama,  and  as  such  is 
often  met  with  in  the  form  of  stone  images,  showing  the  animal  in  a  seated 
posture,  with  or  without  small  bronze  bells,  and  which  are  used  at  the 
entrances  of  Inari's  temples  and  in  many  other  places. 

White  foxes,  with  the  sacred  jewel  in  their  ttvlons,  are  sometimes  a 
subject  met  with  in  art.  Another  familiar  subject  is  that  of  the  foxes' 
wedding,  or  KITSUNE  YOMEIRI,  when  the  sun  shines  amidst  the  rain,  the 
bride  being  carried  to  her  husband's  house.  Every  fox  is  said  to  have  a 
family  of  seventy-five,  and  possesses  the  infinite  vision  (Ten  Gan),  the  all- 



hearing  ear  (Ten  ni  tsun),  the  secret  of  the  souls  of  others  is  open  knowledge 
to  him  (7'a  shin  Isun).  He  has  the  full  knowledge  of  the  universal  past 
(Shiyuki  mei  tsim),  and  of  the  universal  present  (Zhin  kyan  Isun),  besides 
the  widest  powers  of  self-transformation  and  transmutation,  of  which  he 
makes  the  largest  use  in  its  evil  designs  upon  men. 

Like  the  badger,  the  fox  disguises  itself  as  a  priest,  or  uses  its  belly 
as  a  drum  (Kitsune  no  ham  Isuziuni),  or  generates  the  fox  fire  (kitsune-bi), 
the  Will-o'-the-wisp.  With  its  distended  belly  it  is,  like  the  badger,  some- 
times shown  with  the  Fugu  fish,  playing  with  Hotei  at  To  hachi  ken. 
They  occasionally  shave  men's  heads,  and  make  them  look  like  monks ; 
other  fox  tricks  consist  in  eating  the  grease  of  candles  after  extinguishing 
them,  of  deluding  blind  men  in  following  them  about,  grasping  their  tails, 
which  they  believe  to  be  the  kimono  of  some  friendly  guide. 

When  the  moon  is  in  the  sky  they  can  manage  to  take  its  form. 
They  are,  however,  afraid  of  wrestlers,  and  cannot  utter  complete  words :  A 
Hoin  or  a  Yamabushi  can  exorcise  them  out  of  a  possessed  individual. 

The  fox  is  worshipped  in  Matsue,  at  the  Temple  Kodomo  no  Inari,  or 
Jigyoba  no  Inari,  and  prayed  to  by  people  whose  children  fall  sick,  or 
object  to  having  their  heads  shaved,  or  refuse  to  be  bathed  (perhaps  because 
of  the  high  temperature  of  the  bath). 

In  Tales  of  Old  Japan,  A.  B.  Mitford,  now  Lord  Redesdale,  gave  two  fox 
stories.  One  (from  the  Kanzen  Yawa)  is  that  of  Tokutaro,  of  Iwahara,  in 
Shinshiu,  who,  not  believing  in  foxes,  made  a  wager  to  spend  the  night  on  the 
Maki  moor,  to  disprove  their  existence.  On  arriving  there  he  saw  a  fox  run  into 
the  hedge ;  a  moment  later  he  was  accosted  by  the  wife  of  the  headman  of  Maki, 
'  who  was  going  on  a  visit  to  her  parents  in  upper  Horikane,  and  begged  that 
he  would  accompany  her.  He  consented,  but  when  they  reached  the  house  of 
her  parents  he  told  her  father  that  she  was  undoubtedly  a  fox  in  disguise, 
and  would  prove  her  to  be  so.  In  endeavouring  to  do  so,  he  burnt  her 
to  death  in  front  of  the  kitchen  fire.  He  was  bound  with  ropes  and  tied 
to  a  post,  to  wait  till  the  morning,  when  he  would  be  taken  to  his  lord 
for  judgment.  At  that  juncture,  appeared  the  priest  of  the  temple  Anrakuji, 
of  Iwahara,  with  a  servant,  who  inquired  into  the  cause  of  the  headman  of 



Horikane's  grief,  and  recognising  Tokutaro,  offered  to  shave  his  head  and 
make  a  monk  of  him  as  a  penance  since  he  had  not  killed  the  girl  from 
any  other  cause  than  his  belief  that  she  was  a  fox.  The  headman  having 
agreed,  Tokutaro's  head  was  duly  shaved  by  the  priest  .  .  .In  the 
morning,  Tokutaro  awoke  in  the  middle  of  the  moor,  to  find  that  he  had 
been  the  victim  of  a  bad  dream,  but  his  pate  was  bare,  and  he  became 
a  priest  under  the  name  of  Sainen. 

The  story  of  the  grateful  foxes  is  more  popular.  A  man  once  bought 
for  half  a  Bu  (sevenpence)  a  fox  cub,  which  three  boys  were  going  to  kill; 
he  dressed  the  fox's  wound  and  gave  it  back  to  its  parents,  which  came 
near  him  to  find  their  cub.  A  short  while  after,  his  own  son  got  sick, 
and  the  physician  ordered  him  as  the  one  and  only  cure  the  liver  of  a  live 
fox.  None  could  be  procured,  but  late  at  night  a  messenger  came,  with 
a  liver,  stating  that  he  came  from  a  certain  person,  whose  name  he  gave, 
the  very  man  who  had  tried  to  procure  it  but  had  failed.  This  person 
being  invited  to  dinner,  after  the  child  had  recovered,  was  quite  surprised 
at  his  host's  expressions  of  gratitude,  as  apparently  he  knew  nothing  of  the 
messenger  who  had  brought  the  liver. 

During  the  same  night  the  man  had  a  dream,  in  which  the  old  vixen 
told  him  that  she  had  killed  her  cub  to  requite  her  debt  to  him,  and  that 
her  mate  had  acted  as  messenger  in  the  circumstance. 

The  BADGER  and  the  Fox.  Tanuki  and  Kitsune  were  in  sore  straits 
through  lack  of  food ;  the  badger  suggested,  that  he  would  pretend  to  be 
dead,  and  that  the  fox,  taking  human  shape,  should  carry  him  to  the 
town,  sell  him,  and  with  the  money  buy  food  for  both.  This  ruse  proved 
highly  successful,  and  the  two  animals  resolved  to  repeat  it,  changing  role  in 
turns.  The  badger,  however,  had  made  up  his  mind  to  keep  all  the  money 
for  himself,  and  when  he  sold  the  fox  whispered  to  the  buyer  that  Kitsune 
.was  shamming.  The  man  killed  the  fox.  Then  the  tale  of  vengeance 
began.  The  son  of  the  fox  made  a  wager  that  he  would  so  disguise 
himself  that  the  badger,  with  all  his  cunning,  would  not  be  able  to  recognize 
him  and  avert  his  fate.  He  would,  said  he,  dress  as  a  noble,  and  in  that 
disguise ;  cross  a  certain  bridge  unheeded. 



The  badger  heard  this,  and  went  to  the  bridge  to  watch.  Late  in 
the  day  a  Daimio  passed  with  his  retinue,  and  the  badger  shouted  to  him: 
"I  know  you;  you  have  come  to  pay  me  that  wager."  The  fox  cub  was 
hidden  near  by,  and  as  the  badger  gave  himself  away  he  killed  him  on 
the  spot. 

In  another  story  of  fox  revenge,  a  goldsmith  of  Oji,  whose  work 
consisted  in  chasing  menukis  and  fuchi-kashiras  for  sword  hilts,  used  to 
scoff  at  Inari.  One  day  a  woman  came  and  asked  him  to  call  with  some 
gold  ornaments  which  one  of  her  relatives  desired  to  inspect,  with  a  view  to 
purchase.  The  goldsmith  came  as  desired,  taking  some  choice  specimens 
along,  which  the  lady  took  from  him,  begging  that  he  would  wait  at  the 
door  of  a  castle  on  the  Oto-nashi-gawa.  While  the  man  waited,  he  saw 
the  building  decay  and  crumble  to  dust  under  his  very  eyes ;  nothing 
remained  but  a  ruined  well,  from  which  flew  away  a  fox,  snarling  at  the 
bewildered  goldsmith. 

Eoxes  are  shown  amongst  chrysanthemums,  as  an  allusion  to  another 
fox  girl  story.  A  prince,  having  once  become  infatuated  with  a  beautiful 
young  girl,  her  real  form  was  later  revealed  to  him  as  she  was  sleeping 
amongst  chrysanthemums,  when  she  resumed  the  shape  of  a  fox. 

.  .In  one  of  the  No  dances  is  preserved  a  presentment  of  the  legend, 
according  to  which  Inari  Sama,  the  Fox  God,  helped  the  smith  Sanjo 
Kokaji  Munechika  to  forge  a  sword  for  the  Emperor. 

B.  H.  Chamberlain  says  that  Inari  blew  the  bellows  for  Kokaji,  the 
swordsmith,  and  that  this  legend  is  commemorated  in  the  fires  lighted  on 
the  "occasion  of  the  Fuigo  Matsuri,  or  feast  of  the  bellows,  on  the  8th  of 

Kitsune  Tsuki  is  a  common  subject  in  art :  a  fox,  wrapped  in  a  man's 
dress,  slumbers  near  or  under  a  sheaf  of  straw.  The  hunter,  who  unexpectedly 
finds  the  animal,  is  too  surprised  to  kill  it.  Or,  the  reapers  in  the  field 
think  that  they  see  a  fox,  while  it  is  only  their  master's  servant  bringing 
them  food,  and  the  poor  man  gets  beaten  to  death. 

Foxes   are  also   depicted  attempting   to   break   Daruma's   meditation. 

In  his  translation  of  Chiushingnya  (2nd  Edition,  p.  80),  Mr.  F.  V.  Dickins 



gives  the  following  names  of  Goblin  foxes :  Shinochr,  Kurosuke,  Reita  Sansuke, 
Osuke,  Yatsuyama,  and  Kuzunoha.  See  also  the  Hundred  Stories  of  Monsters, 
Ehon  Hiaku  Monogatari  (3  vols.,  illustrated  by  Takehara  Shunsen). 

199.  FROG.  The  frog  and  the  toad  are  of  common  occurrence  in 
Japanese  art.  See  TOAD,  GAMA  Sennin,  JIRAIYA,  KOSHIN  Sennin,  ONO  NO  TOFU, 
CHUGORO,  TOKUBEE.  Frogs  over  an  upturned  water-bucket,  or  basking  upon 
a  lotus  leaf  while  a  kingfisher  watches  his  opportunity  to  pick  the  delicate 
morsel ;  frogs  ascending  Fuji  with  hats,  umbrellas,  and  picnic  box  made  of 
lotus  leaves  and  fruits,  while  Fuji  itself  takes  the  appearance  of  a  huge 
frog's  head ;  frogs  drilling  like  soldiers,  playing  with  foxes  and  monkeys, 
or  worshipping  another  and  bigger  frog,  seated  amongst  leaves  like  an 
enthroned  Buddha,  are  but  a  few  common  adaptations  of  this  animal. 

The  frog,  in  company  with  the  snake  and  slug,  form  an  allegory 
called  Sa«  Sukumi,  "the  three  cringing  ones,"  afraid  of  one  another  because 
the  snake  can  eat  the  frog,  which  disposes  of  the  snail,  but  the  slimy 
secretion  of  the  latter  is  fatal  to  the  snake.  This  belief  is  made  use  of  in 
the  legend  of  Jiraiya,  where  magic  powers  in  the  same  relation  to  one 
another  are  attributed  to  the  three  animals. 

There  is  a  proverb  which  says :  "  What  does  the  water  frog  in  the  well 
know  of  the  great  ocean  ? "  and  it  is  said  that  a  Kioto  frog  and  an  Osaka 
frog,  feeling  hurt  by  the  aspersion  thus  cast  upon  their  race,  decided  to  set 
upon  their  travels  and  enlarge  their  minds  by  contemplating  the  Eastern 
Ocean  and  the  China  Sea  respectively.  They  met  on  the  road  after  enduring 
many  hardships,  and  after  the  usual  greetings,  inquired  from  one  another  what 
the  two  towns  were  like.  They  found  that  there  was  hardly  any  difference 
between  them,  according  to  one  another's  description,  and  the  older  frog 
suggested  that  instead  of  going  further,  they  should  both  set  back  and 
return  to  their  own  wells,  saving  themselves  further  trouble  and  travel. 
And  they  did  so,  returning  home  feeling  that  they  had  been  very  foolish, 
but  consoling  themselves  with  the  old  proverb  that  "  Even  Kobodaishi 
drew  some  characters  badly." 

The  croaking  of  frogs  is  not   very   melodious,   which    may   account  for 
their  being  called   Dutch    nightingales,    with    the    exception   of   the    Kajika, 


KITSITNE   KEN'   (ir.L.B.) 
NINE   TAILS   FOX   (.V.£.) 

KIT.SUNE  TSUK1    (a.s.T.) 

FOXWOMAN  (U.S. r.) 


K1TSUNE   ODOKI    (./.) 


whose  cry  is  esteemed.  The  Emperor  Go  TOBA  strongly  objected  to 
the  noise,  and  since  his  days  the  frogs  of  Shike-kuro-no  Ike  have  been 
silent  (q.v.). 

ONO  NO  TOFU,  the  caligraphist  (q.v.),  was  encouraged  in  his  studies  by 
watching  a  frog  trying  to  get  at  a  willow  leaf  hanging  over  a  stream.  The 
subject  is  used  in  the  Hana  garuta  (nth  month  set). 

For  the  Erog   in   the   Moon,   see   CHAN -Gnu. 

A  man  crouching,  in  a  peculiar  pose  and  with  a  vacuous  expression  on 
his  face,  is  also  intended  to  represent  a  frog.  (See  drawings  by  Toyokuni.) 

200.  FU    DAISHI  /ff  ^  @p.      A  Chinese  priest,  who  lived  in   the   Vlth 
century.      He  is  generally  represented  between  his  two  sons,  FUJO  ^  jfc   and 
FUKEN  ^  $|£,  and  popularly  called  WARAI  BOTOKE  (the  laughing  God).     He  is 
credited  with  the  invention  of  the  revolving  bookcase,  or  Rinso,  containing  the 
6,771  sacred  books  of  Buddhism,  and  which  it  suffices  to  revolve  three  times  to 
acquire    as    much    merit    as    would    be    obtained   by   the  earnest   perusal   of 
the    whole,    besides    which,    a    long  and   prosperous   life   is   thus  secured   by 
means  of  a  relatively  slight  physical  exertion.     Fu  Daishi  and  his  sons  form 
the  first  illustration  of  the  Butsu  Zo  Zui. 

The  Rinzo,  or  Tenrinzo,  is  figured  in  Hokusai's  Mangwa,  and  in  the 
work  of  William  Simpson,  The  Buddhist  Praying  Wheel,  page  115. 

201.  FUDO   >T»  I|J].       Buddhistic    divinity,    identical    with    ACHALA    the 
Immovable ;    he   is  also  called   FUDO   Mio   O,   and   is  one  of   the   Dai   Nichi 
Nyorai ;    its  other  Sanskrit   name   is  AKSHOBHYA. 

He  is  represented  seated  over  the  brink  of  a  precipice,  or  standing  on 
a  rock,  surrounded  by  flames.  In  his  right  hand  he  carries  a  vajra  hilted 
sword,  or  sometimes  the  Amakurikara,  and  in  the  left  a  rope,  which, 
according  to  some,  is  intended  to  bind  the  wicked.  According  to  Buddhist 
texts,  the  rope  is  used  by  the  God,  like  a  fishing  line,  but  with  better  and 
more  constant  results,  to  draw  men  to  the  other  side  of  the  river,  where 
they  find  the  true  knowledge. 

His  head  is  covered  with  thick  black  hair,  with  a  long  plait  of  eight 
strands  extending  to  the  left  shoulder. 



He  is  the  Divinity  of  the  waterfalls,  one  of  the  eight  patrons  of  life  in 
the  Japanese  astrology,  and  also  the  God  of  Wisdom.  He  has  two  acolytes: 
one,  pink  coloured,  is  KONGARA  DOJI,  the  other,  like  a  red  lotus,  is  SEITAKA 
DOJI,  both  of  whom  are  often  indentified  with  CHOCEN  and  CHOAKU, 

202.  FUGEN   BOSATSU   ^  |£  (SAMAXTA   BHADRA).      The   Chinese   Pu- 
HIEN,   a   Buddhist   divinity,  seated  at   the   left   of   the   Buddha  (Sheika)..     He 
is  as  a  rule  shown  with  a  roll  of  texts  in  his  clasped  hands,  or  occasionally 
a   lotus,   and   seated    on   an   elephant,    the    latter    having   often   as   many   as 
three   pairs   of   tusks ;    or   sometimes   seated   upon   a   group   of   elephants. 

He  is  the  God  who  dispenses  knowledge  and  wisdom,  and  is  the 
spiritual  son  of  Dai  Nichi  Niorai  (Yairotchana). 

Fugen  is  the  patron  of  the  extatic  sect,  which  practises  the  Hokkezammai. 

203.  FUH    HI    ^^,   or   FUKKI,    the   Inventor   of   the    Eight    Diagrams 
of  the  Chinese.     See  SHINNO. 

204.  FUJI    YAMA   H  ±  Uj,    FUJI    SAN.       "  The "    mountain    of    Japan, 
celebrated  in  art  and  in  poetry  from  the  earliest  times.      Hokusai  devotes  to 
its  appearance  the  hundred  views  of  Fuji    (Fuji   Hyakkei),   and   the   thirty-six 
views,  Saigio-Hoshi's  contemplation  of  the  peerless  (/f^  "".)  snow-clad  mountain 
is  a  common  subject,  not  only  for  the  artist,  but  even  for  the  free  caricature 
of   the   school-boy.      The   poet   Narihira    cannot   tear   himself  away   from    it, 
and   stops   with   his   retinue   at   the   foot   of    the    peak,    composing    a    poem. 
Jofuku    is    said    to    have    ascended    Fuji,   and   found   there   the   monks   from 
Mount  Horai    concocting   the   elixir  of  life  (^f»  ^E  Fuji,  immortal),  which  his 
master,  the  Chinese  Emperor,  SHIN  NO  SHIKO  (see  CHENG),  had  sent  him  to  seek, 
with  the  result  that   he   came   over   to   Japan  with  500  Chinese  couples  and 
the  best  books  of  China.      His    deception    being    found,   the   Chinese    sages 
were   put   to   death   and   all   the   books    destroyed.      (This    legend    is    not   in 
agreement  with  the  Chronology  of  Mayers'  Chin.  Read.  Manual.} 

It  is  usually  credited  that  Lake  Biwa  was  formed  at  the  same  time 
as  Fuji  San.  Fuji  is  associated  with  dreams,  as  the  omen  of  greatest 


DRAGON    ASCENDING    FI'JI    (//.) 

FUKUSUKE   (A.B.)  TEE   DREAM    (.-;.) 

FUJI    IN   THE  SAKE  CUP.— HAICHU    NO   FUJI— (,/.) 

NARIHIRA   (../.) 


luck.      Dragons,   across   the   mountains   or   clouds,   or   the    Caps   of   Fuji,   are 
common   art   subjects. 

205.  FUJIFUSA  $ffc  H  [jj$£  )^]  (FUJIWARA).      Patriot    and,    according    to 
legend,  later,   monk  (1335)  who  accompanied  the  Emperor,  Go  DAIGO,  during 
his  exile.      The  Yedo  Osetsuyo  (I.   28)  compares  him  with   HANREI. 

206.  FUJI   HIME    jj$£  $|§.       Princess     Fuji,    the    divinity    who     inhabits 
Fuji  Yama.     She  is  also  called  the  "Princess  who  causes  the  blossoms  of  trees 
to  flower"  (Ko-no-hana-saku-ya-hime),  or  ASAMA,  or  SEXGEX,  and  is  pictorially 
represented   with   a    large  sun   hat  and  a  twig   of   wistaria  (perhaps  through 
some  popular  pun  upon  Fuji   *^.  C  and  Fuji  ^  t> — wistaria  )§fc)  in  her  hand; 
the   name   of   her   elder   sister    is    IXYAXAGA    HIME.      Some   of   their   adventures 
in    the   age   of   the  Gods  have  been   recorded  in  the  Kojiki  and   the   Nihongi. 

207.  FUJIX  (FUTEX)  5c  Ji,  (FENG  PKH  JH  f£).     The  God  of  the  Winds, 
shown  with  the  head  of  a  demon,  two  claws  on  each  foot  and  a  thumb,  with 
three   claw-like    fingers   on   each    hand,    with    one   of   which    he    grasps  a  bag 
containing   the    winds,    whilst    the    other  holds    a    spear    from    which    depends 
a  red  pennant.      When  thus  depicted  he   is   one   of   the   Twelve   Deva   Kings, 
VASU  ;    when   without    the   spear,    he    grasps    his    bag    with   both   hands,    the 
winds   escaping   from    one    end    of    it.       He  is    sometimes    shown    with    Raijin, 
the  Thunder   God,  whose   attributes   he   occasionally   borrows,   both    repairing 
their    "plant,"    very    much    the    worse    for    wear,    or    fighting    in    the    sky. 

208.  FUJIWARA    $H  |j^.       Powerful    family,    who    from    660    to     1050 
practically  ruled   Japan,   and   who,   even  after   the   advent   of   the   Shogunate, 
kept    to   the   fore   of   the   Japanese    nobility.      From    its    ranks   were   selected 
the  Empress  and  the  chief  officials.      The  name   has   also   been   honoured   by 
artists  and  poets,  besides  warriors. 

209.  FUJIWARA   HIDESATO   ^  |jjp.      See  TAWARA   TODA   (HIDESATO). 

210.  FUJIWARA   SADATOSHI    jf|  ^.      Shown    unwrapping   the   Biwa 
sent   him   by   his   Chinese    master,    Liu   (RenjSbo).     (Zen  Ken  Kojitsu.} 

211.  FUJITSUNA  ||fc  $PSJ  (Aworo  SAYEMON).     See  the  story  of  the  LOST 
CASH.      Once   during   a   famine   the   Shogun,   TOKIYORI,    was    sending   rice   to 



a  convent,  when  one  of  his  oxen  relieved  himself  in  the  river.  AWOTO 
FUJITSUNA  said :  "  See  how  the  ox  follows  the  example  of  his  master." 
Explaining  that  the  Shogun  was  sending  rice  to  the  wealthy  priests  while 
the  people  were  starving,  and  that  likewise  the  ox  contributed  to  the  river, 
which  was  already  full  of  water,  instead  of  waiting  until  it  came  across 
a  paddy  field  suffering  from  the  drought. 

Fujitsuna's    wit    was    appreciated    by    the    Shogun,    who    offered   him   a  ' 
place   at   court,   but   he   strenuously   refused. 

212.  FUJO  and   FUKEN.      Sons   of  Fu   Daishi   (q.v.). 

213.  FUKIUHAKU   ffi  ^  i&-     Sennin   watching   flowers   in   a   vase. 

214.  FUKUJIN    H  p.      See   SHICHI    FUKUJIN.      "  Les    Sept    Dieux    du 
Bonheur,"     according    to     Humbert,    generally    called    the    Seven    Household 
Gods,  or   the   Seven    Gods   of   Good   Fortune,   or   the   Gods   of   Luck. 

215.  FUKUKONGO,   or  AMOGHA  VAJRA  (704-774)   ^    <*?  Pu  KUNG.     A 
priest   from    India,    who   went   to    China    about   733   A.D.    under   the   Emperor 
HIUENG  TSUNG,  and  became  one  of  the  patriarchs  of  the  Tantra  sect.     Accord- 
ing to  Eitel  (C.B.)  he  introduced  a   new   alphabet    for    the    transliteration    of 
Sanskrit,  and  published   108  works,  mostly  translations. 

216.  FUKUROKUJIU    jfg  jfc  tp.      One    of    the    Seven    Gods    of    Luck, 
shown   with   a   tall   head,   sometimes    much    longer    than    the    whole    of    his 
body.     Old  and  bearded,    he   is  the  God  of  Longevity,  and  as  such,  usually 
accompanied    by    the    crane    and    the    tortoise.      His    name    means    Wealth, 
Prosperity,    Longevity,   and   the   first   item   of   it   is   often   represented   by   the 
Tama,    or    sacred    jewel,     which    he    carries    in    his    hand.       A    stag,    also 
emblematic  of   long  life,  is  often  with  him.     The  Stag,  according  to  Chinese 
legend,   is   a   long-lived   creature,    but   instead   of  becoming  white   in   its   old 
age,   it   changes   to   blue   when    a    thousand   years   old,   and   to   black   at    its 
second    millenium. 

Fukurokujiu  is  bald-headed,  and  dressed  in  old-fashioned  garments : 
some  see  in  him  a  presentment  of  LAO  TSZE  (Rosni) ;  other  writers  would 
identify  him  with  Jurojin,  from  whom  he  often  borrows  the  staff  and 


FUJI    MI    SAICYO   (M.Ut.) 

SAIHYO    («..!/.) 


FU'lEN    (U.GI.) 


makimono,  or  the  fan  and  the  peculiar  head-gear,  but  not  as  a  rule  the 
dignified  countenance.  In  fact,  Fukurokujiu  is  more  often  shown  in  pleasant 
or  humorous  groups.  His  elongated  cranium  is  particularly  attractive  to 
the  other  Gods  of  Luck,  or  even  to  ordinary  boys,  who  play  with  the 
benevolent  deity,  attaching  a  scarf  around  his  head  in  a  modified  game  of 
Kubi  Kitbi  (neck  pulling),  climbing  on  his  head,  shaving  it,  standing 
upon  a  high  stack  of  tables,  etc. ;  or  Fukurokujiu  will  exhibit  his  caligraphic 
skill  with  a  brush  tied  to  his  forehead,  or  examine  some  roll  of  texts,  or 
be  depicted  exorcising  the  Oni  on  New  Year's  Eve,  or  having  a  chat  with 
the  Chinese  Emperor,  Chen  Tsung.  He  is,  of  course,  often  represented  in 
the  Tarakabune,  or  treasure  ship,  with  either  the  whole  or  part  of  the 
Shichi  Fukujin.  It  is  said  that  once  the  sage,  Ya  Kuwaboku  (KIKWAHAKU, 
q.v.),  was  visited  by  a  dwarf,  three  feet  broad,  five  feet  high,  whose  head 
was  half  his  total  height ;  this  personage  had  a  long  beard,  a  red  dress, 
and  was  very  boisterous,  he  held  in  hand  the  Kotsu  (Tablet).  Noticing 
Saisho,  the  disciple  of  Ya  Kuwaboku,  he  told  the  latter  that  this  disciple 
was  no  other  than  the  God  of  the  mountain  Tai  San.  The  author  of 
the  Ye-ma  no  te-hon  moreover  thinks  that  Jurojin  is  identical  with  Fukorokujiu; 
and  this  is  confirmed  by  the  Sogenjigo  saying  that  a  Taosse,  Fukuraku,  was 
in  Kiayen  (1056-7)  transformed  into  the  Nankiyoku  rojinsei  (southern  Star  of 
long  life),  and  obtained  the  names  Ko  no  Minami  and  Jurojin,  and  in  the 
Fnzoku  In  it  is  recorded  that  in  Gen  yo  (1086)  a  dwarf  answering  to 
the  above  description  came  to  visit  the  Emperor,  So  Chi  Zung,  and,  after 
getting  drunk,  told  him  that  he  was  Rojinsei  of  the  Southern  star,  the 
holy  one  who  prolonged  the  life  of  men. 

217.  FUKUSUKE    |g  $)].      A   Toy    made  in  the  shape  of  a  dwarf  with 
a   big   head,   sometimes   used   as    a    model    for    netsuke,   especially   poised   on 
one  foot  or  a  stool,  reaching   a   dinner  service   in   a    box,    or   as   a  shop  sign, 
or   as   the   first   figure    in   a    lantern   entertainment. 

218.  FUKUTOMI    ORIBE    jjjg  g  $j|  gR.       A    tale    which    dates    from 
circa    1340,    tells   how  a  man  named  Fukutomi  Oribe  became  extremely  rich, 
thanks   to   his   skill   as   a   punster.       He   had   a   cantankerous  wife,  who   was 



called  by  his  neighbours  Mrs.  Demon,  as  they  could  not  find  any  other 
way  to  describe  the  ugliness  of  her  person  and  the  unloveliness  of  her 
nature.  One  of  the  neighbours,  thinking  profitable  puns  easy  to  make, 
gave  up  his  own  work  to  try  imitating  Fukutomi,  but  failed  in  every 
attempt.  The  tale  forms  a  book,  intended  to  warn  people  who  yearn  for 
unexpected  luck  by  keeping  before  them  the  example  of  the  unlucky 
neighbour,  Hokusho  Tota. 

219.  FUKYOKU    SENSEI    g  Jg]  ft  &   (shown  carrying    the    tools  of  a 
mirror    polisher),  seemed   to   hail    from   a  foreign   land,    as   his   speech    differed 
from  that  of  the  people.     Me  polished  mirrors  to  earn    his  living.      One  day 
his   landlord   asked  him:    "Who  could  live  in  the  world   without  a  disease?" 
"  I  have  a  good   medicine  which  can  cure  any  disease,"  replied  the  sage,  and 
as   a   pestilence   soon   after    decimated    the    land,    he    distributed    it    on    the 
door-steps,   curing   no   less   than    ten    thousand   people   without   exacting   any 

220.  FUMON    MUKWAN    H   H  f$   M-      A   vei7    learned    priest    who 
lived    in    1212-1291,   and   who,    after   twelve    years   of   travel    in    China,   came 
back  to  his  native  land  and  succeeded  his  master  as  Abbot  of  the  temple  of 
Tofukugi.     It  was  rumoured  in   Kyoto  that   the  palace   of   Higashiyama   was 
haunted,   and    the    then    Emperor,    Kameyana,    thought   that   perhaps   a   con- 
templative Buddhist  priest  might  be  effective  as  a  demon  queller.     He  sent  for 
Fumon,  asking  him  whether  he  could  lay  the  ghosts.     The  Abbot  replied  that 
"  Even    in    the   secular   books    it   is  said  that  a  ghost  cannot  overcome  virtue, 
how  therefore  could  they  exist  where  a  priest    lives  ?  "     The  Emperor,  acting 
on    that   advice,   had   the   temple   of    Xanzenji    built    in    the   palace,   and   the 
abbot   took    his   residence    therein,    to    remain    in   possession    until   his   death, 
after  which  he  was  canonized  under  the  name  of  TAIMIN  KOKUSHI  ^  ^  13  $$• 

221.  FUNDO.      See   the   sacred   treasures   of   the   Takaramono. 

222.  FUSE    HIME   of  SATOMI.      Lady    depicted   in   court    dress,    with   a 
makimono   and   a   pet   dog.     It   is   an  illustration  of  the  story   of   SATOMI,  in 
Hakkenden.      Her   father   vowed   to   give    her   as   a   bride    to  whoever    would 


KUKIUHAKU    (...) 
FUKUSUKE   (.,. 


.,.  FUTEN-    (y..v.t-.)  FIIJ,    H,ME   (Wi_A) 



bring    him    the    head    of   one    of    his    enemies.       The    happy    suitor    was    a 

223.  FUTEN  JJS,  ;£.      See  FUJIN. 

224.  FUTON  of  TOTTORI  Jjfj  Jft.  0)  ^\  Hfl.      This  is  a  ghost  story  given 
by    Lafcadio     Heani    in    Unfamiliar    Japan.       Two    little    boys    were    living 
in   a   small   house,   after   the   death   of    their    mother.      Alone   and    penniless, 
they   could   not   pay   the   rent   of   the    place,    and    their   only   possession   was 
a    dilapidated    futon.       Their    heartless    landlord    took   possession   of   it,   and 
turned   them   out  of  doors,  where  they  hugged  one  another  for  warmth  and 
died   in   one   another's   arms,    in   the    snow    by    the    side    of    the    house.      A 
poor   innkeeper   who   had   bought  the  futon  from  the   landlord,  not   knowing 
where   it   came   from,   was   surprised  night  after  night    to   hear  the  voices  of 
the   two   brothers   comforting   one   another,    and   found   that    the   voices   were 
those   of   the   two   ghosts.      He   gave    the    futon    to    the   village    temple,    and 
had   the   Kyo   recited  upon  it  for  the  peace  of  the  infants'  souls,  after  which 
they   were   never   heard   any   more. 

225.  GAKI  !$  j|.      See   GHOSTS. 

226.  GAMA  SENNIN  4g  H  flj  A-     The  Sennin  with  the  Toad,  shown 
holding   a   toad   (sometimes   three-legged)    in   his   hand,   or   with    the    animal 
climbing   over   his    dress,   or   on   his    shoulder.      The   toad    has   often    its   full 
complement   of   legs,   and   in   some   rare   cases   it    is   even  shown  bigger  than 
the   Sennin   himself.      His   name    was    KOSENSEI   (Teacher   Ko)   f^  ^    ffi,    or 
How  SIEN  SENG,  and  he  is  described  as  having  had  no  hair  on  his  face,  not  even 
eyebrows ;  and  his  skin  was  covered  with  protuberances.    One  day  as  he  went 
to  bathe  he  was  followed  by  a  man  named  BAGEN,  who  assumed  the  form  of 
a  frog,  to  watch  the  Sage;  there  is  another  version  in  which  Kosensei  is  said 
to  have  assumed  the  frog  shape  when  in  the  water.     Kosensei,  who  put  his 
magical  knowledge  to  practical  use  by  selling  drugs  endowed  with  wonderful 
powers,  presented  Bagen  with  a  magic  pill  which  gave  him  a  hundred  years  of 
life.      He    is    sometimes    shown    in    the    act    of   giving   the  pill   to   the   toad 
or   frog. 



227.     GAMES. 

Bibliography :    Chief!}'   the   second  volume  of  the   Nihon  Fii  zo  Kit  Shi. 

The  works  of  Lafcadio  Hearn,  Griffis,  Chamberlain,  and  Mrs.  Chaplin 

A  complete  survey  of  Japanese  games  would  require  a  volume  in  itself; 
the  following  list  contains  only  some  of  the  more  common  pastimes. 

AKAMBE  consists  in  pulling  down  the  lower  eyelids,  as  explained  under 
that  word  in  the  text. 

ANA    ICHI    appears   to   correspond    to   the    Western    game   of  pitch   penny. 

CHIXSHIN  MUGA  MUGA  or  MOGURA  is  essentially  a  boy's  game ;  it 
consists  in  hopping  for  as  long  a  time  as  possible  on  one  leg  only,  the 
other  being  bent  back. 

CHIYE  xo  ITA,  boards  of  wisdom,  is  similar  to  the  French  jeu  de 
patience.  Pictures  of  some  war  scene  are  pasted  on  thin  boards,  which  are 
afterwards  sawn  in  irregular  shapes.  The  player  must  fit  them  together, 
and  reconstitute  the  picture. 

CHIYE  xo  'YVA,  ring  of  wisdom,  Chinese  puzzle  of  rings  threaded  on  a 
bar  of  metal,  much  after  the  European  types. 

COCK  FIGHTING,  TORI  NO  KEAI,  appears  to  have  been  in  vogue  in  the 
early  period  of  Japanese  history.  B.  H.  Chamberlain  tells  us  that  it  became 
a  fashionable  craze  in  1874;  whether  the  Dutch  were  responsible  for  a 
similar  fashion  during  the  seventeenth  century  is  not  clear,  but  netsuke  carvers 
have  made  of  the  Dutchman  hugging  a  cock  a  very  familiar  figure. 

DAKIU,  the  game  of  polo,  was  introduced  from  China,  where,  we  are 
told  by  Prof.  Giles,  it  was  an  Imperial  pastime,  so  highly  esteemed  that 
a  maker  of  polo  clubs  is  reputed  to  have  ascended  to  heaven,  thanks  to 
his  skill.  Dakiu,  however,  never  was  very  popular  in  Japan,  owing  to  the 
expense  it  entails.  It  differs  from  European  polo  in  several  points ;  seven 
players  on  either  side,  dressed  in  a  distinctive  colour,  enter  the  field,  each 
carrying  a  ball  of  the  same  colour  as  his  dress  balanced  in  a  sort  of 
triangular  net  formed  at  the  end  of  a  long  stick.  The  goal,  in  the  centre 
of  the  field,  some  eighteen  feet  from  the  entrance,  consists  in  a  wooden 
screen  with  an  eighteen  inch  opening  in  the  centre,  to  which  is  attached 



a  bag  of  string  netting.  The  game  consists  in  throwing  into  this  bag  in 
as  short  a  time  as  possible,  seven  balls  of  one  colour. 

Do  Cnu  SUGO  ROKU,  travelling  game ;  compare  the  French  jeu  de  I'oie. 
Its  most  popular  form  is  called  the  Game  of  the  Tokaido  road ;  it  is 
played  on  the  New  Year's  Day,  and  upon  a  large  sheet  of  paper,  on 
which  are  indicated  the  fifty-three  stations  of  the  Tokaido,  the  stakes  are 
placed  at  Kyoto,  and  the  players,  starting  from  Tokyo,  throw  dice  to 
determine  their  rate  of  progression. 

FLOATING  FAN.  This  game,  no  doubt  derived  from  the  Chinese  cup 
floating,  followed  the  same  rules.  A  winding  stream  was  selected,  upon 
which  fans,  specially  lacquered,  were  floated  by  the  players,  who  had  to 
compose  poems  during  the  time  taken  by  the  fan  to  travel  between  two 
stations,  say,  for  instance,  two  consecutive  bends  of  the  stream.  An 
illustration  will  be  found  in  Mrs.  Salwey's  paper,  "Pastimes  of  the  Japanese," 
in  Vol.  ]'.  of  the  Japan  Society's  Transaction. 

FUKU  BIKI  is  a  game  played  during  January.  One  of  the  players  holds 
a  bunch  of  ribbons,  to  which  are  attached  prizes  or  labels  bearing  puns  on 
the  prizes  given,  and  the  other  ends  are  pulled  by  the  other  players,  who 
must  guess  the  nature  of  the  things  attached  to  the  tapes  they  hold. 

KARUTA,  meaning  card,  probably  from  the  Spanish  Carta,  forms  the 
generic  name  of  several  games : 

In  the  GENJI  GARUTA,  allusions  are  made  to  the  wars  of  the  Taira 
and  Minamoto  families;  the  SHI  GARUTA  game  is  based  on  Chinese  quotations; 
the  KOKIN  GARUTA  upon  ancient  odes ;  the  HYAKU-NIX-ISSHIU  GARUTA 
consists  of  a  hundred  cards,  each  of  which  bears  a  verse  from  that  famous 
collection  of  hundred  odes. 

The  IROHA  GARUTA  bear  the  signs  of  the  Iroha  syllabary  as  initial  of 
fifty  cards  to  be  matched  by  fifty  proverb  pictures. 

The  UTA  GARUTA  consists  of  two  sets  of  cards,  one  of  which  is  adorned 
with  pictures  and  the  other  with  the  corresponding  poems,  which  must  be 
matched.  One  hundred  cards  were  used. 

In  the  HANA  GARUTA,  or  flower  cards,  forty-eight  cards  are  used,  four 
cards  being  devoted  to  each  month,  and  decorated  with  the  flower 



emblematic  of  that  month  :  Pine,  plum,  cherry,  wisteria,  iris,  peony, 
lespedeza,  eularia  (Japonica),  chrysanthemum,  maple,  willow  and  paul- 
ownia.  The  relative  values  of  the  cards  of  each  set  of  four  are  further 
distinguished  by  some  small  animal,  coloured  cartouche  (Tanjaku),  or  particular 
design.  As  an  example  of  the  associated  subjects,  Ono  no  Tofu  is  depicted 
on  the  cards  of  the  eleventh  set,  with  the  willow  and  the  frog.  This 
game  was  favoured  by  grown-up  folks,  who  found  in  it  opportunities  for 
gambling.  Less  valuable  were,  as  a  rule,  the  stakes  in  the  Iroha  Garuta 
confined  to  children  ;  the  loser  of  the  game,  if  a  boy,  had  his  face  marked 
with  ink,  if  a  girl,  a  wisp  of  straw  was  tied  in  her  hair. 

GKNMI  and  HEIKK.  This  is  a  boy's  game.  The  players  have  red  or 
white  flags  attached  to  their  backs,  according  to  the  clan  which  they 
represent,  and  they  carry  upon  their  heads  earthenware  pots,  which  the 
opposite  side  tries  to  break  with  wooden  swords.  The  game  was  not 
without  danger,  as  the  heads  chanced  to  receive  as  many  blows  as  the 

GHOSTS  GAMES.  In  the  most  elementary  O  BAKE  GOTO,  a  girl  loosens 
her  hair  over  her  face,  and  plays  the  role  of  the  O  Bake,  with  frightening 
gestures,  rolling  of  eyes,  and  lolling  of  tongue,  in  imitation  of  popular 
ghost  pictures,  accompanied  with  sundry  noises. 

Amongst  more  organized  ghostly  games,  the  HIYAKU  MONOGATARI  consists 
of  a  hundred  grisly  tales  told  at  night.  The  tales  are  short,  never  exceeding 
a  few  sentences,  and  the  room  is  lighted  by  a  lamp  containing  a  hundred 
short  wicks  at  the  beginning  of  the  game.  After  each  anecdote  has  been 
told,  one  wick  is  removed ;  darkness  slowly  invades  the  house  as  the  reel 
of  stories  becomes  exhausted,  till,  ultimately,  the  last  tale  told,  the 
last  wick  is  snuffed,  and  the  ghost  appears — or  should  appear — to  the 
accompaniment  of  sundry  noises  made  by  the  players.  Another  ghost 
game  is  the  KON  DAME  SHI,  or  soul  examination.  A  number  of  flags  are 
set  in  some  dismal  place,  as,  for  instance,  near  a  cemetery,  where  ghosts 
are  reputed  to  wander,  and  at  night  stories  are  told,  the  players  going  in 
the  intervals  to  collect  the  flags,  one  by  one. 

Go  is  a  complicated  game,  of  Chinese  origin,  and  which  was,  according 



to  tradition,  introduced  to  Japan  by  KIBI  DAIJIN  (q.v.),  and  which  we  find 
associated  with  not  a  few  legendary  worthies  (see  EMBLEMS). 

It  is  played  on  a  low  table  of  massive  construction  (Go  Ban),  on  the 
top  of  which  nineteen  lines,  drawn  from  one  side  to  the  other,  intersect 
an  equal  number  of  lines  drawn  at  right  angles  to  the  first.  Three 
hundred  and  sixty-one  crossing  points,  called  Me,  are  thus  formed,  and 
the  central  one  is  named  Taiyuki,  or  primordial  principle ;  the  remaining 
three  hundred  and  sixty  represent  degrees  of  latitude.  The  chief  celestial 
bodies  are  represented  by  nine  spots  (Seimokit),  Black  ishi,  or  stones,  of 
which  there  are  one  hundred  and  eighty-one,  represent  night,  and  one 
hundred  and  eighty  white  ones  represent  day.  The  game  consists  in 
capturing  ones  opponent's  pawns  by  enclosing  at  least  three  crosses  round 
his  ishi,  and  slowly  covering  as  much  of  the  table  as  possible.  A  lengthy 
description  of  the  game  can  be  found  in  KORSCHELT'S  paper  in  the  German 
Asiatic  Transactions,  parts  21  cl  scq. 

GOMOKU  NARABE,  is  an  easier  game  of  Go,  in  which  the  first  player  to 
get  five  pawns  in  a  line  in  any  direction  wins  the  game. 

HANETSUKI  is  the  game  of  Battledore  and  Shuttlecock,  specially  favoured 
about  the  New  Year.  The  shuttlecock  consists  as  a  rule  of  some  round 
seed,  perhaps  gilt,  and  into  which  are  fastened  several  feathers,  much  like 
the  European  article.  But  the  battledore  is  a  heavier  implement :  made  of 
wood  and  nearly  square,  it  might  be  called  a  bat ;  one  side  of  it  is  purely 
ornamental,  carved  with  the  figure  of  some  hero  or  of  some  famous  actor. 
The  loser  is  fined  by  having  his  face  blackened,  or  merely  rings  of  ink 
drawn  around  his  eyes.  The  game  is  common  to  boys  and  girls. 

HASAMI  SHOGI  is  played  with  pawns.  The  game  consists  in  pushing 
on  the  board  a  pawn  between  two  of  the  other  player's ;  when  this  result 
is  attained,  the  winner  takes  the  pieces  adjacent  to  his  lucky  pawn. 

HATATSUBURAKASHI.  The  game  of  Kite  fighting,  peculiar  to  Nagasaki, 
the  point  of  which  consists  in  cutting  loose  the  adversary's  kite.  To 
that  effect  the  kite  (Tako)  is  attached  to  its  ordinary  smooth  cord  (Jada 
Yoma)  by  means  of  a  hundred  feet  of  a  specially  treated  string,  called  Biidoro 
Yoma,  and  a  second  smooth  cord  depending  from  the  lower  corner  of  the  kite. 



The  cutting  cord  is  covered  with  glue  and  powdered  glass,  and  attached 
to  the  centre  of  the  kite.  When  it  meets  the  cord  of  the  other  player, 
clever  manipulation  causes  the  cords  to  rub  until  one  gives  way. 

ISHINAJO,    the   game   of   Marbles. 

JIUROKU  MUSASHI.  Easy  game  played  with  sixteen  round  paper  pawns, 
on  a  divided  board. 

KABE  DACHI.  Man's  game.  The  performer  stands  near  a  wall,  with 
the  back  of  his  head  touching  it,  supporting  himself  on  the  palm  of  his 
hands,  which  rest  on  the  floor,  with  the  fingers  touching  the  wall.  The 
feat  consists  in  raising  the  body  vertically,  so  that  the  soles  of  both  feet 
touch  the  wall.  Also  called  Shachihoko  dachi. 

KAI  AWASE  or  KAI  Oi.  The  shell  game,  played  with  three  hundred 
and  sixty  clam  shells,  one  valve  bearing  a  verse  and  the  other  a  picture 
to  which  the  verse  refers.  The  poems  are  divided  amongst  the  players, 
and  as  the  pictures  are  thrown  one  after  another  on  the  mats,  the  holder 
of  the  corresponding  poem  must  place  his  shell  near  it. 

KAKUREMBO.      Hide  and  seek. 

KEHAZE  KAMI.  One  player  stands,  holding  a  paper  at  arm's  length, 
the  other  tries  to  kick  it  with  one  foot  without  tumbling. 

KEMARI.  Football  much  favoured  at  Court  in  ancient  times.  The 
Japanese  football  was  made  of  two  hemispheres,  stitched  on  a  diameter,  the 
stitching  forming  a  hollow  zone  around  the  ball.  Football  rejoices  in  the 
possession  of  a  Three  Headed  divinity  called  Mari  no  Kami  (Ehon  Tsuhoshi}. 

KISHAGO  HAJIKI.  Game  of  marbles  played  with  hard  round  shells  which 
are  flicked  away  by  a  special  motion  .of  the  thumb  and  index  finger,  like 
in  the  Ishinajo. 

KIOKUSUI  NO  YEN.  A  game  of  Chinese  origin*  consisting  in  floating 
sake  cups  upon  a  winding  stream,  along  which  the  players  were  seated. 
Poems  were  to  be  composed  and  committed  to  paper  between  the  beginning 
of  the  game  and  the  passage  of  the  cup  before  the  player  if  he  desired  to 
take  some  refreshment.  If  the  player  could  not  compose  a  poem  in  time  to 

'""  Introduced  by  Gensho  Tenno  in  486 ;  it  took  place  on  the  third  day  of  the  third  month. 



seize  the  cup,  he  was  expected  to  let  it  pass,  and  those  who  could  not 
produce  any  poetry  remained  without  wine  until  perchance  a  cup  stopped 
in  front  of  them  by  accident.  It  is  reported  that  one  of  the  Chinese 
Emperors  had  a  winding  stream  specially  constructed  for  this  amusement. 

KEN.  Games  played  with  fingers,  a  few  conventional  motions  representing  a 
whole  scene ;  the  name  is  derived  from  the  Chinese  lf£  fist.  The  best  known  are  : 

JAXKEX,  which  represents  a  pair  of  scissors  (nasami)  cutting  some  cloth  or 
paper  (kami)  and  meeting  a  stone  (ishi)  hidden  in  its  folds,  the  meaning 
being  that  a  stone  can  be  wrapped  up,  and  the  scissors  can  cut  the  wrapper 
but  they  cannot  damage  the  stone. 

TOHACHI  KEX,  or  Kitsnne  Ken.  Played  by  three  people,  one  of  the 
players  depicts  the  fox  by  placing  his  hands  at  the  side  of  his  head  to 
simulate  the  ears,  another  extends  his  arm  to  personify  the  hunter  with  his 
gun  (teppo),  a  third  one  sits  sternly  with  his  hands  on  his  knees  to  represent 
the  headman  of  the  village  (shoya).  The  motions  of  the  fingers  of  the 
players  must  be  made  in  the  proper  sequence,  and  must  be  appropriate.  The 
game  is  much  favoured  by  women,  and  as  an  example  in  European  games, 
similar  in  principle,  but  immensely  easier,  can  be  given  the  French  Pigeon  vole. 

MUSHI  KEN  is  based  upon  the  hierarchy  of  the  snake  (hebi),  the  frog 
(kaeru)  and  the  slug  (namekuji)  in  magical  powers.  The  snake  is  represented 
by  the  index  finger,  the  frog  by  the  thumb,  and  the  slug  by  the  little  finger. 

A  game,  somewhat  akin  to  Ken,  consists  in  casting  shadows  on  a  wall 
by  means  of  one's  limbs  and  simple  "  properties,"  such  as  a  pipe  or  pieces 
of  paper,  so  as  to  represent  animals. 

Ko  AWASE.  The  Perfume  game  or  Incense  game  fully  described  in 
Lafcadio  Hearn's  works. 

This  exquisite  pastime  necessitated  such  an  elaborate  set  of  utensils, 
that  "Ko  Awase  sets"  of  beautiful  lacquer  have  long  been  classified  amongst 
collector's  treasures. 

The  principle  of  the  game  consists  in  guessing  the  nature  and  name 
of  some  incense  from  the  perfume  of  its  smoke.  The  various  players,  seated 
on  the  mats  around  a  small  scoring  board  were  given  counters,  papers  to 
write  poems  or  the  name  of  the  blends,  the  host  then  passed  the  smoking 



incense  round  in  small  boxes  closed  but  for  a  narrow  slit  at  the  top 
through  which  the  smoke  arose.  The  guests  recorded  their  guesses  in  writing 
after  smelling  the  incense,  and  handed  in  their  counters  according  to  certain 
intricate  rules. 

Incense  sticks  vary  considerably  both  in  quality  and  in  price,  and 
the  differences  between  the  best  blends  being  very  subtle  the  players  must 
be  endowed  with  very  acute  senses  to  hit  upon  the  right  names  at  the  end 
of  a  long  game. 

KOMA  ASOBI.  Top  spinning,  for  boys.  The  Japanese  top  differs  from 
the  European  one,  but  is  very  similar  to  the  Sabot  of  the  French  boys, 
its  upper  part  is  cylindrical,  and  the  lower  part  tapers  to  a  point  where  it 
is  shod  with  iron.  In  the  childrens'  toys,  the  round  part  is  made  of 
bamboo  with  holes  in  the  side  to  make  them  hum  whilst  rotating,  the 
taper  part  is  a  hard  wooden  plug.  Sometimes  the  tops  are  bound  with 
iron  rings,  and  are  used  in  top  fights. 

Another  game  played  with  a  top  is  called  Fox  Catching :  the  top  is 
placed  on  the  floor,  and  the  boy  "fox"  attempts  to  reach  it  without  getting 
his  head  caught  in  a  hoop  held  by  his  playmates  between  him  and  his 

KOTORO  KOTORO.  Catching  the  child.  The  players  walk  in  single  file, 
touching  one  another,  with  a  "father"  at  the  head  of  the  file,  whose  duty 
it  is  to  swing  his  Hock  so  that  they  may  not  come  in  contact  with  a 
single  child,  the  Oni,  who  attempts  to  catch  the  last  of  the  line.  Should 
he  succeed,  the  "  father "  has  to  exchange  places  with  him. 

KUBI  HIKI,  Neck-pulling.  The  two  players  are  set  back  to  back  with 
an  endless  scarf  joining  their  foreheads,  which  they  pull  by  moving  the 
head  forwards  till  one  of  them  gives  in. 

MAKURA  ARASOI.  Pillow  catching.  The  two  players  squat  on  the  floor 
tied  back  to  back,  a  pillow  is  set  at  some  distance  in  front  of  each  and 
they  must  reach  the  pillows  without  toppling  one  another  over. 

MARITSUKI.      Girls'    game,   playing   at   ball. 

MAWARI  KOBOTOKE.  Childrens'  game :  Small  ghost,  consisting  in  dancing 
in  a  circle  around  a  blindfolded  child. 



MAWARI  SEKKO.  Circulating  incense  stick,  so-called  although  there  is 
no  incense  circulating,  but  the  players  sit  in  a  circle  and  make  poems, 
each  player  using  as  a  first  word  the  last  one  of  the  verse  uttered  by  the 
previous  player. 

ME  KAKUSHI,  or  MEKUSAN.  Blind  man's  buff.  This  game  finds  its 
application  in  the  dramatised  versions  of  Chiushingura. 

NAMAKO  SUBERI.  This  is  really  more  a  physical  exercise  than  a  game: 
the  players  are  two  in  number,  naked  and  with  the  skin  well  greased,  and 
the  man  who  throws  his  partner  down  is  the  winner. 

NE  No  Hi  No  ASOBI.  The  amusement  of  the  day  of  the  Rat.  Old- 
fashioned  pastime,  perhaps  originally  endowed  with  a  religious  significance. 
On  the  first  day  of  the  Rat  of  the  first  month,  Court  ladies  uprooted  small 
pine  trees  to  celebrate  the  day. 

NIRAMI  Ai  or  NIRAMI  KURABE.  The  two  players  sit  face  to  face.  One 
with  a  piece  of  paper  stuck  to  his  forehead  makes  grimaces  to  cause  his 
partner  to  laugh  without  smiling  himself. 

OGI  OTOSHI,  better  named  To  SENKIO,  was  a  girl's  game  played  by 
two  people,  with  fans.  Between  them  stood  on  a  small  table  a  target  in 
the  shape  of  an  open  fan,  and  the  corners  of  which  were  provided  with 
bells,  this  was  called  the  Cho.  The  game  consisted  in  the  players  hitting 
the  target  with  the  rivet  end  of  their  fans  by  throwing  the  latter  in  such 
a  fashion  that  it  turned  on  itself  in  its  trajectory. 

ONI  GOKKO.  The  "puss  in  the  corner,"  or  the  French  quatre  coins. 
The  oni  stands  in  the  centre  of  a  group  of  trees  or  other  points  of  vantage, 
and  should  one  of  the  players  be  caught  by  the  oni,  when  running  from 
one  place  to  the  other,  they  change  places  in  the  game. 

OSAMA  KEN.  In  this  game  some  six  or  seven  boys  represent  the  various 
grades  of  society,  and  according  to  their  playing  they  rise  or  drop  in  grade. 

OSHIKURA.  There  are  several  Udeoshi  and  Suneoshi,  Yubizumo,  which  are 
really  physical  tricks  played  with  the  arms,  legs  and  thumbs  respectively. 

OTEDAMA  or  OJAMME.  Girls'  game  played  with  seven  small  bags  filled 
with  small  seeds. 



POETRY.  Besides  the  games  given  above  in  which  poetry  plays  an 
important  role,  capping  verses  was  a  favourite  pastime  of  the  learned,  and 
the  value  of  such  an  achievement  can  be  understood  by  referring  to  the  story 
of  Yoshiiye  and  Abe  no  Sadato,  also  Hosokawa  Yusai. 

SAJI  SUMO.  Both  players  stand  on  the  right  leg,  holding  the  left  in  the 
left  hand,  and  with  the  right  hand  they  try  to  throw  one  another  down. 

SARU  KABURI  or  HIKAKI  KABURI.  The  player  puts  on  his  head  a  tall 
basket,  through  which  he  cannot  see,  and  attempts  to  kick  it  off. 

SHITAE  TACHI.  A  man  stands  near  a  wall,  with  his  hands  folded  behind 
his  back,  and  he  must  touch  the  wall  with  his  forehead  without,  tumbling 

SHOGI.  The  game  of  chess,  played  with  forty  pawns  (twenty  each  side), 
of  a  peculiar  pentagonal  shape,  with  the  name  written  on  each,  a  description 
of  which  can  be  found  in  Baron  K.  Suyematsu's  -4  Phantasy  of  Far  Japan. 

SUGOROKU.     Travelling  game  such  as  that  of  the  TOKAIDO  ROAD. 

TAKE  UMA.     Literally  WOOD  HORSE,  stilts. 

TAKO  AGE.     Kite  flying  on  New  Year's  Day. 

TEMARI.     A  girl's  game  played  with  a  ball. 

TENUGUI  BIKI.  Towel  pulling,  a  man's  game.  The  towel  is  held  fast  by 
the  players  in  their  elbow  joints ;  the  game  is  merely  a  tug  of  war. 

TOKO  or  TSUBO  UCHI.  An  old  Chinese  game,  favoured  by  some  of  the 
Sennins,  it  consists  in  casting  a  ball  in  a  narrow -mouthed  pot  or  in  shooting 
arrows  in  a  long-necked  bottle  previously  filled  with  peas. 

TSURU  No  HERIORI.  A  man's  game.  The  player  with  his  arms  tied 
behind  his  back  poises  himself  on  one  foot  and  tries  to  seize  with  his  teeth 
a  fruit  placed  on  the  ground,  without  tripping.  (Imitating  the  crane.) 

WAMAWASHI.  Hoop  trundling.  The  only  difference  between  this  game 
and  the  European  variety  appears  to  be  in  the  stick  used,  Western  boys 
have  a  straight  stick,  Japanese  have  a  forked  implement,  in  the  opening 
of  which  the  hoop  is  guided. 

YAMI  SAIKU  is  a  patience  game  for  blindfolded  players.  A  large  mask 
of  Otafuku,  or  some  other  well-known  type,  is  cut  into  parts,  and  the 
player  must  reconstitute  it. 



YUBI  ZUMO.  Thumb  pressing.  The  two  players  sit  face  to  face  and 
force  their  thumbs  together  as  a  trial  of  strength. 

There  are  many  variants  to  the  trials  of  strength,  they  may  be  made 
with  the  legs,  the  fists,  the  hands;  Kubihiki  takes  place  with  a  long  endless 
rope  passing  from  neck  to  neck  of  the  players  under  their  bodies  while  on 
all  fours,  etc.,  until  there  is  hardly  any  difference  appreciable  between  the 
game  and  the  physical  exercise,  and  one  might  include  wrestling  amongst 
popular  games. 

When  a  company  meets,  one  sits  outside  the  circle  blindfolded,  to  decide 
who  will  perform  some  game.  He  is  supposed  to  be  Kaminari,  the  Thunder 
God,  and  whilst  a  plate  or  some  other  object  is  passed  round  from  hand 
to  hand  in  the  circle,  he  cries  Goro-Goro  Zudon  (the  Japanese  onomatopoeia 
for  the  Thunderclap),  and  the  person  who  then  holds  the  object  must  begin 
the  entertainment. 

228.  GARIO    3$!}  |$H  /iff  UW,    or    BINGA,    or    BINGACHO.      The    companion 
of    Vishnu :    GARUDA.       Mythical    creature,    half    woman    half    bird,    sort    of 
winged   and   feathered   Angel,   with   a   tail    like    a    Phoenix   and   legs    like   a 

It   is   also  called   the   KARIYOBINGA   BIRD. 

229.  GEESE     (Wild).      See     EMBLEMS,     SENNINS,     TAKENORI,     YOSHIIYK, 

GEESE,  with  rushes  in  their  bills,  are  emblematic  of  the  care  which 
should  be  exercised  when  selecting  an  abode,  as  it  is  believed  that 
geese  carry  in  their  bills  bits  of  rushes,  which  they  drop  in  ponds,  before 
taking  to  the  water,  or  as  some  say,  to  stand  upon. 

A  favourite  design  consists  in  a  wild  goose,  or  a  flight  of  wild  geese 
passing  across  the  disc  of  the  moon. 

230.  GEKIBOKU  $$£  vet-     Tailed  men,  see  MYTHICAL  FOREIGNERS. 

231.  GEKKAWO  ^  T  H.      Poetical   name  of  the   God  of  Marriage: 
MUSUBI   NO    KAMI,  YUEH    LAO    ^    ^,   the   Old   Man   under    the    Moon,   who 
binds   with   a   red  silk    thread    the  feet   of  lovers.      In   Chinese   legends,   the 



old  man  varies  this  occupation,  and  by  way  of  physical  exercise,  chops 
down  the  cassia  tree,  everlastingly  growing  in  the  moon,  and  which,  when 
its  foliage  is  too  exuberant  gives  it  a  red  colour.  The  red  silk  thread 
plays  a  role  in  the  selection  of  the  bride  of  Kwoh  (Yuen  Chin)  amongst  the 
five  daughters  of  Chang  Kia  Cheng.  Mayers  give  as  an  alternative  name 
Kieh  Lin  |g  J$. 

232.  GENII    ^fl  ^  f$,   the   HAPPY,  or   the   Merry   Genii,  see   WAGO   JIN. 
They   are   presented   in   the   guise   of    two   Chinese   boys,   trampling   treasures 

233.  GEMPEI  ^  ^.      The  war  of  GENJI   (or  MINAMOTO)  and   HEISHIN 
(HEIKE   or   TAIRA)   which    took  place  between   these    two   families   during  the 
Xllth  Century. 

234.  GENJI  $jt  another   reading   of   the   word   MINAMOTO,   name   of   the 
clan   descended   from    the    Emperor   SEIWA  (856-877),  which  proved  a  terrible 
adversary   of   the   FUJIWARA,   and   later   in    1185    defeated   the   TAIRA   at    Dan 
no   Ura   after   a   war   which   lasted   thirty   years   (GEMPEI    war).      The   victor, 
YORITOMO,   became   Shogun,    but   died,    after    having   driven   his   half-brother, 
YOHITSUNE,   to   commit   suicide.      The    GENJI    clan    became    extinct    in    1219, 
when   SANETOMO,  second  son  of  Yoritomo,  was  treacherously  murdered  by  his 
nephew  KUGYO,   son  of  Yoriiye,  on  the  staircase  of  the   temple  of  Hachiman, 
at   Kamakura.      Amongst  other  books  see  Bakin's   Ehon   Genjio  meizo  (1804). 

235.  GENJI.      WHITE  BANNER  of  the   Genji.     See   the   story   of  KOMAN. 

236.  GENJI  MONOGATARI  jg  &  $9  §g-     Lengthy   novel   in   fifty-four 
volumes,   written   at   the  end   of  the  Xth   Century  by  the  poetess   MURASAKI 
SHIKIBU    (q.v.).      Thirty-one   of    its    chapters   are   devoted    to    the    adventures 
of   Prince   Genji,   and   the   number   of  personages    it    includes    necessitates    a 
biographical  volume  in  itself. 

237.  GENKEI   I^C  III-     A  Chinese  sage,  YUAN   CHAO,   represented   as  an 
old   man   carrying  a  flower  basket   on   his  shoulders.      He    is    probably    the 
prototype  of  a  great  many  rough  netsuke.     He  is  said    to   have  lost  his  way 



in  the  Tendai  mountains  in  the  middle  of  the  first  century,  A.D.,  in  company 
with  Ryushin.  They  were  rescued  by  two  female  Sennins,  whose  favours 
they  received,  and  after  leaving  them  they  found  themselves  seven  generations 
older.  See  RYUSHIN. 

238.  GENKU  $j|  2j5.    Celebrated  Buddhist  priest  honoured  after  his  death 
with  the  titles  of  HONEN  SHONIN  and  ENKO  DAISHI  (q.v.). 

239.  GENXO   OSHO    £  0%  7ft]   IP?,    founder   of  the    Raizoji    temple   of 
Kamakura,    is   the  priest    who,  with  his  hosso,  broke  to  pieces  the   death   rock 
of    Nazumo    in    Shimozuke,    into    which    the    Tamamo    no    Maye    had    been 
transformed.      (See   ABE    xo   SEIMEI.)      A   humorous    picture   of   this    incident 
is  given  in  Jinji  Ando  by  Kuniyoshi.      See  STONES. 

240.  GENSO  flft  j|l.    The  Chinese  Emperor,  MING  HWANG  (HUAN  TSUNG), 
of   the   Tang  dynasty,  born   685,   and  adopted  son  of   the   then   Emperor   Jui 
Tsung    to    whom    he    succeeded   in    713    A.D.      Genso   delighted   in   the   con- 
templation  of   the   flowering   cherry   tree,    and    when    the   blossoms   were   too 
slow   to   open    according   to   his    Imperial   opinion,    he   had    the   drum  beaten 
by  his   female   attendants   to    give   them   notice    to    hurry.       He   is    generally 
represented   playing   the   flute  with  his  concubine   YOKIHI  (q.v.),   the  erstwhile 
wife   of   his   own  son,  and   of   whom   he   had    become   so   infatuated   that   he 
took   her   in   his   seraglio,    gave   his   son   another   consort,    and    left   the   cares 
of    the    Empire    to    his    ministers.      Yokihi    becoming   all-powerful,    her  two 
sisters   were   also   introduced   into  the   Imperial  harem,  whilst  her  father  and 
brother   obtained   elevated   positions.     The  licence   of   the   Emperor   was   only 
stopped   by   the   revolt   initiated   by   his   own    companion   of   debauchery,    the 
Tartar  minion,  Ngan  Lu-shan,  ending  in   the    massacre  of  the  three  sisters, 
and  the  abdication  of  Ming  Hwang,  in  756. 

241.  GENSUKE  BASHIRA  jt|  fljj  &  or  A  tt  &  EE  Pillar  of  Gensuke, 
which  was  in  the  middle  of  the  old  bridge  at  Matsu  (Hitobashtra  Matsud). 
See  also  Matsuo.  In  the  Keicho  era  (1596-1614)  the  Daimio,  HORIO  YOSHIHARU, 
decided  to  build  a  bridge  over  the  Matsue  river,  but  stone  after  stone 
was  swallowed  in  the  sand  of  the  river  bed,  and  when  at  last  the  bridge 



was  finished,  the  pillars  sank  or  were  swept  away,  men  being  continuously 
employed  repairing  the  structure.  There  was  no  way  to  abate  the  trouble 
except  by  burying  a  live  man  in  one  of  the  piers,  and  it  was  decided 
that  the  first  man  who  should  pass  the  bridge,  without  having  under  his 
Hakama,  the  stiffener  known  as  Machi,  would  be  the  victim.  It  happened 
to  be  a  man  named  Gensuke,  whose  ghost  ever  after  haunted  the  pillar, 
in  the  form  of  a  red  fire  visible  on  dark  nights.  A  similar  but  older 
story  attaches  to  the  bridge  of  Nagara  famous  in  Japanese  poetry.  At 
some  later  date  wicker  or  metal  figures  were  used  to  propitiate  the  spirit 
of  the  waters  instead  of  human  sacrifices. 

There  is  a  parallel  to  this  curious  belief  in  the  effect  of  the  immuring 
a  live  man,  to  make  a  building  secure  and  strong,  in  the  Roumanian 
ballad  of  Manoli. 

242.  GKNTOKU  2lfl|.  The  Chinese  Emperor,  CHAD  LIEU  Ti  0j 
also  known  as  RIUBI  (Liu  PEI  |^lj  fff )  the  name  under  which  he  was  known 
when  a  child.  He  is  said  to  have  been  a  grandson  of  the  Paragon  of  Piety 
KEI  TEI,  and  a  distant  relative  of  the  Han  rulers.  He  supported  his  infirm 
mother  and  himself  by  making  straw  sandals  and  mats.  He  met  KWAN  Yu 
and  CHOIII,  with  whom  he  later  took  an  oath  of  brotherhood  in  a  peach 
orchard,  and  became  commander  of  a  small  force,  but  when  Tsao  Tsao  attempted 
to  usurp  the  throne,  the  three  brothers  in  arms  turned  against  him,  from 
the  province  of  Sze  Ch'wan,  until  his  fall  in  220,  when  his  son,  Tsao  Pei, 
usurped  the  government  and  Liu  Pei  took  the  title  CHAO  LIEH  Ti,  as 
Emperor  of  China.  This  was  the  beginning  of  the  period  of  the  Three 
Kingdoms,  and  the  foundation  of  the  minor  Han  dynasty  in  Shuli. 

One  of  Gentoku's  adventures  is  classical :  he  was  betrothed  to  the 
sister  of  the  ruler  of  Keishu,  RIUHIO,  who,  desiring  to  abdicate  in  his  favour, 
invited  him  to  some  festivities  at  his  castle  on  that  occasion.  He  had, 
however,  reckoned  without  his  brother-in-law,  SAIBO,  who  beseiged  the  castle 
during  the  feast.  The  only  place  which  was  not  surrounded  was  the  steep 
western  battlement,  at  the  foot  of  which  the  river  Dankei  ran  its  course 
in  a  deep  ravine.  One  of  Gentoku's  retainers,  Iseki,  showed  him  that 


GENTOKtl    (ir.LJi.) 

GAMA   (A.) 
KIOKUSHI    NO  YEN    (ir.L.K.) 

GOSH1S1IO    (ll.S.I.) 
TOYS    (C.//..V.) 

(JAMA    SKNXIN    (H.S.'J') 

G1OKUSHISI1O    (if.L.B.) 

FLOATING    FAN   GAME   (j.N.C.) 



dangerous   means   of   escape,   and    the   Emperor,   quickly    mounting  his  horse, 
Tokiro,  cleared  the  torrent  by  a  jump  of  over  thirty  feet. 

He  is  also  represented  travelling  in  the  middle  of  the  winter,  on  foot, 
amongst  snow-clad  mountains,  to  seek  CHU  Ko  LIANG  (KOMEI),  his  future 
adviser  and  general,  whom  he  found  in  a  hut  of  reeds  poring  over  some 
classics,  and  very  chary  to  accept  the  Emperor's  offer.  For  his  son,  A-Tow, 
see  CHOUN. 

243.  GHOSTS   (Yitrei).      See   also    BAKEMOXO   and    GOBLINS. 

Since  the  painter,  OKIYO  MARUMAYA,  limned  the  first  ghost  picture  at 
the  request  of  the  then  Shogun,  from  the  appearance  of  his  own  dying 
aunt,  the  artistic  presentment  of  ghosts  and  ghost  stories  has  become 

The  spirits  are  shown  with  long  straight  hair,  hand  waving  or 
beckoning,  or  holding  the  dress,  generally  with  flowing  sleeves.  The  head 
is  strongly  delineated,  and  also  the  upper  part  of  the  body,  but  from  the 
waist  downwards,  the  forms  are  misty,  and  taper  into  airy  nothingness, 
for  ghosts  have  no  feet.  In  netsnke,  this  latter  point  is  of  course  a 
determinant  feature. 

244.  GINGA  $j|  yBf.     See  AMA-NO-GAWA,   the  Via   lactea. 

245.  GIUBA  -^  $jj  or   ZUIREI,  one   of   the  sons   of   Benten,  shown  with 
horse   and   draught  ox,   transformation   of  Yakuwo    Bosatsu  (Baichadryaraja). 

246.  GO  jffic.      See  GAMES,  EMBLEMS,  KIBIDAISHI,  SATO  TADANOBU. 

Men  playing  Go  in  or  outside  a  large  orange.  This  is  an  allusion  to 
a  story  given  in  the  Wakan  zoho  guahon  Kagami  of  Hasegawa  Yasuyoshi 
(1698)  and  in  Ehon  Hokan.  In  a  garden  grew  an  orange  tree  which 
bore  very  large  fruits ;  two  oranges  particularly  were  of  such  an  abnormal 
size  that  they  were  left  on  the  tree  for  a  very  long  time,  as  curiosities, 
and  they  remained  wonderfully  fresh,  showing  no  sign  of  decay.  Some 
day,  however,  the  owner  of  the  tree  decided  to  cut  down  the  fruit  and 
to  open  them.  As  the  oranges  were  split,  two  sages  walked  out  of  the 
fruit,  and  went  to  play  Go  upon  a  table  which  happened  to  be  conveniently 


>  v 


close.  After  a  while,  one  of  the  sages  pulled  from  his  dress  a  dragon-shaped 
root,  and  all  partook  of  this  food  ;  then,  calling  for  water,  the  old  man 
drank  some,  and  spat  it  on  the  ground,  where  it  resolved  itself  into  a 
dragon,  which  carried  the  four  to  heaven  on  a  cloud. 

The  story  is  sometimes  illustrated  by  showing  the  sages  issuing  from  the 
orange,  or  playing  Go  inside  it.  In  some  places,  however,  a  ground  cherry 
takes  the  place  of  the  orange,  but  this  variant  could  not  be  traced  in  books. 

247.  GOBLINS.      See    BAKEMONO,   BADGER,   Fox,   GHOSTS,  KAPPA,   YAMA 

See  also  ADACHIGAIIARA,  Tale  of  the  tongue  cut  sparrow,  Badger's 
money,  and  story  of  the  Prince  and  the  Badger  in  Mitford's  Tales  of  Old 
Japan,  and  a  great  many  scattered  stories  in  the  works  of  Lafcadio  Hearn. 

248.  GODS     OF    GOOD    FORTUNE.     See    the    SIIICHI    FUKU    Jix,    and 

249.  GO   DAIGO  ^  §§  j|§)  ^C  jjl-      The  ninty-sixth  Emperor  of  Japan, 
who  tried  to  shake  the  domination  of  the  HOJO  family  of  shikken  of  Kamakura, 
but   failed,   and   was   exiled   by   Hojo  Takatoki,    in    1332,   to   Chiburi,  one  of 
the    Islands   of   Oki.      After   the   happy   campaign   of   Nitta   Yoshisada   (q.v.), 
he  came   back  to   Kioto,    in    1333,    on   the  advice   of   Yoshitsuna.     The  story 
of  Go  Daigo's   checkered  reign   is  surrounded  with  romance.      When   he   fled 
from    Kioto,    he   was   followed   by   the   poet    Fujifusa   seeing   the   latter   weep 
upon  his  misfortune,  he  composed  a  verse, 

Sashite  yuku 

i  Kasagi   no  yama  wo 

\     $ 

•    <  Ideshi  yori 


b  Ame  ga  shita  ni   wa 

a,  Kakure  ga  mo  nashi, 

which   means   both  :    "  Since   I    have   left   the   Kasagi    mountains,    I    have    no 
shelter  under  the  heavens,"     .     .     and     .     .     "  Since  I  have  lost  my  umbrella, 
nothing  shelters  me  from  the  shower." 
To  which  Fujifusa  replied  : 


(By  courtesy  of  Messrs.   }'<iinatt(ik<i) 


Ikani  sen 

Tanomu  kokage  ni 

Nawo  sode  nurasu 
Matsu  no  shita  tsuiyu, 
meaning :  "  Whatever  can  we  do,  if  reckoning  upon  the  shade  one  takes 
shelter  under  the  pines,  the  drops  in  falling  will  still  more  wet  the  long 
sleeves."  ...  in  which  shita  tsuiyu  means  falling  rain  drops,  or  tears 
as  well. 

On  the  road  to  the  Oki  islands,  several  attempts  were  made  to  rescue 
the  Emperor,  one  by  a  monk  RIOCHIYU  in  Kioto,  the  other  in  Bizen,  by  the 
daimio  KOJIMA  TAKANORI,  who,  thwarted  in  his  attempt,  rode  in  advance  of 
the  escort,  and  with  his  sword  removed  the  bark  of  a  cherry  tree  upon 
the  trunk  of  which  he  wrote  the  Chinese  allusion  :  ^ 

Ten  Kosen  wo   Munashu  suru  nakare,  ... 

Toki   ni    Hanrei   naki   ni   shinio  arazu  x.., 

(O    Heaven  !  •  do  not   destroy  Kosen,   whilst   Hanrei   still   lives.)  -*e- 

to   give   the   Emperor   a   hint   of   his   loyal    designs.  £fe 

Go  DAIGO,  however,  was  placed  in  safe  keeping  in  a  temple. 
His  daughter,  HINAKO  NAI  Smxxo,  tried  to  follow  him,  but  she  could 
not  endure  the  hardships  of  the  journey,  and  she  died  at  Sozen  Goku 
Mura,  in  Tottori.  During  her  illness  she  asked  for  some  chestnuts,  bit  one 
and  threw  it  away.  The  fruit  germinated  into  a  tree,  the  chestnuts  from 
which  bear  small  marks,  like  tooth-bites,  and  it  is  called  Hagata  guri  no  ki. 
The  tree  of  the  tooth-marked  chestnuts.  After  seventy  days  of  exile,  Go 
Daigo  eluded  the  guard  of  Sasaki  Kiyotaka,  and  with  Minamoto  no 
Tadaaki,  managed  to  reach  a  fishing  boat,  the  skipper  of  which  hid  him 
under  loads  of  evil-smelling  cuttle  fish,  and,  telling  the  pursuing  Kiyotaka 
that  two  men  in  court  dress  had  been  seen  escaping  in  the  opposite 
direction,  took  them  across  to  Osaka  no  Minato,  in  Hoki,  where  the  Emperor 
landed,  carried  on  the  shoulders  of  NAWA  NAGATAKA,  who,  with  his  brother 
Nagashige,  took  him  to  the  summit  of  the  Funa  no  ye  Yama,  and  defeated 
Kiyotaka  when  the  latter  arrived  in  hot  pursuit.  The  triumph  of  the 



Emperor  was  short-lived.  The  Ashikaga  Takauji  proclaimed  himself  ShSgun, 
and  entered  into  open  revolt,  Go  Daigo's  son,  Morinaga,  fell  into  disgrace 
and  was  murdered.  Go  Daigo  tried  to  retain  Kioto  as  his  capital,  against 
the  advice  of  Kusunoki  Masashige,  but  soon  again  he  had  to  fly  to 
Yoshino,  whence  he  and  several  of  his  successors  have  been  occasionally 
called  the  Yoshino  dynasty.  After  the  death  of  Xitta  Yoshisada,  his 
followers  rapidly  dwindled  away,  and  he  died  in  August,  1339,  holding  in 
Ins  hand  his  sword  of  which  he  had  made  so  little  use. 

250.  GODOSHI  ^  j||  =$•.     See   Wi:   TAO   TSZE. 

251.  GOKURAKU  >gt  ^.     The   Buddhist   Paradise. 


GOMO  ^t  %&.  The  Taoist  worthy,  Wu  MENG.  When  eight  years 
old,  he  suffered  himself  to  be  bitten  by  mosquitoes,  rather  than  brush  them 
aside  for  fear  they  might  plague  his  parents  who  lived  in  the  same  room. 
This  paragon  of  filial  piety  became  a  disciple  of  the  wizard  TING  I  ^  A  ~T  3% 
(SmjiN  TEIJI),  and  as  an  example  of  his  proficiency,  he  is  often  repre- 
sented crossing  a  river  on  a  feather  fan,  which  he  waved  over  the  boisterous 
waters,  as  the  winds  were  against  his  progress.  He  is  also  represented 
with  fan  in  hand,  driving  through  the  heavens  a  chariot  drawn  by  two 
stags.  He  is  credited  with  the  slaying  of  a  giant  snake,  and  his  favourite 
pupil  appears  to  have  been  Fu  Chen  Kung.  His  daughter,  TSAI  LWAN, 
is  the  SIIINRETSU,  or  GOSAIRAN  of  the  Japanese,  herself  an  adept  of  Taoist 
necromancy  and  the  companion  of  BUNSHO  (WEN  SIAO)  (q.v.)  with  whom 
she  is  depicted  riding  on  tigers  above  Mount  Etsuo. 

253.  GOMPACHI  $|  A  and  KOMURASAKI  /h  ^.  The  story  of  the  two 
faithful  lovers  is  a  celebrated  one  and  has  been  dramatised  in  popular 
plays.  During  the  reign  of  Reigen  Tenno  (Kwambun  period),  in  the  second 
half  of  the  seventeenth  century,  Shirai  Gompachi,  skilful  swordsman  of 
Inabi,  killed  one  of  his  clansmen  in  a  quarrel  and  flew  to  Yedo.  On  his 
way  he  met  a  girl,  Komurasaki,  who  told  him  that  she  was  held  captive 
by  robbers,  and  that  he,  too,  would  be  caught  by  them  unless  he  hurried 
away.  Gompachi  stopped,  attacked  the  robbers,  and  rescued  the  girl  whom 



he  took  to  her  parents  in  Mikawa.  He  then  returned  to  the  Yedo  road, 
met  with  another  party  of  robbers,  who  would  have  despatched  him  but 
for  the  timely  arrival  of  a  man  named  Chobei,  who  rescued  him  and 
entertained  him  in  Yedo.  In  the  Yoshiwara,  Gompachi  heard  of  a  new 
Joro,  just  arrived  from  the  country,  and  who  was  called  Young  Purple. 
She  was  no  other  than  Komurasaki,  whose  people  had  met  with  misfortune, 
and  who  had  sold  herself  to  pay  their  debts.  Gompachi,  deeply  in  love 
decided  to  redeem  her,  and  as  he  had  no  money  himself,  he  began  a  life  of 
crime,  killing  and  robbing  people  to  get  enough  money  wherewith  to  buy  her 
back.  He  was  caught  and  beheaded,  Chobei  buried  his  body  at  Ekko-in, 
and  Komurasaki  came  a  few  days  later  to  kill  herself  on  his  grave. 
Their  common  tomb  is  called  the  grave  of  the  Shiyoku,  and  the  souls  of 
the  twain  are  embodied  in  the  legendary  bird  Hiyokudori  (q.v.).  See  the 
Shossestn  Hiaku  mon,  of  Bakin  and  Hokusai  —  in  1804  —  also  Yedo  Mnrasaki 

254.  GONGEN  SAMA  |f|  J^  %jj[.      Popular  posthumous  name  of  IEYASU. 

255.  GORO   TOKIMUNE  JOB  B£  It     See  SOGA  Brothers. 

256.  GOSANKE   $P  ^EL   ^C-      Name   of   three    families   issued   from    the 
Tokugawa  Shoguns.      See  MITSUKUXI,   Daimio  of  Mito,  and  KANAME   ISHI. 

257.  GOSHISHO  ft  ^  W  tffi.  Hi-  Wu  Yux,  also  called 
Su  -^  -ff,  Chinese  general  who,  in  a  literary  competition,  showed  his  learning, 
as  well  as  his  wonderful  strength,  by  holding  above  his  head  a  three-legged 
bronze  brazier,  whilst  with  the  right  hand  he  wrote  a  lengthy  stanza.  He 
is  generally  represented  in  the  act.  The  Shaho  Bukupa.  says  that  Goshisho 
was  a  general  of  So  (Cnu).  The  Duke  Ai,  of  Shin,  desirous  of  grasping 
the  supreme  power,  had  proposed  an  assembly  of  nobles  at  Rinto,  where 
all  were  to  discuss  the  matter  of  his  elevation  to  power.  Being  a  man 
with  little  faith  in  chance,  he  posted  a  guard  near  the  bridge  of  To  with 
orders  to  kill  anyone  who  dared  to  oppose  him,  and  further  he  proposed 
that  a  president  be  elected  for  the  conference,  who  should  be  a  man  of 
great  strength,  capable  of  lifting  a  kanaye  weighing  1000  kin  (1329  pounds), 



and,  at  the  same  time,  of  such  literary  attainments  as  to  solve  three  riddles 
which  he,  the  Duke,  had  chosen.  This  was  all  pre-arranged  to  insure  the 
election  of  his  own  favourite,  Ko  SONKO,  who  however  got  rather  lamely 
through  the  test.  GOSHISHO  then  rose  and  disputed  the  seat.  Lifting  the 
kanaye  with  one  hand,  he  wrote  the  proper  answers  with  the  other,  and  the 
nobles  enthusiastically  elected  him.  Goshisho  then  asked  the  Duke  to  give 
him  a  guard  as  far  as  the  gate  of  To,  because  he  thought  that  he  had  seen 
some  ill  -looking  knaves  lurking  about,  and  the  Duke  was  thus  thwarted  in 
his  plans. 

While  Fu  CH'A,  King  of  Go  (^  Wii),  was  at  war  with  KOSEN,  King  of 
Yetsu  (|£  Yiieh),  the  latter  sent  him  a  beautiful  girl  as  a  present.  Goshisho, 
thinking  this  gift  might  be  a  dangerous  one,  advised  the  King  to  have 
nothing  to  do  with  the  girl,  but  the  King  thereupon  ordered  him  to  be  killed 
and  his  head  to  be  exposed.  According  to  legend,  the  King  was  later 
captured  by  the  enemy,  and,  as  he  was  led  past  the  exposed  head,  this  grim 
remain  of  Goshisho  was  seen  to  grin  (see  HANREI).  Another  version  has  it 
that  Goshisho  committed  suicide  in  475  B.C.,  after  an  eventful  life  famous 
in  Chinese  history.  The  Chinese  and  Japanese  Repository  (I.  311)  gives  a 
short  history  of  his  flight  from  his  native  country,  T'su,  to  the  Court  of  Wii, 
after  the  treacherous  execution  of  his  father  and  brother  in  B.C.  520., 

258.  GOSHO  NO  GOROMARU  fP  $f  0)  £  I|$  A-     See  SoGA  Brothers. 

259.  GO  TOP.A  TENNO  ^  Mj  %  ^  Jl.      The  eighty-second  Emperor 
of   Japan,  who  was  elevated  to  the  throne  by  Yoritomo,  after  the  defeat  of 
the   Taira   clan   at    Dan   no   Ura,    in    1184.      Go   Toba,   who   was    then    four 
years    old,    "  invested  "    Yoritomo    with   the   ShSgunate,   and    lived   peaceably 
till  the  Shogun's  death,   in   1198,  when   he   tried   to   take   in   his   own  hands 
the   whole  of  the   government  and    to    get   rid   of  both   the   Minamoto    and 
Hojo,  who  were  struggling  for  the   regency    of    the   Empire.      After   a   short 
fight,   Go   Toba   was   captured   and   exiled   to   Amagori,   in    the    Old   Islands, 
where  he  lived  till   1239.      He   is   said   to   have   whiled   away   his   leisure   by 
forging  swords  called  Goshokaji  (palace  forging)  with  the  assistance  of  twelve 
swordsmiths,   one   for   each  month   of   the   year,  in  a  smithy  specially  erected 



in  his  palace,  and  yet  legend  has  it,  that  the  deposed  monarch  was  highly 
sensitive  to  noises,  one  story  being  to  the  effect  that  he  commanded  a  pine 
tree  to  be  still,  as  the  rustling  of  its  branches  in  the  night  kept  him  from 
sleeping.  According  to  another  story  the  frogs  of  the  pond  of  Shike  Kuro 
no  Ike  have  been  dumb  since  1200,  because,  when  Go  Toba  was  staying  at 
the  house  of  the  Choja  Shikekuro,  near  Amamura,  their  nightly  croaking 
disturbed  his  august  slumber  and  he  forthwith  commanded  them  to  be 

260.  GOURDS  (HIOTAN).      See  EMBLEMS;   see  EARTHQUAKE  FISH. 

,,  Banner  of  the   1000  Gourds,   or  Sen   Xari  Hisago.     At   a 

fight  between  Toyotomi  HIDEYOSHI,  and  another  of  the  Kuge,  or  retainers  of 
OTA  NOBUNAGA,  Hideyoshi  having  no  standard  to  carry  before  him,  im- 
provised one  by  plucking  a  gourd  plant  by  the  roots  and  using  it  as  a 
pennon.  After  beating  his  opponent  he  adopted  the  gourd  as  a  standard, 
vowing  that  he  would  add  to  his  banner  (Umajirushi)  one  gourd  for  each 
victory  he  won  thereafter.  The  incident  is  said  to  date  from  circa  1550,  and 
the  gourd  banner,  with  the  flowing  strips,  is  a  common  feature  frequently 
met  with  in  art,  and,  curiously  enough,  Kuniyoshi  has  depicted  it  in  some 
muchaye  representing  the  campaign  of  Kusunoki  Masashige. 

261.  GOYEMON    (ISHIKAWA)    JL   £  Hf  PI    Dft   )\\l    son    of    Ishikawa 
Akashi  was  a  celebrated  bandit  of  the  XVth  century,  who,  when  thirty-seven 
years   old,   attempted   to   murder   Taiko   Sama,  but   failed ;    he  was  taken  to 
Kyoto    and   there   publicly   boiled   to   death   in   an   oil   bath   in    the   presence 
of  his   wife    Oritsu,   his   father-in-law    Iwaki    Hyobu,   and    his   son   Goroichi, 
who   had   to  share  his  father's  death.      Three  officials   were  present,   named 
Iwaki  Toma,  Hayami  Toma,  and  Yamakaze  Heima. 

Before  his  execution  he  composed  a  poem  which  has  been  preserved,  but 
his  name  and  the  recollection  of  his  fate  have  also  been  transmitted  through 
three  centuries  in  the  humorous,  though  somewhat  accurate,  description  of 
the  tub-like  bath,  popularly  called  Goyemon  Euro,  which  is  heated  from  the 
outside,  and  the  bottom  of  which  is  made  of  iron.  There  are  several 
versions  of  this  story. 



The  penalty  of  boiling  to  death  was  called  Kamaire,  it  had  just  been 
introduced  from  China  by  Takeda  Nobutora,  and  was  suppressed  by  the 
Testament  of  leyasu.  According  to  another  version  he  actually  stole  the 
incense  burner  (in  the  shape  of  a  snipe),  Chidori  Koro,  and  wrapped  it  in  a 
piece  of  Shokko  no  nishiki,  rich  brocade  from  the  Chinese  province  of  Shoku. 

It  is  also  said  that  he  wanted  to  steal  a  very  valuable  vessel  belonging 
to  Taiko  Sama  (Toyotomi  Hideyoshi),  and  that  he  disguised  himself  as  the 
Emperor's  messenger  to  gain  access  to  the  palace.  His  plan  was  thwarted 
by  Hashiba  Hideyoshi,  who,  thinking  he  recognised  the  robber,  immediately 
put  on  the  dress  of  a  servant,  and  after  Goyemon  had  flown  discovered  him 

hiding  on  the  second  story  of  a  temple. 
A]  His  celebrated  verse  reads  : 


j^  Ishikawa  ya 

-)  jt  Hama  no  Masago  wa 


\ty  Tsukuru  tomo 


£  Yo  ni  nusu  bito  no 

Tane  wa  tsukimaji 

"Although    the    sands   are   all   gone   of   the    Ishikawa    (river)    and    of    every 
sandy    shore,    yet    the    seed    of    a    robber    will    not    remain    exhausted    for 

j  j 


262.     GREEN  IN  MY  EYE  (game).     See  AKAMBE;  gesture;  see  BEKKAKO. 

263.  GWAN  SHIN  KEI  M  M  ®-  YEN  CHIN  K'ING.  Chinese  sage, 
represented  with  a  package  on  his  shoulder,  and  walking  with  a  crooked 
cane  to  which  is  attached  a  rolled  book.  He  is  also  called  GWAN  HITSU, 
he  was  a  learned  man  who  held  office  in  the  time  of  TOKUSO  (TE  TSUNG), 
of  the  To  dynasty,  and  refused  to  acknowledge  Ngan  Luh  Shan,  after 
the  deposition  of  the  Emperor  GENSO.  In  785,  when  he  was  seventy-six 
years  old,  he  was  strangled  by  a  man  named  RIKIRETSU  (^  ^  ^,'j  Li  Hi  Lieh). 
Many  years  after  a  merchant  of  Rakuyo,  passing  along  the  mount  Rafu 
(Lo  fuh),  saw  him  with  another  sage  playing  at  Go  under  a  tree  ;  they 
rebuked  him  for  disturbing  them,  and  Gwanshinkei  gave  him  a  letter  to  take 
to  the  house  he  dwelt  in  during  his  earthly  life.  It  is  said  that  once  he 



caused    rain    to   fall   during   a   drought   by   liberating   some    people   who    had 
been   wrongly   imprisoned. 

264.  GYOGI   ff  ^  ^  H|,    or   GYOGI   BOSATSU.      A  celebrated  Buddhist 
priest  who,  in  736,  headed  the  deputation  sent  by  the  Emperor  SHOMU  to  the 
temple   of   Amaterasu,   in    Ise,    to   pray  for   the   permission  of  the  Goddess  to 
erect  at  Nara  the   statue   of   the   Daibutsu.      He   propagated   the   doctrine   of 
the  SHIN  BUTSU  KOXDO,  or  RYOBU  SHINTO,   in  which   the  original   religion  of 
Japan    was    permeated    with    Buddhism,    its    deities   being   considered   as   the 
various  incarnations  of  the  one  Buddha,  and  those  temporary  avatars  received 
the  popular  name  of  Gongen.     This  "canny"  stroke  increased  the  popularity 
of    Buddhism,    and    the   mixed   religions   flourished   side   by   side   in   common 
temples  until  the  Restoration  in  1868  and  the  "revival  of  pure  Shinto." 

Gyogi  is  popularly  credited  with  some  works  of  art  and  the  construction 
of  several  bridges,  besides  the  invention  of  the  potter's  wheel*,  the  use  of 
which  he  taught  to  the  people  of  his  native  province  of  Izumi.  The  pottery 
turned  out  by  this  accomplished  monk  was  called  Gyogi  Yaki,  and  some 
specimens  are  said  to  have  been  religiously  preserved  up  to  the  nineteenth 
century.  He  died  in  749. 

265.  GYOKUSHI    3L  ~f,   of   Nangun,  had  supernatural  powers  over  all 
the    elements,    causing   wind,   rain,    whirlwinds,   and   storms,   now   destroying 
trees  or  buildings,  now  petrifying  grass,  or  building  castles  with  the  dust  of 
the  road  or  the  stones  of  the  fields.      Riding  upon  a  large  horse,   he  covered 
thousands  of  Li  a  day,  and  blew  coloured  clouds.      He  is  one  of  the  Taoist 
Rishis,  and  perhaps  identical  with  Giokushisho    -fc  -f1  J|L.     See    HORSE. 

266.  HACHIMAN   A  HI-      "The   eight   banners,"   posthumous    title  of 
the  Emperor  OJIN  TENNO,  son  of  Tarashi  Nakatsu  Hiko  and  Okinaga  Tarashi 
Hime  (Jingo  Kogo).     He  is  credited  with  a  life  of  no  years,  and  died  in  310  A.D. 
He  has  been  deified  as  a  War  God,  and  was  the  special  patron  of  the  Minamoto 
clan,  who  are  responsible  for  many  of  his  numerous  shrines.     Born  whilst  his 
mother   was   engaged    in   the  Korean  war,  he  is  often  shown   in   the  arms  of 

~  Aston,  Nihongi,  I-i2i,  says  that  the  wheel  was  used  before  Gyogi's  time. 



Takenouchi  no  Sukune,  who  stands  in  a  boat,  whilst  the  messenger  of  the 
Dragon  King,  Riujin,  offers  to  the  infant  Emperor  the  jewels  of  the  flowing  and 
the  ebbing  tides.  In  his  youth,  he  was  called  HONDA  (Homuda),  because  of  a 
fleshy  growth  on  his  arm,  similar  to  the  leather  elbow  pad  (tomo),  worn  by  archers. 
In  the  ninth  year  of  his  reign,  whilst  Takenouchi  was  on  a  tour  of  inspection, 
his  younger  brother,  Umashi  no  Sukune,  accused  him  of  having  some  designs  upon 
the  throne.  Ojin  listened  to  this  calumny ;  but  thanks  to  the  devotion  of 
Maneko,  who,  strongly  resembled  Takenouchi,  and  who  killed  himself  in  his 
stead,  the  old  minister  was  enabled  to  come  and  attempt  to  justify  himself.  Ojin 
decided  to  leave  the  decision  to  the  judgment  of  God,  and  the  two  brothers  were 
submitted  to  the  ordeal  by  boiling  water,  in  which  Takenouchi  was  successful. 

The  Emperor  is  said  to  have  once  stopped  his  horse  in  the  middle  of  a 
journey,  to  contemplate  the  falling  leaves.  The  gentle  dove  is  his  messenger, 
but  he  is,  nevertheless,  usually  pictured  with  a  fierce  face  and  a  scowling  expression 
and  grasping  a  two-edged  sword.  There  is  in  the  Kojiki  a  story  of  how  NIMPAN 
(or  Susukori),  having  distilled  a  strong  liquor,  Ojin  partook  of  it  and  became 
augustly  drunk,  but  his  augustness  served  him  in  good  stead,  for,  as  he  went 
along  the  Osaka  road,  merrily  singing,  he  hit  a  boulder  with  his  staff  .  .  .  and 
the  stone  ran  out  of  his  way.  .  .  . 

267.  HACHIMANTARO  A  If  ^C  115-     See  YOSHIIYE. 

268.  HACHI  NO  KI  &  7|C.     Story  of  the  Potted  Trees. 

In  1253  the  fifth  Hojo  Shikken,  TOKIYORI,  abdicated  in  favour  of  his  son,  and 
taking  the  title  of  Abbot  Saimioji,  went  on  a  journey  through  Japan,  with  only 
one  companion,  DOUN  NIKIAIDO,  also  disguised  as  a  monk.  Both  suffered  greatly 
from  the  hardships  attending  a  winter  trip,  and  one  night  when  stopped  by  a 
storm  of  unusual  violence,  they  took  refuge  in  the  house  of  a  man  whose  refined 
ways  proved  that  he  had  seen  better  days.  On  enquiry  they  found  that  he  was 
the  son  of  a  magistrate  of  Sano,  who  had  been  despoiled  of  his  estate  through 
his  confidence  in  an  unworthy  kinsman.  He,  however,  did  not  bear  any  ill-will 
to  the  Kamakura  clan,  though  his  petitions  to  the  authorities  had  been  constantly 
ignored,  and  in  proof  of  his  loyalty,  he  showed  them  his  suit  of  armour  and 
rusty  weapons.  The  ex -Regent  forced  this  man,  TSUNEYO  SANO,  to  accept  a  small 


GENTOKU   (//.) 
HAKUBAKU  (.).) 


HAGOROMO  (itr.G.) 
HADESU   (/<.) 


present  of  money,  in  exchange  for  which  he  received  from  Tsuneyo's  wife  a  lock 
of  her  hair.  Before  they  left  in  the  morning,  Tsuneyo  apologized  for  being  so 
poor  that  he  had  no  incense  wherewith  to  effect  the  purefication  ceremonies,  but 
bringing  near  the  fire-place  his  dwarf  trees,  the  flowering  plum,  the  bamboo,  and 
pine,  he  chopped  them  down  and  burnt  them  instead.  A  year  later  a  rising  of 
the  Miura  clan  necessitated  a  general  call  to  arms,  and  from  all  parts  of  the 
country  warriors  came  to  Kamakura,  even  long  after  the  revolt  had  been  quelled. 
Amongst  the  late  comers,  was  Tsuneyo,  in  wretched  attire  and  on  a  rossinante, 
whose  presence  excited  a  great  deal  of  merriment.  On  giving  his  name  he  was 
at  once  taken  to  the  Regent,  in  whom  he  recognized  his  guest  of  the  previous 
year.  Tokiyori  restored  to  him  his  father's  estate  and  office,  and  added  to  it 
three  domains,  the  names  of  which  bore  resemblance  to  Pine,  Plum  and  Bamboo. 
In  the  No  play  it  is  said  that  the  trees  were  used  to  warm  the  guest  room 
during  the  cold  night. 

269.  HACHISUKE  y\  $].    Paragon  of  Ingratitude ;  the  subject  of  a  story 
translated    by    Dening    and    B.    H.    Chamberlain,   who    gives   him    the   name 
KYNEMON.      He   was   a   peasant   of   Takayama  in   Hida,  who,   overtaken   in  a 
ravine  by  a  snowstorm,  thought  his  last  hour  had  come.      He  was,  however, 
rescued  by  a  female  bear,  who  took  him    to   a   cavern    where   she   laid   him, 
insensible,  between  her  two  cubs.     The  man  came  back  to  consciousness  and 
the    bear    fed    him    right    through   the   winter.      For   a   long   time   his   story 
excited  wonder,  and  brought  him  enquiries  from  hunters  respecting  the  location 
of  the  bear.     He  finally  succumbed  to  his  greed  when  offered  a  sum  of  money 
and  half  the  value  of  the  flesh  and  skin   of  the  bear,   and   he   took   to   the 
animal's   den   a  poisoned  cake.      With  the  price  of  his  treason  he  bought  a 
farm,  but  fate  overtook  him  and  all  his  enterprises  failed,  his  family  sickened 
and  died,  and  he  was  gored  to  death  by  his  own  ox.* 

270.  HADESU   J^|  [§  (3   or   HASUHI.      Common    name    of    KASHIWADE 
NO  OMI,   who  was  sent  to  Korea  on  an  embassy  by  KIMMEI  TENNO  in  545. 

*  Compare  this  Indian  story  :  A  Deer  of  five  colours,  with  white  horns,  saved  a  man  from  drowning,  and 
made  him  swear  to  be  silent.  The  Queen  having  dreamt  of  such  an  animal,  rewards  were  offered  for  its  dis- 
covery. The  man  betrayed  the  deer,  which,  on  being  caught,  told  the  story  to  the  King,  and  the  perjured  man 
was  beheaded. 


He  is  general!}'  represented  with  his  left  hand  in  the  mouth  of  a  tiger.  His 
story  is  told  in  the  Nihongi  to  the  effect  that,  after  several  stormy  days,  his 
party,  having  landed  on  the  sea-shore,  he  found  in  the  morning  that  one  of  his 
children  had  disappeared,  and  that  a  heavy  fall  of  snow  had  obliterated  the 
boy's  traces;  but  in  a  short  time,  the  snow  having  melted,  he  found  the  spoor  of 
a  tiger.  Girding  his  sword,  he  advanced  to  the  cliff  and  beseeched  the  Gods 
to  assist  him  in  his  revenge.  A  large  tiger  presented  itself,  the  unhappy 
father  seized  the  brute's  tongue  and  stabbed  it  with  his  sword,  ultimately 
bringing  its  skin  to  the  Emperor.  In  another  version  the  child  is  said  to 
have  been  a  girl. 

271.  HAGATA  GURI  NO  KI.     The  tree  of  the  tooth-marked  chestnuts. 
See  under  Go  DAIGO  TENNO. 

272.  HAGOROMO   ^  ~&   (Feathery  robe).     Subject  of  a   No  play.     An 
Angel    (Tennin)  came  once  to  the  forest  of  Mio,  near  Okitsu,  and  climbed  a 
mountain   to   behold   mount   Fuji    and  the  sea  of  Suruga.      She  admired  the 
view  and  then,  after  hanging  her  feather  robe  to  a  pine  tree,  started  to  dance 
on   the  sand  beach.      A  fisherman,  Hakurio,  happened  to  pass  just  then,  and 
thought   her   a   beautiful  woman,    but   presumably  his  looks  did  not   betoken 
sufficient  respect,  for  the  Tennin  was  afraid  and  went  straight  back  to  Heaven, 
minus  her  robe,  which  is  still  preserved  in  a  temple  hard  by.     See  Chamberlain's 
Things  Japanese  and  Classical  Poetry. 

Hagoromo   is   also   the   popular   name   of   some   sort   of   cake,  and   as  an 
allusion   to   the  fairy  tale  it   is  usual   to   serve   this   delicacy   in    a   tray   with 
..  Pine  branches  painted  on  it.     The  fact  is  stated  in  the  poem  : 
&•  Kwashibon  no 


Makie  no  matsu  ni 
J^  Kakari  keri 

Hagoromo  to  damo 
Yoberu  senbei. 

"The  sweetstuff  called  Hagoromo  is  found  hanging  from  the  pine  branch 
painted  in  gold  lacquer  on  the  tray." 

Dennys,   in   his    Folklore  of   China,   quotes   a   somewhat    similar    Liu-chiu 

1 06 


story :  a  farmer  named  Ming-Ling-Tzu  saw  a  woman  bathing  whose  clothes 
were  hung  on  a  pine  tree,  and  when  she  came  to  claim  her  garments,  which 
the  farmer  had  gathered,  a  squabble  ensued,  which,  however,  terminated  in 
a  wedding ;  but  the  woman  went  back  to  heaven  ten  years  later.  The  same 
story  is  found  in  the  Norse  myth  of  the  white  swan,  or  sometimes  seal, 
which  married  a  fisherman  and  gave  him  three  children  before  leaving  him, 
finally,  in  Siberian  and  South  African  folklore;  an  essay  on  the  subject  can 
be  found  in  Conway's  Demonology,  1880-81. 

273.  HAKUDO  fjij  jj|i.      Chinese  sage  depicted  in   the  guise  of  a  coolie, 
with  two  baskets  slung  on  a  pole. 

274.  HAKUGA  NO  SAMMI  |f  H  H  {fc.     A  noble  of  the  tenth  century, 
named  SEMI  MONO  or  SEMI  MARU,  played  on   the  flute  a   tune  which  nobody- 
could  either  imitate  or  understand.     Hakuga,   after  listening  to  his  play  for 
three  years,  overheard  him  once  express  his  deep  regret  that,  after  his  death, 
there   would   not   be   anybody   to   play   it    again   as   he   knew   of   no    one    to 
whom  he  could  transmit  it.     He  then  begged  SEMI  to  take  him  as  his  pupil, 
and   happily   succeeded   in   his   undertaking.      This   legend   forms   the   subject 
of  a  No  dance. 

275.  HAKUHAKU   |$  ^,   or   KAKUBAKU,   was   a   learned   Chinese  sage, 
KWOH  P'OH,  who  in  his  old  days,  was  promoted   to  the  title  Suifu  Senhaku, 
and    who    died   in    324  A.D.      He   had   received   from    his   master   nine   books 
of  Taoist   magic   and    philosophic    knowledge    kept    in    a    green    bag,    from 
which  they  are  called  Ts'ing   nan   shu.      Chao   Tsai   $j[  j|j<;   stole   them  from 
Hakubaku,  and  later  they  were  lost  in  a  fire. 

He  is  depicted  travelling  or  crossing  the  sea  in  the  company  of  a  demon. 

276.  HAKURAKU   f^^|.      The  story  of   Hakuraku   is  also   known  as 
the  Taoist   parable  of  the   real   horse.      Hakuraku    had    been    sent   all  over 
the   world   by   his  master,   the  Emperor  of  China,  to  find  the  finest  horse  in 
existence.      He  came  back   after  a   lengthy  journey  and   reported   that   in   a 
certain   place   he   had    located    a    bay    mare    which    was    absolutely    perfect. 
Messengers   were   at   once   sent   to   secure   the    horse,    but    when    they   got    to 



the  place  described  they  found  a  black  stallion  of  ideal  beauty.  They  were 
somewhat  surprised  but  not  disappointed,  because,  according  to  the  teachings 
of  Wang  Yang  Ming,  when  the  expert  descries  hidden  qualities  without  any 
reference  to  outward  appearance  even  this  is  true  knowledge.  In  allusion  to 
this  legend  the  veterinary  surgeons  are  popularly  called  Hakuraku. 

277.  HAKUSEKISHO    U    ^    £    (Hakusekisei).       One    of    the    Taoist 
Sennins  illustrated  in  Hokusai  Mangiva,  Vol.  III.      He  was  too  poor  to  buy 
any  mystic  drugs ;    he  therefore  started  to  raise  pigs  and  sheep  (and  is  thus 
shown)   until   he   had   the   sum   of   ten   thousand    gold   pieces   to   procure   the 
materials   of   an   elixir.      Once    he    boiled   a   white   stone   (Haku-seki)   for   his 
food  and  he  retired  to  the  Mount  Hakuseki,  hence  his  name. 

278.  HANASAKASE  JIJII  $  Pfc  ^,  or  HANA  SAKA  Jun.     The  Old  Man 
who  makes  the  dead  trees  to  flower.     A  very  popular  juvenile  tale,  often  found 
illustrated.      In  Nelsuke  the  old  man  is  shown  digging  the  ground,  with  his 
dog  near  him,   gold  coins  showing  amongst  the  freshly-tilled  soil,  or  sitting 
under  a  dead  tree  with  a  box  of  ashes.     There  was  once  an  old  couple  who 
had   a   dog   named   Shiro,   and   particularly   nasty  neighbours.      One  day  the 
dog  began  sniffing  and  barking  at  a  certain  spot   of   the   garden   with  such 
insistence   that   the   old   man   dug  the  earth,  and  all  unexpectedly  his  spade 
came  upon  a  large  number  of  coins.     The  neighbours,  who  had  watched  the 
performance  through  the  palisade,  tried  to  entice  the  dog  to  their  own  garden, 
but   only  succeeded   by   main  force.     The  spot  at  which  the  dog  sniffed  was 
found   to   be   filled   with   filth    and    offal.      Thereupon    they    killed    the    dog 
and  buried  it  under  the  root  of  a  pine   tree.      The  old  man,  much   grieved, 
offered  sacrifice  upon   the  spot,  and   during  the  night  was  rewarded  by  the 
ghost  of  Shiro   whispering  to  him   to  cut   the   tree  down   and   make  a  rice 
mortar  of  its  trunk.     This  mortar  was  endowed  with  the  property  of  changing 
each  grain  of  rice  into  a  gold  coin.     The  envious  neighbours  again  made  up 
their  mind  to  obtain  some  of  these  riches  and  managed  to  borrow  the  mortar, 
but  their  rice  turned  into  filth  as  they  poured  it  in,  and  in  their  anger  they 
broke  it  and  burnt  it.     The  old  man  was  waiting  in  vain  for  the  return  of 
his    mortar,   but   the   ghost   of   his   dog   visited    him   again,   and   commanded 

1 08 


him  to  get  the  ashes  from  his  neighbours  and  to  scatter  them  over  some 
dead  trees.  As  the  ashes  touched  them  the  withered  twigs  began  to  sprout 
and  became  covered  with  blossoms.  The  old  man  went  over  the  country  and 
his  fame  reached  the  Daiinio  of  a  neighbouring  province,  who  tested  his 
powers  and  loaded  him  with  presents.  One  of  his  envious  neighbours  tried 
to  imitate  him  with  ordinary  ashes,  but  the  impostor,  on  being  called  to  a 
Prince's  yashiki,  was  unfortunate,  not  only  in  failing  to  revive  the  trees, 
but  still  more  so  in  that  some  of  the  ashes  were  blown  by  the  wind  into 
the  Prince's  eyes,  with  the  result  that  his  life  was  immediately  forfeited. 

In  another  version,  he  escaped  with  his  life  after  a  severe  beating  and 
went  back  home.  The  good  old  man  then  took  compassion  upon  him  and 
his  wife,  and  presented  them  with  some  money,  after  which  the  wicked 
neighbours  repented  and  changed  their  evil  ways. 

279.  HANDAKA   SONJA   ^  j^f  iM  If:  ^,   or   PANTHAKA.      One   of   the 
Sixteen  ARHATS,  often  represented  apart  from  the  others.     Like  Badhra  (Hattara 
Sonja),   Handaka's  appearance  is  threatening:    he   is  generally  shown  with  a 
bowl  from  which  issues  a  dragon  or  a  rain  cloud.      He  holds  the  bowl  aloft 
with   his   left  hand,   and  with  the  right  carries  the  sacred   gem.      Sometimes 
he  is  shown  seated  on  a  rock,  the  dragon  occasionally  represented  aside  and 
crouching  to  reach  the  Tama. 

280.  HANGAKU   |g   |||.      Daughter    of    Jo   no   Sukemori.      When    the 
latter   revolted    himself   against   Yoriiye,   in   1204,   his   castle  of  Torizaka  was 
beseiged  by  SAINEN   NIUDO   (Sasaki    Moritsuna,    q.v.)   and  his  daughter  fought 
amongst  the  defenders,   using  large  billets  of  wood  as  missiles.     This  strong 
woman  was  at  last  captured  by  Sainen.      A  spirited  illustration  of   her   fight 
is  given  in  Ehon  Sakigake. 

281.  HANGONKO     K^IW-      "The   Spirit   returning    in    the    Incense 
Smoke."      This    story    forms    the    subject    of    the    play,    Sendai  Hagi.      The 
Yoshiwara  belle,  Miura  ya  Takao,  was  extremely  famous,  and  her  most  devoted 
admirer  was  Date  Tsunamune,  Lord  of  Sendai,  whose  advances  she  persistently 
refused  to  accept.     The  Prince,  however,  hoping  to  succeed  in  his  suit,  bought 



her  from  the  Joroya  for  her  actual  weight  in  gold,  and  she  was  then  ordered  to 
follow  him  to  his  castle.  Takao  had  to  obey,  but,  before  leaving,  she  called 
her  lover,  the  Ronin  Shimada  Jusaburo,  to  whom  she  gave  some  incense  sticks, 
saying:  "We  shall  now  be  parted,  and  perhaps  may  never  meet  again.  Even 
it  may  be  that  I  shall  soon  die,  but  when  you  wish  to  see  my  face  again  watch 
the  smoke  of  this  incense."  She  was  taken  to  Sendai,  and  the  Prince  gave 
her  to  choose  between  becoming  his  mistress  or  being  killed.  She  chose  death, 
and  her  ghost  appeared  in  the  fragrant  smoke  before  the  eyes  of  Jusaburo, 
as  she  had  promised.  See  the  Chinese  story  of  Rifujin  under  Kan  no  Koso. 

282.  HANKI  fjs[  fi(.    One  of  the  sons  of  Benten.    His  attribute  is  a  rice 
dish.      He  is  also  called  SHITSUGETSU,  and   is   a   transformation  of   Sendanko 
Bosatsu,  the  Sanskrit  Tchandanagandha. 

283.  HANKWAI  $$  HH".     The  Chinese  FAN  KW'AI,  who  died  circa  200  B.C. 
He  is  generally  represented  carrying  under  his  arm  a  door,  in  allusion  to  an 
episode   of   his   life   which    is    variously   reported.      He   was   drawn   from   the 
lower  class  of  the  Chinese  people,  having  been  a  dog  butcher,  but  being  one 
of   the   early  adherents   of   the   Han  dynasty  he  became  one  of  the  ministers 
of  the  Emperor  HAN  KAO  Tsu  (Kao  Ti ;   Japanese,  KAN  NO  Koso),  and  became 
further    attached   to   him    when    Kan   no   Koso   married   one   of   his   relatives. 
One  version  has  it  that  KAO  Yu  was  plotting  against  the  life  of  the    Emperor, 
and   Hankwai   having  heard  that   the  conspirators  were  assembled  in  a  room 
feasting  with  Kan  no  Koso,  he  forced  his  way  to  it,  and  bursting  open  the 
door  entered  the  room  with  the  door  under  his  arm.      The  Emperor  invited 
him   to   partake   of   the   feast,  and    Hankwai   helped  himself  to  a  boar's  leg, 
which   he   carved   with   his   own  sword  and  washed  down  with  ten  shos  (20 
litres)  of  wine,   after  which  he  accused  Kao  Yu  of  treason,   playing  the  role 
of  a  drunken  man  to  give  Kan  no  Koso  time  to  escape  with  Chang  Liang 
(Ehon   Riozai,   Ehon   Hokan).      During   the   following   year   the   aged    Emperor 
raised  him  to  the  command  of  his  troops,  but   on  an  accusation  being  made 
against   him   ordered   his   minister,    Ch'en   Ping,    to   have  Hankwai  beheaded. 
Thanks    to    his    relationship    with    the    Empress,    he    escaped    after    a    short 
confinement   in  jail,  being  reinstated  after  the  Emperor's  demise. 



In  Mayer's  version,  the  Emperor  is  said  to  have  shut  himself  up  in  his 
palace,  forbidding  anyone  to  approach,  and  spending  in  luxurious  self- 
indulgence  so  many  days  that  Hankwai  forcibly  effected  an  entry  and 
violently  upbraided  Kan  no  Koso,  whom  he  found  sleeping  with  his  head 
resting  upon  an  eunuch's  body  as  a  pillow. 

284.  HANNYA  $£  ;§.      See   MASKS.      Female    demon   with   horns,    open 
mouth  and  sharp  fangs. 

285.  HANREI    $L  -Us-     T'ie  Chinese  FAN   Li,  who  was  minister  of  Kow 
TSIEN  (Kosen),  and  lived  about  470  B.C. 

In  a  book  dealing  with  Taoist  sages  he  is  included  amongst  Sennins, 
with  this  description  :— 

"  HANREI  served  at  the  Court  of  Shu,  and  had  Taikobo  for  his  teacher.  He 
drank  water  and  ate  cinnamon.  He  became  minister  of  Yetsu  (Yiieh),  and 
assisted  KOSEN  to  destroy  Go  (Wu).  He  is  represented  with  a  wine  gourd 
in  his  belt  and  walking  in  the  wind." 

He  is  said  to  have  suggested  to  KOSEN  a  means  of  terminating  his 
twenty  years'  warfare  with  Fu  CH'A  of  Wu,  which  consisted  in  sending  to  the 
latter  the  famous  beauty,  Si  SHE  (j?§  $jj  Japanese,  SEISHI),  whom  he  had  found 
washing  silk,  and  who,  after  her  training  at  Court,  was  acknowledged  the 
"belle"  of  the  Chinese  Empire.  This  stratagem  was  successful;  Fu  CH'A, 
distracted  by  her  beauty,  forgot  his  princely  duties  and  was  beaten,  after  which 
HANREI  left  his  master  to  enjoy  his  own  peace  of  mind  in  a  distant  province, 
where  he  soon  became  extraordinarily  rich.  See  GOSHISHO.  Upon  his  fidelity 
to  KOSEN  is  based  the  quotation  of  Kojima.  See  Go  DAIGO. 

Anderson  (Catalogue,  p.  379)  gives  another  version,  in  which  SEISHI  is  the 
mistress  of  Kow  TSIEN,  and  HANREI  is  made  to  drown  her  in  a  lake.® 

286.  HARE    Jfa   (UsAGi).       The   hare    is   one   of   the   familiar  animals  of 
Japanese  folklore,  and  the  hare  in  the  moon  or  pounding  rice  is,  of  course, 
one   of   its   most   frequent   presentments,   perhaps   because   Mochi    means    both 

*  This  appears,  however,  to  be  a  mistake,  perhaps  due  to  a  confusion  with  Chow  Sin  (1123  B.C.)  or  Kieh 
(1766  B.C.),  although  it  has  been  said  that  after  the  fall  of  Fu  Ch'a  she  had  boasted  that  she  would  also  captivate 
Kow  Tsien,  and  Hanrei,  to  prevent  this,  took  her  one  night  in  a  boat  over  the  Lake  Suche  (Sochu),  where  he 
treacherously  killed  her. 



"full  moon"  and  "rice  cake."  When  associated  with  the  moon,  like  the 
Chinese  rabbit,  and  in  reminiscence  of  the  hare  which,  according  to  Hindoo 
legend,  leapt  in  the  fire  to  become  food  for  Sakyamuni  and  was  thereafter 
sent  to  the  moon  to  keep  company  to  the  old  man  and  to  Chan  chu,  it  is 
represented  surrounded  with  Equiseta  plants,  the  familiar  horse  tail,  or 
scouring  rush,  seeming  to  imply  the  existence  of  water  on  the  moon,  in 
opposition  to  astronomical  ideas.0 

The  hare  is  also  one  of  the  signs  of  the  Zodiac  Jjp.  He  is  one  of  the 
companions  of  KINTARO  (q.v.) ;  he  recurs  often  in  the  pictures  of  the  Xllth 
Century  artist,  Toba  Sojo. 

It  is  said  that  the  female  conceives  by  running  on  the  waves  on  the 
eighteenth  day  of  the  eighth  moon,  if  the  sky  is  clear,  or  by  licking  the  fur 
of  the  male  during  the  same  period  (Ehon  Kojidan}. 

The  hare  lives  to  a  very  long  age,  it  becomes  quite  white  when  five 
hundred  years  old,  and  even  attains  the  millenium,  as  appears  from  the 
adventures  of  Chang  Kien ;  and,  in  connection  with  his  abnormal  longevity, 
it  is  fitting  that,  when  pounding  in  a  mortar,  he  is  also  described  as 
preparing  the  elixir  of  life. 

A  hare  and  a  mouse  had  lengthy  chats  with  the  King  of  Izumo,  sixth 
descendant  of  Susanoo  no  Mikoto.  There  are  several  popular  hare  stories: 
one  given  in  the  Kojiki  is  that  of  the  Hare  of  Inaba,  who  twitted  the 
crocodiles  into  forming  a  bridge  from  Old  to  Inaba,  where  he  wanted  to 
go.  When,  however,  he  reached  land  from  the  back  of  the  last  crocodile  he 
jeered  at  them,  and  just  escaped  their  anger  with  only  his  fur  pulled.  On 
the  road  he  was  rescued  and  healed  by  the  fairy  personage,  O  Kuni  Mushi 
no  Mikoto,  who  was  on  his  way  to  marry  the  princess  Yakami. 

Another  story  is  called  "The  Revenge  of  the  Hare,"  or  also  KACHI-KACHI 
YAMA:  the  Crackling  Mountain. 

There  was  an  old  man  cutting  wood  in  the  mountains,  his  old  wife 
brought  him  his  dinner,  but  a  badger  stole  it  whilst  they  were  talking ;  the 
old  man  caught  the  animal  and  took  it  home,  hung  it  from  the  rafters,  and  told 

0  According  to  a  Mexican  legend  quoted  from  Sahagun  in  Andrew  Lang's  Custom  and  Myth,  the  moon 
was  originally  a  man,  and  the  marks  upon  its  disk  were  produced  by  a  RABBIT  being  thrown  across  his  face. 






(lY.L.B.)  (C.P.P.)  (H.S.T.) 



his  wife  he  would  soon  come  and  kill  the  Tanuki  and  they  would  eat  it.  The 
woman  started  pounding  rice,  and  the  badger,  thanks  to  its  magical  powers, 
assumed  human  voice,  and  asked  her  to  untie  him,  saying  he  would  help  her, 
instead  of  which  he  killed  her,  assumed  her  shape  and  cooked  her,  presenting 
the  stew  to  the  old  man  as  a  dish  of  badger  for  his  evening  meal.  After  the 
woodcutter's  appetite  was  satisfied,  the  animal  resumed  its  original  form  and 
told  the  old  man  that  he  had  eaten  his  wife,  and  then  flew  to  the  mountain. 
Now  there  was  an  old  hare  in  the  mountain  who  was  very  fond  of  the  old 
woodcutter,  and  he  went  to  see  him  and  promised  to  avenge  him.  He 
begged  from  the  man  some  hot  grilled  beans,  and  carried  them  in  a  bag ; 
when  he  met  the  badger  the  latter  wanted  some  of  the  beans,  and  the  hare 
said  he  would  give  him  a  handful  if  he  consented  to  carry  on  his  back  to 
the  top  of  the  mountain  a  load  of  dry  hay.  The  badger  consented,  and 
after  he  had  set  on  the  journey  the  hare,  walking  behind  him,  struck  his 
flint  and  fired  the  hay.  Tanuki,  wondering  at  the  noise,  inquired  what  it 
was.  "Oh,"  said  the  hare,  "this  is  Click-click  Mountain  (Kachi-Kachi  Yam  a) 
or  the  Mount  of  Victory."  A  bit  higher  up  the  noise  increased,  and  the 
badger  got  nervous.  "Don't  worry,"  said  the  hare,  "this  is  Bo  Bo  Yam  a 
(the  Mount  of  Defeat),  and  they  always  have  strange  noises  here."  Soon 
the  badger's  back  was  sore  and  blistered,  and  he  went  away  cursing,  rolling 
all  the  way  down  the  mountain  trying  to  quench  the  fire  and  get  rid  of  his 

The  hare  then  mixed  some  red  pepper  and  gums,  and  disguised  as  a 
plaster-seller  went  to  the  badger's  place.  The  badger  used  the  plaster  freely, 
needless  to  say  with  what  results,  and  it  took  twenty  days  for  his  back  to 
heel.  He  went  then  to  the  seaside,  and  there  met  the  hare  busy  making  a 
boat,  in  which  he  said  he  intended  to  go  to  the  moon  ;  he  even  proposed  to 
make  a  second  boat  for  the  badger,  but  the  other  said  he  had  had  enough 
of  the  hare's  tricks,  and  he  would  make  just  as  good  a  boat  for  himself  out 
of  the  clay  which  was  plentiful  thereabouts.  But  when  they  launched  their 
boats  the  clay  soon  got  sodden,  and  the  badger's  boat  dropped  to  pieces ; 
then  the  hare  "finished"  Tanuki  with  a  few  strokes  of  his  oar,  much  to  the 
delight  of  the  woodcutter  who  had  come  along  to  watch  the  fray. 

"3  H        . 


287.  HASUI.     See  HADESU. 

288.  HATAKEYAMA    SHIGETADA    H  Uj  3  J&.    Son    of    Shigeyoshi 
and    descendant    of    Taira   no    Takamochi.      In    the    Wada    feud    he    nearly 
captured    the   Tomoe    Gozen    at    IJji    Gawa,    but    she   escaped,    leaving    her 
sleeve   in    his   hands.     Shigetada   had    left    his   estate    of    Numada,    in    Ise,   to 
to   the   care   of   a    man   named   Sanemasa,   who,   however,   offended    the   head 
priest,    Inube   lyetsuna.      The    latter    complained    to    the   Kamakura    Govern- 
ment,   and   Shigetada  was  deprived  of   his   estate  and   confined   to  the   house 
of   Chiba    Tanemasa,    where   he    refused    to    take    any   food   for    seven   days. 
Finally   he   was   sent    back    home.       The    Hojo    Shikken    could    not    pardon 
him    his    loyalty    to     the    Minamoto    Shogun    by    the    first    one    of    whom 
(Yoritomo,    then    dead)   he   had   been    treated   with    great   favour.     He   was   a 
friend   of   the    SOGA    Brothers    in    the   camp   of    their  father's   murderer,   and 
when   he   heard    that    the   hunting   party   would   soon   break  up   he  gave   the 
SOGA  the  hint  to  act  at  once,  sending  to  Tora,   the  mistress  of  one  of  them, 
a   poem    reading:    "The    maples    of    the    mountain  have  begun   to   turn  red, 
wait   till   the   evening  to    see  the    leaves."      His   son,   Shigeyasu,   had   once   a 
drunken    brawl    with     Hiraga    Tomomasa,    son-in-law    of     H5jo     Tokimasa, 
who   had   him   executed.      But    the    treacherous    Shikken    was    not    satisfied 
with   this    murder,    and   a   few    months   later   (Genkyu    II.,    1205)   he   sent   for 
Shigetada,    who    was    in    Suruga,    and    when    the   latter    entered    Kamakura, 
he     was    set     upon     and     shot    with    arrows    by    the    Hojo    soldiers.       See 

289.  HATTARA    SONJA    {$  |?fc  H    or    BHADRA.      One  of  the   Sixteen 
ARHATS,  generally  shown  with  a  white  tiger  crouching  at  his  feet ;   he  holds 
a   knotted   staff,   and   is   occasionally   shown   seated   on   a   rock.      He    is    also 
shown   with   the   ringed   staff  (Shakujo)  or  the  Nioi  (short  wand),  symbolical 
of  the  powers  of  faith. 

290.  HEAVEN,  Four  Kings  of.     See  SHI  TENNO. 

,,  River  of.     See  AM  A  NO  GAWA. 

,,  Spinning   Maiden,    Cowherd   and    Bridge   of   Birds.      See 



HEAVEN,  Pillars  of.     See  JOKWA. 

201.  HEIKE  ^  0Sc  or  HEISHI.  Another  name  of  the  TAIRA  clan  (q.v.). 
See  the  Heike  Monogatari  Zue,  by  Yukinaga,  (1710,  reprinted  1829). 

292.  HEIKE  GANI  Ifi  ^,  or  Heike  crabs  of  Akamagaseki  (Shimonoseki), 
are  tiny  crabs  to  which  attaches  a  curious  legend,  verging   on   superstition  : 
they   are   popularly   credited    with    being   the   ghostly   remains   of   the    Heike 
warriors   killed   at   the    battle    of    Dan   no   Lira,   in    1185,    by   the    Minamoto 
(Genji).      See  Hearn. 

They  are  also  called  TAISHOGANI  (Chieftain's  crabs)  and  Tatsugashira,  or 
dragon's  helmet,  and  people  see  in  the  ridges  of  their  shell  the  roughly 
delineated  shape  of  a  warrior's  helmet.  In  representations  of  Renkei's  fight 
with  the  ghosts  (q.v.)  it  is  not  uncommon  to  see  the  crabs  surrounding 
the  boat  of  Yoshitsune,  or  the  drowning  warriors  of  the  Taira  army, 
specially  Tomomori.  According  to  legend  the  ghosts  nightly  bail  the 
bottom  of  the  sea  with  bottomless  ladles.  For  a  similar  legend,  see 

293.  HEITARO    SONE    *$>  ;£  jf|$  ft*  fl|.      Masayoshi    Heitaro   Sone,   of 
Hitachi,    was   a   famous   archer   whose   father,   one   of   the   court    guards,    had 
been  murdered  while  Heitaro  was  still  a  boy.     On  a  pilgrimage  to  Kumano, 
to  pray  for  a  clue  to  the  murderer,  his  skill  was  used  in  saving  a  large  willow 
tree    from    being    cut   down   to   rescue   an    entangled   falcon,    Heitaro   cutting 
the  string  which  impeded  the  bird  by  means  of  a  single,  well-directed  arrow. 
On   the  same  day  he  met  on   the  road  a  comely  maiden,  with  whom  he  fell 
in   love,  and  their  union  was  followed  by  the  birth  of  a  boy.     One  day  the 
ex-Emperor,    Shirakawa    Tenno,    who   suffered   from   chronic   headaches,    went 
to  pray  for  relief  at  Kumano,  and  was  told  by  the  Gods  to  consult  an  Indian 
physician,  who  informed  him  that  his  illness  was  caused  by  the  skull  which 
had  once  been  his  own,    in  a  previous  existence,  when  he  was  but  a  priest— 
Rengebo  of   Kumano — The  skull  dropped  once   in   a  river,   it   had  later  been 
caught  by  some  drooping  twig  of  a  willow  tree,  and  in  growing  the  branches  had 
carried  it  aloft.      Workmen  were  set  to  fell  that  tree,  which  happened  to  be  the 
one  that  Heitaro  had  previously  saved.    At  every  blow  of  the  felling  axe  Heitaro's 



wife  became  weaker,  and  she  died  when  the  tree  fell,  after  telling  Heitaro  that 
she  was  the  sprite  of  the  tree  and  presenting  him  with  the  skull.  As  the  fallen 
trunk  was  drawn  in  the  road,  it  stopped  opposite  the  door  of  Heitaro's  house, 
and  the  combined  efforts  of  hundreds  of  men  could  not  move  it  until  Heitaro's 
little  son  began  pulling  on  the  rope.  The  august  skull  was  enshrined  in 
one  of  the  Thousand  K\vannon  of  San  jin  san  gen  do  at  Kyoto. 

294.  HELL  ^fl,  /d^  (JIGOKU).  Hades,  properly  speaking,  was  not  a  feature 
of  the  Shinto  faith  :  its  development  is  due  to  the  introduction  of  Buddhism, 
and  with  it  the  intricate  infernal  paraphernalia  created  by  Indian  imagination. 
The  correct  working  of  its  appalling  tortures  and  punishments  is  insured  by 
a  host  of  Infernal  Deities,  under  the  sway  of  the  Ten  Regents  of  Hades, 
characterised  by  their  fierce  appearance  and  the  character  O  Ql,  King)  on  their 
head-dresses.  YEMMA  O,  or  EMMA  DAI  O,  the  Indian  Yama  Raja,  the  Chinese 
Yen  Mo,  being  the  chief  Regent,  seated  near  a  whirling  wheel  on  which 
are,  at  his  right,  the  two  witnesses — KAGUHANA,  who  smells  all  odours,  and 
the  female  MIRUMK  with  the  all-seeing  eyes.  He  is  also  assisted  by  another 
all-seeing  personage,  DOMEJIN,  and  an  all-hearing  one,  DOJOJIN,  besides  the 
wonderful  TABARI  NO  KAGAMI,  the  mirror  or  soul-reflecting  mirror. 

The  other  Regents  are : — Tsing  Kwang,  Chu  Chiang,  Wu  Kuan,  Sung 
Ti,  Lung  Chuan,  Pien  Ching,  Tu  Shih,  Tai  Shan,  Wu  Tao. 

The  Styx  of  classical  tradition  is  here  represented  by  the  River  of  the 
Three  Roads,  SANZU  NO  KAWA,  on  the  banks  of  which  prowls  the  hag  of 
Hades  the  Old  Woman  of  the  Three  Roads,  or  SHODZUKA  BABA,  sixteen 
feet  high,  with  big  eyes,  and  who  whiles  the  time  away  by  robbing  the 
dead  of  their  garments  and  hanging  them  on  the  trees  with  the  help  of  her 
consort,  TEN  DATSU  BA.  But  the  benevolent  figure  of  Jizo  hovers  about  to 
protect  the  souls  of  little  children,  and  helps  them  in  the  daytime  to  build 
up  the  cairns  of  stones,  forming  their  penance,  in  the  dry  bed  of  the  SANZU  j 
NO  KAWA,  albeit  this  labour  is  made  everlasting  by  the  old  hag,  who  every 
night  disperses  the  stones.  The  Nihongi  speak  of  several  Ugly  females  of 
Yomi  in  the  legend  of  Izanagi's  visit  to  the  infernal  regions. 

The   representations  of   Hell  and  its  tortures  are  easily  recognisable,  and 



their  horror  bears  comparison  with  the  Chinese  lucubrations,  in  which  men 
are  chopped,  boiled,  and  ground  by  grinning  o;n's  with  an  extraordinary 
wealth  of  detail. 

The  accepted  name  for  Hell  is  JIGOKU  ;  the  mild  place  which  in  Shinto 
tradition  took  its  place  was  called  YOMI,  or  NE  NO  KUNI  (Nihongi),  and 
it  was  visited  by  Izanagi  no  Mi  koto  in  search  of  his  spouse. 

There  are,  however,  other  names  recognised,  such  as  the  Sanskrit  cold 
hells :  AH-TA-TA,  where  the  lips  are  frozen ;  An-BA-BA,  where  the  tongues 
are  frozen ;  and  the  great  white  lotus  hell,  the  PUNDARIKA,  in  which  the 
bones,  bared  and  bleached  by  the  cold,  "look  like  a  carpet  of  white  lotus  on 
the  waters."  A  nomenclature  of  the  Buddhist  Hells,  by  Mr.  de  Harley,  will 
be  found  in  the  Toung  Pao,  Vols.  VII.  and  VIII.,  1st  series. 

295.  HENJAKU   ^jf  *!j  (Chinese    PIEN   TS'AO)    was   an    innkeeper    in    the 
Chao  province  about  the  sixth  century  B.C.,  to  whose  house  came  the  wizard 
CHO    So    Kux    (J|.  jjji  jjj     Ch'ang   sang   Kung),    who,    detecting   in    his   host 
unusual  attainments,   taught   him   the  rudiments  of  his  art.      The  pupil  soon 
excelled  the  master,  and  legend  attributes  to  him  the  discovery  of  the  channels 
through  which  the  vital  spirits  are  conveyed  (i.e.,  the  blood  vessels).      He  is 
credited  with  having  been  the  first  to  dissect  the  human  body.     According  to 
legend,  however,  he  had  a   transparent  abdomen,  and  could  not  only  follow 
the  course   of   his  blood  but  also   watch  the  action  of  drugs.      He  is  usually 
depicted  as  a  handsome   man    in   fine   raiment,    whilst   his   teacher    is   almost 
nude,  ugly  and  unkempt. 

296.  HICHOBO  J=^  J^.  ffi  (FEI  CHANG  FANG)  was  a  man  of  Jonan  who 
became  a   governor.      An  old  man  Ko  Ko  (Hu   KUNG   q.v.)   who  sold  drugs 
in  the  city  used  to  retire  in  a  pot  hung  to  his  door-post.     Hichobo,  observing 
him  from  the  second  story  of  his  house,   went   to  pay  him  his  respects,  and 
he  became  the  disciple  of  Ko  Ko,  with   whom  he  is  often  confused.      He  is 
depicted  riding  on  a  crane  in  Ehon  Hokan  and  in  Sensai  Yeitaku,  but  sometimes 

—like  Ko  Ko — partly  hidden  in  a  jar,  or  with  his  arms  in  it. 

297.  HIDARI     JINGORO     £    ^    3L    MR     (Jingoro     the     left-handed). 
Celebrated   sculptor   who   lived    from     1594    to    1634.      Amongst    his    famous 



productions  are  the  sleeping  cat  (nemuri  no  neko)  in  the  temple  of  leyasu  at 
Nikko,  and  two  elephants,  also  in  the  same  temple.  Legend  has  it  that 
he  once  picked  up  a  mirror  which  a  girl  had  dropped  in  the  street,  and  that, 
on  beholding  the  fair  damsel,  he  fell  so  deeply  in  love  with  her  that  he  kept  the 
mirror,  and  forthwith  carved  a  figure  of  his  love.  When  the  statue  was  com- 
pleted he  placed  the  mirror  in  a  fold  of  its  dress.  Now,  the  wood  took  to  life, 
and  the  carver  became  a  happy  man,  but  his  loyalty  to  his  lord  was  very  great, 
and  when  the  head  of  the  Daimio's  daughter  was  requested  by  an  enemy, 
Jingoro  sent  instead  the  head  of  his  living  figure.  When  the  man  who 
had  to  take  the  head  away  came  back,  he  attacked  Jingoro,  thinking  that 
he  had  indeed  murdered  the  Daimio's  daughter,  and  severed  his  right  hand. 
This  statue  was  not  the  only  one  to  become  alive  :  a  horse  which  he  had 
carved  for  a  temple,  like  the  one  painted  by  Kose  no  Kanaoka,  used  to 
leave  the  sacred  precincts  at  night  and  graze  in  the  neighbouring  fields, 
much  to  the  dismay  of  the  owners,  until  it  was  deprived  of  its  wandering 
properties  by  appropriate  incantations. 

298.  HIDEYOSH1  (TOYOTOMI)  ^  ^  (jj|  £).  Toyotomi  HIDEVOSHI, 
the  greatest  warrior  in  Japan,  is  better  known  perhaps  under  the  name  of 
TAIKO,  title  meaning  retired  Prime  Minister,  or  by  that  of  TAIKO  SAMA. 
Finally,  owing  to  his  ugliness,  he  was  nicknamed  the  Monkey  Servant,  Saru 
Kuanja.  He  was  the  son  of  a  poor  farmer  named  YASUKE,  in  the  village 
of  Naka,  Aichi  district,  province  of  Owari,  and  was  born  in  the  sixth  year 
of  Temmon  (1537).  He  received  the  name  of  HIYOSHI  MARO  (good  sun),  and 
lost  his  father  when  eight  years  of  age.  He  then  had  the  name  Ko  CHIKU 
and  the  nickname  Saru  Matsu,  monkey  pine.  His  stepfather  had  been  a 
servant  of  ODA  NOBUNAGA,  and  finding  the  boy  clever,  although  full  of  mis- 
chief, sent  him  to  the  temple  of  his  village  to  be  instructed,  but  the  boy 
was  returned  to  his  home  owing  to  his  troublesome  habits.  He  was  then 
sent  to  a  blacksmith,  who  had  to  part  with  him  soon  after  for  the  same  reason  ; 
and  so  on  with  several  masters,  who  could  never  keep  him  for  more  than  a 
month.  Finally,  when  twenty  years  old,  he  became  a  servant  of  Matsushita 
Yukitsuna,  one  of  the  lieutenants  of  Imagawa  Yoshimoto,  who  placed  great 


9  P 

-  a! 

=  O 

a  ~i 

Q   - 


confidence  in  him.  One  day,  however,  he  sent  Hiyoshi  to  Owari  to  buy  a 
suit  of  armour,  and  the  lad,  being  ambitious,  sought  service  with  Nobunaga, 
whose  sandal  keeper  he  became.  Having  been  entrusted  by  Nobunaga  to 
superintend  the  repairs  to  the  ensile  of  Kiyosu,  where  the  workmen  were 
sluggish,  he  so  hustled  them  that  in  a  few  days  the  castle  was  available,  and 
Nobunaga  seized  the  opportunity  to  promote  him.  He  was  then  named  Hashiba 
Chikusen  no  Kami,  or  TOKICHI  TAKAYOSHI,  and  nicknamed  Cotton  Tokichi, 
Momen  Tokichi.  As  the  Saito  family  were  strong  enemies  of  Nobunaga,  he 
proposed  to  attack  them  with  a  troop  of  highwaymen.  He  was  successful,  and 
received  his  name  of  KIXOSHITA  HIDEYOSHI.  In  1570,  his  conduct  during  the 
war  against  Asakura  Yoshikage  was  rewarded  with  30,000  kokn  of  rice.  In 
1573  he  attacked  the  castle  of  Odani  and  captured  Asai  Nagamasa,  whose 
personal  estate  of  180,000  koku  became  his  reward.  He  then,  in  1574,  built 
for  himself  the  castle  of  Nagahama,  took  HASHIBA  as  his  new  family  name 
from  the  names  of  two  of  his  generals,  NIWA  (Ha)  and  SHIBATA,  and  adopted 
the  Kiri  crest  (Pawlonia  Imperialis).  In  1581  he  invaded  Mori,  and  within 
five  years  subjugated  the  five  Western  provinces. 

In  1583  he  captured  the  castle  of  Takamatsu  by  flooding  it,  and  on 
that  very  night  heard  of  the  murder  of  Nobunaga  by  Akechi.  He  then 
hurried  back  to  Amagaseki,  and  fought  the  Akechi  party,  killing  Akechi 
himself  at  the  battle  of  Mount  Tennozan  a  few  days  after  the  murder  of 
Nobunaga:  hence  his  popular  name  of  "Three  days  Shogun"  (Alikadenka). 
He  had  then  a  following  of  over  60,000  men.  He  was  rewarded  with  "Sub 
under  fourth"  rank  and  the  title  of  Lieutenant-General,  but  resigned  these 
honours  on  the  spot.  Hidenobu,  eldest  son  of  Nobutada,  succeeded  Nobunaga, 
and  his  uncle,  Nobuo,  acted  as  his  regent,  but  the  important  affairs  were  actually 
left  in  the  hands  of  HIDEYOSHI  after  the  battle  of  Shizugatake.  He  killed 
Shibata  Katsuiye,  who,  with  Nobutaka,  third  son  of  Nobunaga,  had  plotted 
to  destroy  him.  He  then  became  a  Privy  Councillor  (1583),  and  built  the 
magnificent  castle  of  Osaka,  where  he  went  to  live ;  his  influence  was  then 
such  that  even  Tokugawa  leyasu  was  afraid  of  him.  leyasu,  however,  sided 
with  Nobuo  to  attack  HIDEYOSHI,  but  was  beaten  and  had  to  give  his  son 
as  hostage.  In  1584  HIDEYOSHI  became  Dainagon  ;  in  1585  he  was  promoted 



to  the  real  second  rank,  and  became  Keeper  of  the  Seals  (Naidaijin).  He 
then  subjugated  Chosokabe  in  Shikoku,  Sassa  in  Etchu,  Uesugi  in  Echigo, 
and  Tokugawa  recognised  him.  He  had  entreated  the  last  Ashikaga  Shogun 
to  adopt  him,  but  met  with  a  refusal,  and  he  petitioned  the  Emperor  to 
allow  him  to  take  the  name  of  TOYOTOMI,  which  he  originated. 

In  1586  he  was  appointed  Prime  Minister  (Kwambaku),  and  as  this  title 
was  reserved  for  the  highest  nobles  the  powerful  lord  of  Satsuma,  SHIMAZU, 
objected,  but  HIDEYOSHI,  with  150,000  men,  defeated  him  in  the  following 
year.  In  1588  the  Emperor  honoured  him  with  a  visit.  In  1590  he  attacked 
Hojo  Ujimasa  and  Date  Masamune,  who  refused  to  obey  his  commands,  and 
he  defeated  them. 

When  he  entered  Kamukura  it  is  said  that  he  went  to  a  temple  where 
was  kept  a  statue  of  Minamoto  no  Yoritomo,  and,  stroking  the  image,  said: 
"  My  dear  friend,  you  and  I  have  grasped  Japan  in  our  hands,  but  you  were 
born  in  a  palace  and  I  in  a  thatched  hut.  Now  what  do  you  think  of  me ; 
who  will  send  an  army  to  the  Empire  of  Ming  ? " 

In  1591  he  resigned  his  premiership  to  his  adopted  son,  Hidetsugu,  and 
advanced  to  Nagoya,  in  Hizen,  with  500,000  men.  He  subjugated  the  Coreans, 
who  sent  to  Ming  Shen  Tsung  for  help,  but  the  Emperor  was  himself  afraid, 
and  promised  to  HIDEYOSHI  that  if  he  stayed  his  hand  the  three  great 
Provinces  (Do)  of  Corea  would  be  given  him,  and  he  would  be  crowned 
King.  He  then  ordered  his  army  to  return,  and  in  the  eighth  month  of  the 
first  year  of  Keicho  (1596)  received  an  ambassador  from  the  Ming  Emperor. 
But  as  he  opened  the  message,  he  found  it  to  be  rude,  and  (according  to  the 
Taiko  ki}  tearing  the  letter  to  pieces  drove  the  ambassador  out  of  the 
country*.  He  then  assembled  a  new  army  to  invade  Corea  and  China,  but 
whilst  the  fight  proceeded  he  died  of  disease  at  the  age  of  sixty-one. 

See    also    the    anecdote  under  GOURDS  about   his  standard ;   see    ISIIIKAWA 

HIDEYOSHI  is  said  to  have  imitated  Moritsuna  in  his  treatment  of  guides. 
When  he  led  his  army  through  Hakone,  before  the  battle  of  Ishikake  yama, 

s  The  original  letter  is,  however,  preserved  to  this  day  in  the  private  collection  of  a  noble  whose  ancestors 
served  under  Hideyoshi. 

I  2O 


(By  courtesy  af  Messrs.   \  'ainamika) 


a  hunter  showed  him   the  way,   and   legend   has    it    that  he   killed    the    man. 
This  mountain  range  is  also  called  Taiko  yama. 

The  Taiko  had  a  pet  monkey  which  was  very  mischievous,  and  had  been 
taught  to  jump  at  every  visitor  in  a  threatening  manner,  much  to  the  confusion 
of  the  stately  Daimios  who  called  upon  Hideyoshi.  One  man,  however,  DATE 
MASAMUNE  (who  later  became  Daimio  of  Mutsu,  and  sent  ambassadors  to  the 
Pope  in  Rome),  determined  not  to  be  laughed  at  by  the  Taiko,  and,  bribing 
some  servant,  he  was  shown  the  monkey  before  the  audience  began  ;  he  then 
hit  the  animal's  face  with  his  clenched  fist  until  the  monkey  showed  no 
more  fight,  and  then  went  away.  When  Date  Masamune  was  introduced  in 
the  audience  room,  the  monkey  hid  itself  behind  Hideyoshi,  and  could  not  be 
induced  to  come  forward  in  its  usual  manner.  Taiko  Sama  was  very  deeply 
impressed,  and,  of  course,  knowing  nothing  of  the  anterior  proceedings,  he 
concluded  that  Date  was  a  very  strong  man,  rather  to  be  feared,  and  with 
whom  it  would  be  policy  to  be  friendly. 

299.  HIEN  YUAN  TSI  $f  ||  ^.       A   wizard   of  the   time   of   Suang 
Tsung  of  the  Tang  dynasty,   circa,  845  A.D.     He  had  the  power   of   ubiquity, 
was  followed  about  by  wild  beasts,  and  his  magic  knowledge  was  unequalled. 
Once,  when  received  in  audience  by  the  Emperor,  a  court  lady  chided  him,  and 
he  caused  her  to  be  transformed  into  a  wrinkled  hag  until  she  beseeched  his 
forgiveness,  when  he  allowed  her  to  resume  her  former  state.     He  is  identical 
with   KEN   EN   SHYU,   of   whom    it   is   written  that  he  was  an  old  sage  who, 
after   several   centuries  of  life,   had  not  failed  in  complexion  and  had  a  fine 
black  beard  trailing  to  the  ground.     Once  the  Emperor  Sen  So  j|[  ^  (Suang 
Tsung),  after   summoning   him  to  court,  sent   him   back   with   a   purse   filled 
with  coins,  when  the  sage  began  throwing  them  to  the  people  and  the  supply 
appeared  to  remain  miraculously  inexhaustible. 

300.  HIKKEN  ifl  $i  or  KOSEI,   also   KONGOSHU   Bosatsu.      One   of  the 
sons   of   Benten,  represented  with  a  writing  pen  and  ink  slab ;    it   is  a  trans- 
formation of  Vadjrapani. 

301.  IIIKOHICHI     OMORI     ^    -fc    ^   ^     (often     given     as     OMORI 



HIKOSHISHI),  represented  as  a  warrior,  carrying  on  his  back  a  female  demon 
(Hannya  or  Kij'o). 

One  version  gives  the  story  as  follows :  OMORI  HIKOHICHI  was  a  vassal 
of  Ashikaga  Takauji ;  at  the  battle  of  Minatogawa,  in  1342,  he  met  a 
beautiful  woman  who  persuaded  him  to  carry  her  across  a  stream ;  when 
they  reached  the  middle  of  the  ford,  the  warrior  saw  in  the  water  the  true 
reflection  of  his  burden,  with  the  face  of  a  witch,  and  drawing  his  sword 
he  slew  her  on  the  spotj. 

Another  version  given  in  Takenobu's  Tales,  apparently  taken  from  a 
theatrical  rendering  of  the  legend,  somewhat  differs  from  the  above.  The 
followers  of  Yoshisada  and  Masahige,  after  being  defeated  by  Takauji  at 
Minatogawa  (see  Go  DAIGO),  flew  to  Yoshino,  and  the  northern  clan,  having 
taken  Kyoto,  established  a  Court  there.  The  victors  had  arranged  for  a 
religious  ceremony  and  a  No  dance  near  Matsuyama,  in  lyo,  and  people 
were  coming  from  afar.  Amongst  the  crowd  was  a  girl  whose  bearing  was 
different  from  that  of  country  folks,  and  a  boorish  warrior,  Sayemon  Dogo, 
noticing  her,  went  and  proposed  to  take  her  to  the  dance  and  later  to  his 

The  girl  flatly  refused,  and  Dogo  accused  her  of  being  a  spy.  A 
scuffle  resulted,  in  which  the  girl  was  overpowered,  and  at  that  juncture 
HIKOHICHI  appeared,  who,  on  hearing  the  charge,  examined  the  girl  and, 
seeing  through  Dogo's  statements,  claimed  her  as  a  relative  of  his,  the 
daughter  of  the  custodian  of  the  Sumiyoshi  temple.  He  then  took  the 
girl  on  the  road  to  the  dance,  but  the  rains  had  formed  a  rivulet  across, 
and  he  offered  to  carry  her  on  his  back.  The  girl,  who  was  no  other  than 
CHIHAYA,  the  daughter  of  Kusunoki  Masashige,  putting  on  her  face  a 
Hannya  mask,  drew  a  dagger  and  tried  to  cut  HIKOHICHI'S  throat,  saying : 
"Remember  the  death  of  Masashige  and  the  sacred  dagger  you  took  from 
him."  She  thought  that  he  had  caused  her  father  to  commit  harakiri. 
HIKOHICHI,  however,  had  recognised  her  at  the  beginning,  and  he  told  her 
so,  threatening  to  take  her  to  Kyoto  to  have  her  beheaded.  She  then  had 

t  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  in  European  folklore  witches  were  credited  with  being  unable  to  cross 
water  without  taking  the  appearance  of  devils. 



to  explain  her  conduct.  Omori  was  touched  by  her  filial  piety,  and  told 
her  how  Masashige  and  his  brother,  Masatsuye,  had  committed  seppuku 
together  (see  Kusunoki  Masashige),  and  that  when  he  had  brought  their 
heads  to  Ashikaga,  the  latter  recognised  the  dagger  of  Masashige  as  a 
valuable  blade,  a  gift  to  him  from  Go  DAIGO,  and  told  him  to  keep 
it  till  the  peace  was  restored.  He  gave  the  girl  the  dagger  and  his 
own  No  kimono,  with  the  necessary  instructions  to  return  unmolested  to 
her  own  home.  In  the  meantime  his  retainers,  who  had  taken  to 
flight  when  they  had  seen  the  attack  of  the  Hannya  upon  their  master, 
had  gone  to  fetch  Sayernon  Dogo,  who  returned  with  them  only  to  find 
HIKOMICHI  shouting  like  a  madman,  and  defying  the  spirit  of  Masashige. 
Finally,  springing  into  Dogo's  vacant  saddle,  and  calling  to  him  as 
if  he  were  Masashige's  ghost,  to  come  and  fight  him  if  he  dared,  he 

302.  HIMONO.      Dried   fish;    see   FISH    (dried),   EMBLEMS,  and    CHARMS; 
see  Oni  Yarai. 

303.  HINADORI  |}ft  Jjj.     See  KUGANOSUKE. 

304.  HINAKO  NAI  SHINNO.      Daughter   of  Go  DAIGO.      See  the  story 
of  the  tooth-marked  chestnut. 

305.  HIOCHO   /j§  J^.      One  of  the  Chinese   sages,   shown    without    any 
peculiar  attributes  in  Hokusai's  Mangwa,  Vol.  III. 


307.  HIRU   KO  NO  MIKOTO  @  |£  ifc,   or   HIRUGO,   elder  son   of  the 
creative   couple,  Izanagi    and    Izanami,  sometimes  said  to  have  been  the  first 
fisherman,  and  the  original  Yebisu  (Ebisu). 

308.  HIRUNOGOZA   NO  TSURUGI   jfc  fP  J$[  M      The  sacred  sword 
substituted  for  the  Kusanagi   no  Tsurugi,   which  was  lost  in  the  sea  at  the 
battle  of  Dan  no  Ura,  but  the  latter  is  believed  to  have  been  only  a  copy 
of  the  herb  quelling  sword  of  Yamato  Dake  (q.v.),  the  Kusanagi  no  Tsurugi, 
and  to  have  been  forged  during  the  reign  of  Sujin  Tenno. 



309.     HITOBAN   ^|  JOt  51-      Mythical  creature  with  a  flying  head.     See 

310.  HITOMARU  A.  ^L  (ffi  >£)•  KAKINOMOTO  NO  HITOMARU  is  one 
of  the  six  celebrated  poets,  and  was  deified  as  God  of  Poetry,  with  temples 
at  Akashi,  in  the  province  of  Harima,  and  at  Ichi  no  Moto.  He  lived  in 
the  seventh  century,  and  was  a  foundling,  picked  up  at  the  foot  of  a  per- 
simmon tree  (Kaki)  by  the  warrior  Abaye,  who  adopted  him.  He  is  usually 
shown,  like  most  poets,  seated  in  the  Japanese  manner  and  holding  a 
makimono.  One  of  his  poems,  composed  as  he  was  going  to  sleep  under  a 

tpine  tree,  reads  : 
Ashibiki  no 

^  Yamadori  no  wo  no 

.  Shidari  wo  no 

Naga  naga  shi  yo  wo 
5  Hitori  kamo  nen. 

"  Undulating  mountains,  how  long  is  the  tail  of  your  pheasants  ! 
Longer  ;  oh,  how  much  longer  shall  be  the  night  for  one  who  shall  sleep 
alone.  .  .  !  "  Hiakku  Nin  Isshiu. 

311.  HIYEIZAN   Jfc  ^   ill-     Small  mountain  near  Kyoto,  once  covered 
with  temples  and  monasteries.      See  BENKEI,  KIYOMORI. 

312.  HOHODEMI  ^  A  &  IE  ^,  or  YAMA  SACHI  HIKO,  fourth  Mikoto, 
the    famous    hunter.       He    once    changed   his   calling   with   his   brother,    UMI 
SACHI  HIKO,  the  great  fisher,  whose  hook  he  lost.      UMI  refused  to  return  to 
his    brother    his    bow    until   he   returned    him   the   hook.      Both   were   angry 
because  their  change  of  sport  had  proved  a  failure  in  both  cases,  and  Yama 
tried    to    propitiate   his   brother   by   making    out   of   his   sword   five   hundred 
new  hooks,  but  it  was  all  in  vain.      Umi  wanted  the  original  hook.      Yama 
finally  got  to  the  palace  of  the  Sea  King,  Riujin,  who   directed   that   search 
should   be   made  amongst   the   fishes.      The  hook  was  found  in  the  throat  of 
the  Tai,  and  Riujin  sent  Hohodemi  back  on  a  crocodile  (Want)  to  his  brother 
to  return  the  hook  in  such  a  way  that  Umi   would   be   greatly   impoverished 
after  three  years.     He  also  gave  him  the  two  jewels  of  the   flowing   and   the 



ebbing  tides,  with  which  he  was  later  to  subdue  his  elder  brother  Umi, 
whose  contortions  are  mimicked  in  the  court  dances  performed  by  his 
descendants,  the  Hayato.  This  is  also  called  the  tale  of  the  Happy  Hunter. 
See  Kojiki,  page  119  et  seq.  ;  WAXI  ;  TOYOTAMA  HIME. 

313.  HOJO  j|[  fljf-.      The    Nio    who    guards    the    South.       He    is    more 
usually  called  ZOCHO  (Virudhaka),  his  attribute  is  a  straight  spear,  his  statues 
are   painted    white,   he   wears  a  complete   armour  but    no   helmet,    and   he    is 
called  the  King  of  Prosperity.      This    name    is    better    read    HOCHO. 

314.  HOJO   ;jb  $£•      Celebrated   family   of   Kamakura    "  Shikken,"    who 
from    1200   till    1333    were  the  real   masters  of  Japan,   during  the  rule  of  the 
"Puppet   Shoguns."      They   were   descended  from  Taira  Sadamori.      The   first 
Shikken  was  HOJO  TOKIMASA,  father  of  MASAKO,  wife  of  Yoritomo.     When  the 
latter  died   in    1199,   Masako   and   her  father   grasped  the  power;    through  the 
forced  abdication  and  subsequent   murder  of  Yoshiiye  they  established  firmly 
their   influence  upon    the   Shdguns,   whom  they  practically  superseded.     They 
even  tried  to  overthrow  Sanetomo,  but  failed.     To  the  third  Shikken,  Yasutoki, 
is   due   the   feudal   code,    Teikan   Shiki   Mokn   (see    Carey    Hall,  Japan   Society, 

315.  HOJO  TOKIYORI  ^b  &  $f  fl-      See  NICHIREN  ;    see  Hachi  no  Ki. 
Fifth    shikken,    who   caused   the    Daibutsu   of   Kamakura   to   be   founded, 

and  signalised  himself  by  his  popular  administration.  He  is  often  repre- 
sented with  his  minister  and  adviser,  Awoto  Fujitsuna. 

316.  HOKEN.      Chinese  general.     See  SOMPIN. 

317.  HOKEN    ZENSHI    ^  f|   (also  BUKAN   ZENSHI)   the  Taoist  Rishi, 
FENG   KAN.      Shown   riding   upon,    or   sleeping   near   a   tiger,   or   in   company 
with   the   two    mad    Sennins,    HANZAN   (Kanzan)   and   JITTOKU   (Shi   Te)   (q.v. 
also  "  Four  Sleepers  "). 

318.  HOKYOSHA  f|$  ife  ^  used   to  sit  on  a  flat  square  stone,  twenty 
feet  wide,  at  the   foot   of   Mount    U.      He  found   on    it   a   stone   pot   and   an 
evil-quelling   sword.      One   day  he  was  surrounded  by  coloured  clouds,  from 


which  issued  music;    a  sacred  bird  approached  him,  and  two  divinities  came 
down  on  a  dragon  and  on  a  stag  to  invite  him  into  heaven. 

319.  HOMMA  MAGOSHIRO  SHIGEU.TI  ;£  fUJ  j|  0J  I|$  |T  £.    Archer 
in  the  army  of  NITTA  YOSHISADA.     While  the  army  was  awaiting  the  attack 'of 
TAKAUJI'S   fleet   at   Wada  no  Misaki  (Minatogawa)  he  espied  a  sea-fowl  with 
a  fish  in  his  claws.     He  then  cried  to  Takauji :   "You  must  be  wearied  doing 
nothing   for   so   long,    I    will    give    you    some   fish,"    and   with   an   arrow    he 
shot  the  bird  so  that  the  fish  fell  on  deck  and  the  bird  in  the  sea. 

There  are  several  variants  of  this  story.  Sometimes  the  bird  carries  a 
letter,  as  it  is  also  said  that  Magoshiro  shot  the  bird  with  an  arrow  through 
the  head,  fastened  to  it  a  strip  of  paper  bearing  his  name,  and  sent  it  on 
another  arrow  right  into  the  boat  of  Ashikagn  Takauji. 

320.  HONMA  SUKEMASA  ^  $}  ^  gt     Son  of  HONMA  KURO  SUKESADA, 
is  shown  in  the  Ehon  Kokyo  (Hokusai's)  leaning  against  a  pillar  of  a  temple, 
on    which  he  has  written:    "My  father  has  fallen  in  the  fray;    how  anxious  I 
am  to  follow  him." 

321.  HORAI  |f|  5$r  [Jj,    HOKAIZANT.     One  of  the  three   mountains   in  the 
fortunate    Islands   of   Paradise,    the   home   of   everlasting   life,    where   live   the 
crane,    the   tortoise,    and    the   stag,    and    where   the   plum    tree,    the   pine,    the 
peach,  and  the  fungus  grow  in  profusion,  besides   the   jewelled  tree  of  which 
mention  is  made  in  the  story  of  the  Moonchild  and  the  old  Bamboo   Hewer. 
The    HORAI    SHIMA,    or    Elysian    Isle,    finds  -its   place   in   Japanese    gardening 
as  an  isolated  arrangement  of  six  rocks,  representing  a  tortoise. 

322.  HORSE.  Jg.     See  EMBLEMS.  See  also  HAKURAKU,  OGURI   HANGWAN, 


HORSE  OF  1000  Ris  (miles)  Sen  Ri  no  Uma.  This  wonderful  animal 
was  given  to  Go  Daigo  Tenno  by  Takasada,  of  Inaba,  but  Fujifusa 
thought  that  this  gift  could  only  be  a  portent  of  calamity,  as  it  accorded 
with  the  appearance  for  several  nights  on  one  of  the  roofs  of  the  palace 
of  a  monstrous  yellow  bird,  the  Kecho,  which  emitted  awful  shrieks  in  the. 

dead  of  the  night.      See  HIROARI. 


HIEN    YUAN   TSI    (ir.L.K.) 

GIONJI    I'RIKST    (O.C.R.) 
HO.NMA   SUKEMASA    (j.) 

HORSE   AM)    DEER    ().) 
HITOMARU    (.!/.£.) 

HAXKWAI    (/<.) 

OMORI    HIKOIIICI1I    (7..V.I.) 

HANHEI    (ll.y.K.) 
HORSE   AND   MONKEY   (G.ll..\.) 


The  HORSE  is  emblematic  of  manhood.  It  forms  the  crest  of  the  Princes 
of  Soma,  the  animal  being  attached  to  a  couple  of  pegs  and  kicking  high 
with  its  back  legs.  Its  name  is  given  to  the  Japanese  division  of  time, 
between  n  a.m.  and  i  p.m.  ^p.  One  of  the  infernal  attendants  has  a  horse's 
head  on  a  man's  body.  One  meets  occasionally  with  presentments  of  the 
horse  and  plum  flower,  and  also  of  the  horse  and  the  monkey.  In  connection 
with  this  latter  occurrence,  it  appears  that  in  olden  times  a  monkey  was  kept 
in  the  Imperial  stables  to  keep  the  horses  in  good  temper,  and  the  box  of  the 
holy  horse  at  the  shrine  of  leyasu,  in  Nikko,  is  decorated  with  carved  monkeys. 
who  are  said  to  endorse  the  dress  of  Shinto  priests  about  Xew  Year's  Day, 
and  render  divine  honours  to  their  companion.  In  Ehon  Kojidan  (VII.)  a 
monkey  with  the  Sambasso  headdress  and  a  gohei  holds  the  tether  of  a  horse, 
in  front  of  which  he  dances  in  the  stable. 

In  Ehon  Hokan  (II),  under  the  title  ^  J^  >^\  %j^  /  ba  shin  yen,  a  monkey 
and  a  horse  are  tethered  to  a  pole  and  to  the  character  )ft»  above  it.  It  is 
explained  in  the  text  that  the  horse  is  emblematic  of  a  restless  mind,  as  it 
wishes  to  run  round  the  post,  whilst  the  monkey  is  emblematic  of  selfishness. 
If  restlessness  of  mind  and  selfishness  are  restrained  by  a  chain  of  fine  teachings, 
the  mind  will  soon  attain  perfect  contented  peace  (Nirvana).  Groups  are  also 
found  of  horse  and  rat,  wrhich  are,  however,  merely  representations  of  Zodiacal 
or  horary  characters,  as  the  horse,  one  of  the  signs  of  the  Zodiac,  represented 
the  first  hour  of  day,  the  rat  representing  the  first  hour  of  night  (n  p.m.  to 
i  a.m.).  Clay  models  are  found  in  old  burial  mounds,  where  such  figures 
were  deposited  to  represent  the  horses  of  the  dead,  with  whom  they  were 
buried.  The  names  of  a  few  celebrated  horses  have  been  preserved,  and  will 
be  found  in  the  stories  to  which  they  belong,  amongst  them  being : 

SHOYAHAKU,  belonging  to  the   Emperor  Genso, 

ONIKAGE,  the  horse  of  Oguri  Hangwan, 

IKENZUKI,  to  Sasaki  Takatsuna, 

SURUSUMI,  the  mount  of  Kagesuye, 

TAYU-GURO,  the  black  horse  of  Yoshitsune, 

(see    BATEISEKI,     GENTOKU,    KAJIWARA    KAGESUYE).       Horses     standing    with 
the  head  and   the   four  feet   brought   together    are    frequently   met    with    as 



•netsuke  (see  Behrens'  "  Traces  of  Evolution,"  Japan  Society).  In  pictorial  treat- 
ment, the  fewer  the  number  of  brush  strokes  the  more  clever  the  work,  seems 
to  have  been  a  constant  motto,  another  feature  being  the  crowding  together 
of  large  numbers  of  horses  in  a  small  space ;  the  same  applies,  of  course,  to 
a  great  many  other  animals.  It  must  also  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  Japanese 
mounted  their  horses  on  the  right,  and  backed  them  in  their  stables  so  as  to 
feed  them  from  the  door,  whether  from  a  dislike  for  kicks  or  for  the  sake 
of  convenience  is  not  clear.  A  horse  head  or  a  hobby  horse  were  used  either  as 
headgear  in  the  first  case,  or  as  mounts  in  the  other,  at  the  festivals  of 
Hachiman,  and  Guionji  and  pictures  of  horses  were  offered  to  the  divinity 
(Aston,  Shinto). 

There  are  several  stories  of  pictures  of  horses  becoming  alive,  like  that  of 
of  Kanaoka,  which  went  grazing  at  night,  and  to  the  picture  of  which  peg 
and  tether  had  to  be  added  to  keep  him  indoors.  See  also  HIDARI  JINGORO. 

There  is  a  type  of  toy  money,  named  Komashiki  sen,  upon  which  the 
horse  is  figured  ;  the  horse  is  used  in  the  game  of  chess,  and  almost  corresponds 
to  the  knight,  but  can  only  move  forward. 

A  man  modelling  a  horse  is  a  subject  for  netsuke,  the  hand  of  the  sculptor 
leaving  marks  all  over  the  body  of  the  animal.  In  Ehon  Kojidan  the  story 
is  illustrated,  and  the  author  says:  "  GIOKUSHISHO  3£  ~f~  ^  made  a  horse 
of  clay,  over  which  he  could  ride  for  thousands  of  miles,  and  if  he  sprayed 
water  with  his  mouth,  each  drop  as  it  fell  became  a  jewel.  He  is  one  of 
the  Sennins." 

323.  HOSHO  ^  TR.  The  Chinese  Sum  CHENG,  shown  in  the  guise 
of  a  Sennin  "  with  flaming  eyes."  He  is  identical  with  SHOSEI  (q.v.) 

320.  HOSO  |j£  jjjfl  (or  g£  jj*)  or  HOSO-SENKO.  Sennin  shown  as  an  old 
man  reclining  on  the  waves.  He  was  a  man  of  Hojo  who  needed  only  one 
breath  every  three  days,  and  could  sleep  in  the  water  for  a  day  at  a  time,  or 
lay  motionless  for  a  year,  till  the  dust  covered  him  an  inch  thick.  After  living 
one  hundred  and  fifty  years  he  seemed  no  more  than  twenty  years  old,  and 
received  the  title  of  Daishin  Shinjin.  He  is  referred  to  in  a  joke  of  TOBOSAKU. 

He  is  identified  with  the  Chinese  TS'IEN  K'ENG,  later  named  PENG  Tsu, 



or  patriarch  of  P'eng.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  orphan  son,  or  grand- 
son, of  the  Emperor  Chwan  Hii,  SENKYO  (see  SEIUKO).  He  was  767  years  old 
at  the  end  of  the  Yin  dynasty  in  1123  B.C.,  and  appears  to  have  lived  nearly 
eight  hundred  years,  chiefly  on  mother-of-pearl. 

325.  HOSO  ~Jj  ^j.  Chinese  general  whom  CHOW  SIN  jj^J"  ^  (Show  of 
Chang)  sent  in  1123  B.C.  to  resist  the  attacks  of  Si  Peh  (Ch'ang  of  Chow), 
later  known  as  Bu\vo,  at  the  battle  of  Muh  ($£  §f  Bokuya).  See  Buwo. 

326.  HOSOKAWA   YUSAI    jfgH  Jlj    &   ^.      Warrior   who,   besieged   in 
1600  by  the  army  of  Johida  Mitsunari,  owed  his  safety  to  the  fact  that  the 
Emperor   knew   him   to   be   versed    in   the   mysteries   of   the   Kokinshu    poems, 
and  to  be  the  only  man   knowing   the   right   interpretation   of   the   names   of 
birds  and   trees   mentioned   therein,    knowledge   which   could   be   imparted   to 
none  but  the  members  of  a  certain  noble  family  of  Kyoto.     B.  H.  Chamberlain 
says   that    the   meaning   of   these   words   was   found   by   Motoori    to   represent 
birds  and  trees  of  ordinary  character. 

327.  HOTARU.      Fireflies.      Catching   them    forms   an   elegant    pastime, 
mentioned    under    GAMES.       The     fireflies    of    Ujigawa     are    associated    with 
the  legends  of  the  War  of  Gempei  ;    they  are  said  to  fight  afresh  the  battles 
of    the    Taira    and    Minamoto    under    the    name   of    HOTARU    KASSEN.      The 
largest   species   is   called    Genji    Botaru,   and    its   members  are  said  to  be  the 
ghosts  of  the  fallen  Minamoto;   the  smaller  flies  are  the  Heike  Botaru. 

Fireflies  are  also  associated  with  the  story  of  SHAEN  and  of  the  Ghost  of 
KIYOTADA  (q.v.). 

HOTARU  HIME  ^  jj£.  Story  of  the  firefly  lover.  Hi  O,  the  King  of 
the  fireflies,  lived  in  the  moat  of  the  castle  of  Fukui,  in  Echizen,  and  his 
bright  but  coquettish  daughter,  Hotaru  Hime,  was  courted  in  turn  by  a 
number  of  lovers,  amongst  which  a  golden  beetle,  a  black  bug,  a  scarlet 
dragon  fly,  and  a  hawk  moth,  to  all  of  which  she  set  the  task  of  bringing 
her  fire  before  she  declared  herself.  All  tried  to  get  it  from  lamps,  and  were 
burnt.  The  hawk  moth,  however,  had  more  cunning,  and  crawled  inside 
the  paper  wick  of  a  candle,  but  the  candle  was  snuffed  before  he  reached 



the  flame.  Finally  Hi  MARO,  the  firefly  Prince  who.  held  sway  on  the  other 
side  of  the  castle,  happened  to  hear  of  the  trouble,  came  round,  and  success- 
fully wooed  her.  But  even  unto  this  day,  when  the  priests  find  dead  insects 
around  the  temple  lamps,  they  say:  "Princess  Hotaru  must  have  had  many 
lovers  to-night "  (Griffis). 

The  game  of  firefly-catching  at  Ujigawa  forms  part  of  a  play,  the  hero 
of  which  is  a  scholar  named  Kumazawa  Banzan.  He  fell  in  love  with  a 
girl,  Miyuki,  whilst  catching  fireflies,  but  the  two  lovers  were  separated,  and 
after  many  years  Kumazawa,  wending  his  way  through  the  Tokaido  Road, 
found  a  blind  musician,  who  was  no  other  than  Miyuki. 

See  also  YORIMASA,  whose  soul  is  said  to  have  taken  the  shape  of  fireflies. 

328.  HOTEI  tf\  |§.  One  of  the  Seven  "Gods  of  Luck,"  and  probably 
the  most  popular,  judging  from  his  numberless  figures.  Fat,  almost  beyond 
reason,  and  generally  exhibiting  a  generous  allowance  of  his  bulky  stomach, 
joyously  laughing,  whether  alone  or  surrounded  with  children,  carrying  on 
his  back  the  linen  bag  (Ho-tef),  from  which  he  derives  his  name,  and  in  which 
he  stows  away  the  Precious  Things,  or  Takaramono,  or  which  he  uses  as  a 
receptacle  for  playful  children  ;  often  placing  himself  in  it,  either  to  sleep  or 
gaze  on  his  surroundings,  or  perhaps  be  drawn  as  in  a  barrow  by  his  brother 
God,  the  joyous  Daikoku.  Sometimes  shown  in  a  dilapidated  carriage  drawn 
by  boys,  and  then  called  Kitntma  So,  the  waggon  priest,  oftener  seen  carrying 
in  one  hand  his  bag  and  in  the  other  a  Chinese  fan,  or  balancing  on  his 
shoulder,  at  either  end  of  a  coolie  pole,  the  bag  of  precious  things  and  a  boy. 
In  some  cases  carrying  in  his  hand  a  clam  shell,  playing  the  role  of  begging 
bowl,  or  interchanging  attributes  with  some  of  the  other  Shichi  Fuku  Jin.  How- 
ever numerous  are  the  varied  appearances  of  this  emblem  of  contentment,  it  is 
impossible  to  mistake  the  laughing  face  and  the  half-clothed  mountain  of 
flesh.  Hotei  sometimes  receives  the  appellation,  Shichi  Hiaku  Sai,  "  The  Sage 
of  Seven  Centuries." 

He  is  usually  identified  with  a  Chinese  priest  of  the  Xth  century,  named 
CHISHI  (Keishi)*,  who  lived  at  Ming  Chu  (the  present  Nimpo  in  Chekiang), 

*  Puini  (he.  cit.)  says,  according  to  the  Sogenjiro,  his  name  was  Keishi,  monk  of  the  Gakurun  Temple  of 
Fung  hwa,  on  the  Semingshan  ;  the  Dentoroku  calls  him  Choteishi. 


IIOTEI    AM)    rmi.DKKN    (.;.) 

IKKAKU    SEXMN    (ir.L.K.) 

HOTEI    IN    BAG   (,;.) 

II'PKN    SHONIX    (;;•./..«.) 

KARAKO  AND   HOTEl's   BAi;   (.;.) 

INARI    (.I/.GV.) 


and  who  was  popularly  called  Putai  no  San — Mr.  Linen  Bag — from  the  sack 
in  which  he  carried  his  scanty  belongings  and  whatever  edibles  were  given 
him.  In  the  course  of  his  travels,  combining  the  craft  of  a  fortune-teller  with 
his  vocation  as  a  begging  priest,  he  came  in  916  to  the  temple  of  the  future 
Buddha  Maitreya,  and  improvised  a  poem  to  the  effect  that  the  holy  Maitreya, 
dividing  his  body  into  hundred  myriads,  often  appeared  to  people  who 
knew  nothing  of  it.  It  seems  that  folks  took  this  for  a  statement  that  he 
was  Maitreya,  and  then  began  picturing  him.  He  died  about  916  (Teimei  3). 
In  old  books  an  easy  way  of  drawing  Hotei  is  given,  the  outline  of  the 
character  >|^  Kokoro  forming  his  arms,  neck  and  abdomen  (Ehon  Hokan, 
Vol.  VI.). 

329.  HOTOKE  ffi.     Meaning  a  Buddha  (Nure  Botoke :  wet  god,  out-of- 
doors  statue) ;  is  also  applied  to  a  corpse,  or  to  the  soul  of  the  dead.     The 
Gaki  Botoke  are  hungry  ghosts,  the  souls  of  those  who  have  nobody  to  place 
food  offerings  before  their  graves,    and   who   seek   nutrition   by   invading   the 
bodies  of  the  living  and  causing  Okori,  or  intermittent  fever  (Hearn). 

Hotoke  Umi  is  the  tide  of  the  returning  ghosts. 

330.  HOWO    JH,  Jin  or  Hono  (in  some  German  books,  FOHO).      A  Bird, 
the  Phoenix.     It   is  the  FENG  of  the  Chinese,   the  female   of   which    is   called 
Hwang,   and   it    is   usually    represented   as   a   gorgeously    coloured   bird   with 
long   tail   feathers,   somewhat    like   a   composite    animal,    part   pheasant,   part 
peacock,    the    idea   of   which    may   have   been   derived    from   some    inaccurate 
description  of  either.     It  is  one  of  the  four  supernatural  creatures  of  Chinese 
myth;    its  feathers  are  red,  azure,   yellow,  white   and   black,  the   five   colours 
corresponding  to  the  five  principal  virtues ;    while  the  Chinese  ideograms   for 
uprightness,  humanity,  virtue,  honesty  and  sincerity  are  impressed  in  various 
parts  of  its  body ;    its  cries  are  symbolic,  its  appearance  precedes  the  advent 
of  virtuous  rulers,  and  it  has  honoured  with  its  visits  the  courts  of  several  of 
the  Chinese  Emperors :    Yao  Shun  in  the  semi-mythical  period,  and   even   as 
late  as  23  B.C.  during  the  Han  dynasty. 

The  Phoenix  is  often  depicted  with  the  Dragon  in  works  of  art,  or,  like 
the  Crane,  falling  through  the  sky  while  children  or  Sages  wait  on  the  earth 


to  catch  it  with  a  rope,  or  in  association  with  the  Kiri  tree  (Pawlonia), 
besides  which  it  is  the  attribute  of  Imperial  authority  and  the  familiar 
creature  of  some  Sages.  See  BAIFUKU  ;  RIOGIOKU. 

331.  HUANG  SHI  KUNG.     See  KOSEKIKO. 

332.  IBUKI  YAMA  $*'  Pfc  til-     Mountain  in  Omi,  upon   the   summit   of 
which  lived  a  malevolent  deity,  which  YAMATO  DAKE  went  alone  to  kill.     The 
Deity  changed  itself  into  a  white  serpent  (some  say  a  white  boar),  and  Yamato 
Dake,   thinking  this  creature  was  only  the  messenger   of   the   God,    went   on, 
but  he  was  immediately  surrounded  by  a  mist  which  made  him  reel  like   a 
drunken  man.     He  escaped,  however,  and  by  drinking  the  water  of  a  spring 
at  the  foot  of  the  mount  he  recovered  his  senses :  hence  the  spring  was  named 
Wi  SAME  (stand  sober). 

333.  ICHIMOKU    — •   §.      Mythical  foreigners,  with  a  single  eye  in  the 
centre   of   the   forehead   like   the   Cyclops,   and    who   "live   out   of  the   North 

334.  ICHIMOKUREN    —    g    jj|.      Divinity  of  Tado,    in    Ise,   specially 
prayed   to  in  periods  of  drought  to  obtain  rain.      It  has  only  one  eye,  hence 
its  name. 

335.  IDATEN    J|L   Ufa   Jfc .      Buddhist    Deity   of   peace   and   contempla- 
tion,  shown   as   a   young    man   of    martial   character ;    he   carries    a    halberd, 
and  his  hands  are  apposed  ;  the  loose  parts  of  his  garment  are  kept  in  place 
by   his  feet  as  a  symbol   of  the   subdued   elements,   and   he   is   also   depicted 
with  both  hands   resting   on   the  pommel   of   his   sword.      Like  Bishamon,  he 
is  often  shown  pursuing  an  oni,  but  the  latter  carries  away  the  sacred  gem. 

336.  IGA  NO  TSUBONE  $**  H  Jjjj.     A  celebrated  strong  woman  of  Go 
DAIGO'S  Court.     After  the  invasion  of  the  Imperial  palace  by  Ko  NO  MORONAO, 
following  the  flight  of  the  Empress,  she  found  the  river  Yoshino  swollen  by  a 
flood,   and  impassable,   she  uprooted   a  tree,    threw   it   across  the   ravine    in 
which  flew   the   river,   and   carried   the  Empress  on   her  back    safely  to   the 
other  side.     See  KIYOTADA. 



337.  IKAZUCHI  ff.     The  eight  Gods  of  Thunder :   O-Ikazuchi,  HO-NO- 
Ikazuchi,     KuRO-Ikazuchi,     SAKU-Ikazuchi,    WAKi-Ikazuchi,     TsucHi-Ikazuchi, 
NARU-Ikazuchi,   and  Fusni-Ikazuchi. 

338.  IKIRIYO  ^  fH.     Ghost  of  a  living  person.     See  Hearn's  Kotto. 

339.  IKKIU  — •  •fife.     Celebrated  poet  of  the  XVth  century,  who  adopted 
the    hetaira    JIGOKU    REIGAN    (q.v.),    with    whom    he    is   often    pictured.      See 
also  SAIGYO. 

In  the  Tei-yo-shu  of  the  book  Ten  shu-shi,  there  is  a  poem  of  the  poetess 
JIGOKU,  of  Takasu,  as  follows,  the  first  stanza  of  which  is  said  to  have  been 
composed  by  Ikkiu,  and  the  other  by  the  Joro :  > 

Kikishi  yori  />  > 

Mite  osoroshiki  0*9 


Jigoku  kana  T  •• 

Shini  kuru  hito  mo  '£ 

Ochizara  me  yawa.  *"* 

"  Jigoku  (Hell)  is  more  awful  to  look  at  than  to  hear  of ;  that  is  why  the 
men  coming  should  not  fall  down  "  (Gilbertson). 

Ikkiu  lived  from  1395  to  1481,  and  was  a  pupil  of  the  painter,  Soga 

The  head  priest  of  a  temple  had  a  very  valuable  porcelain  Koro, 
which  he  had  forbidden  his  priests  to  handle  in  his  absence.  Once,  however, 
they  broke  their  promise,  and  showed  the  Koro  to  a  party  of  visitors,  one  of 
whom  dropped  it,  and  the  precious  incense- burner  was  broken.  They  were 
thinking  how  they  could  break  the  sad  news  to  the  Abbot,  when  one  of  the 
young  students  saved  the  situation.  The  head  priest  had  just  returned,  and 
he  went  to  him  with  the  pieces  of  the  incense  burner  in  his  sleeve.  "  Holy 
Abbot,"  he  said,  "all  living  things  ....  what?"  The  old  man  wondered, 
but  replied :  "  Must  ultimately  die."  Then  the  boy  inquired :  "  All  fragile 
things?"  ....  "Must  be  broken,"  said  the  old  man,  perhaps  guessing 
what  the  bent  features  of  the  boy  did  not  allow  him  to  detect,  and  as  his 
answer  was  uttered,  the  young  Ikkiu  presented  to  his  gaze  the  remnants  of  the 


broken  Koro.     His  presence  of  mind  not  only  gained  the  monks  their  pardon, 
but  helped  him  in  his  priestly  career  (Greey). 

340.  IKKAKU  SENNIN  —  $j  f[Jj    X   (single  horn  Sage)   is  sometimes 
said  to  be  another  immortal  the  Hindoo  Sage,  Rishjaringa,  who,   like  Kume 
no  Sennin,  could  not  resist  the  temptation  afforded  him  by  the  sight  of  women 
on   the  earth,  and  he  was  punished  by  the  loss  of  his  power  of  living  in  the 
sky,  falling  to   earth   on    the   spot.      The   correct   version   is,   however,   to  the 
effect  that  he  was  the  son  of  Vivandaka  and  of  the  fairy  Urvasi,  and  lived  in 
Mount  Dankatola.      He   fell   in    love  with  and  married  Sendaramo,  whom  he 
carried  home  on  his  back  ;    he  is  accordingly  depicted  with  a  small  horn  on 
his   forehead   and   carrying  a  woman   on  his  shoulders.      He  is  the  hero  of   a 
No  of  the  same  name.     See  KIRIN. 

341.  INARI   ^§  ^nf,   or   IXARI   SAMA.      This   name   signifies  load  of  rice, 
and  it   is  said  to  have  been  given  as  a  posthumous  honour  to  the  legendary 
man,   UGA,   who   first   cultivated   rice,  and  is  specially  honoured   at   Inari   no 
Yashiro.     Tradition  has  it  that  Kobodaishi  met  an  old  man  carrying  on  his 
back  a  rice  sheaf,  in  711,  near  Toji,  and  recognised  in  him  the  Deity  protector 
of  his  temple.     He  then  called  this  Deity,  Inari  (rice  bearer).     It  is  thought  that 
some   misconception   or  some  confusion,  due  to  the  name  MIKITSUNE  UGA  NO 
MITAMA,  has  caused  the  identification  of  the  August  Spirit  of  Food  Deity,  or 
God  of  rice,  with  a  Fox  divinity,  and  its  association  with  the  Fox  (Kitsune), 
sometimes  described  as  his  messenger,  and  generally  represented  seated  at  the 
door  of  the  temples  of  Inari. 

In  fact,  Inari  Sama  is  often  described  as  the  Fox  God,  and  is  usually 
shown  in  the  guise  of  a  bearded  old  man  carrying  a  sheaf  of  rice,  accompanied 
by,  or  seated  upon,  a  white  fox.  KODOMO  NO  INARI  is  the  children's  Fox  God. 
In  the  first  horse  day  (Uma  no  I)  of  February,  country  boys  make  little  flags 
with  papers  of  various  colours,  red,  yellow  and  blue,  and  write  the  name  of 
Inari  on  them,  and  offer  them  to  the  temple. 

INARI  is  also  worshipped  on  the  Fuigo  matsuri,  or  Festival  of  the  Bellows 
(November  8th),  held  in  honour  of  Hettsui  no  kami,  Goddess  of  the  Kitchen. 

INARI  must  not  be  confused  with  KAMIYA  (q.v.).     It  is  also  worshipped  as 



a  healer,  a  giver  of  wealth,  and  even  sometimes  as  a  protective  divinity  of 
the  Joro  class. 

See  Fox  ;   also  KOKAJI  and  Aston  Shinto. 

342.     INKADA  SONJA.     See  ARHATS  ;   RAKANS. 

343.  INKI  f3*  §,  YiN-Hi  or  KOBUN  [£;  ^£].      Sennin  of  Tensui,  usually 
shown   sitting   on   the   ground    in    front   of   "  the    lotus   flower   seat   on   which 
ROSHI    was   wont   to  sit."      He   is  shown   reading   in   Hokusai's  J\Iangiva,    Vol. 
III.,  and  in  Gessen's  Ressen  dzu  san  standing   watching  something  far  away. 
In    the    same    work,    another    IXKI    |P"    ^[    is    also    figured,    but   holding    a 
makimono   and   a    gourd. 

INKI  lived  about  B.C.  1070,  but  the  Taoist  legends  credit  him  with 
some  five  hundred  years  of  life,  during  part  of  which,  in  obedience  to  a 
revelation,  he  waited  at  the  gate  of  Hankuh  for  the  passage  of  Lao  Tsze. 
When  the  latter  was  taken  to  the  West  by  a  black  buffalo  which  had 
been  miraculously  sent  him,  Inki  besought  Lao  Tsze  to  instruct  him,  and 
he  received  from  the  master  manuscript  of  his  work,  the  Tao  Teh  King. 

344.  INKYO  fa  $fe  ^C  JL  or  INGYO,  was  an  Emperor  of  Japan  famous 
for  his  cruelty.      Once  he  went  to  fish  in  the  island  of  AWAJI,  but  could  get 
no  sport  ;   he  had  the  matter  investigated  by  his  diviners,  and  was  told  that 
the  God  of  the  Island  wanted  a  ball-shaped  jewel  which  lay  at   the  bottom 
of   the   sea,   before  he  would  allow  the  Emperor  to  catch   any  fish.      All   the 
fisher  folks  of  the   island  were  summoned,   but  their   efforts  were   in  vain.     A 
woman  named  SASAJI   OTOME,  picked  out  of   the  crowd,  was  ordered  to  dive 
again,   and   the   Emperor  swore   that   if  she   did   not   succeed   he   would   kill 
her  husband.     She  found  the  jewel  hidden  in  a  large  clam,  and  fell  dead  as 
she  laid  it  at  the  Emperor's  feet. 

345.  INYAKU  £|J  $&,  or  JAKO,  one  of  the  sons  of  Benten;  transformation 
of  SHAKA  (Sakyamuni),  and  shown  with  the  jewel  and  key. 

346.  IPPEN   —  •  j|||.     Buddhist   priest  who  founded  the  Ji  or  JISHU  sect 
in    1275,   and   whose    wandering    life    and   varied    adventures   have   served   as 



themes  for  many  prints.  It  is  said  that  every  time  he  made  a  convert, 
he  started  dancing  with  his  co-workers,  repeating  the  while  the  invocation 
to  the  Buddha  Amithaba. 

Some  pictures  from  the  story  of  Ippen  Shonin  are  reproduced  in  the 
Kokkwa  (148-158,  Vol.  XIV.},  amongst  which  his  sharp  fight  with  some  of  his 
relations,  who,  having  a  grudge  against  him,  once  attacked  him  whilst  he 
was  engaged  in  deep  study.  Ippen  snatched  a  sword  from  one  of  his 
would-be  murderers  and  killed  a  few  of  them  on  the  spot. 

This  monk  had  a  wife  and  at  least  a  mistress,  and  it  is  related  (Murray's 
Guide  to  Japan,  2nd  edition)  that  once  while  the  two  ladies  were  playing 
Go,  Ippen  saw  them  take  the  form  of  two  snakes  with  the  heads  of 

Once,  when  he  was  staying  at  the  palace  of  the  Daimio  of  Fuji,  the 
wife  of  the  Prince  became  instantly  converted,  and  leaving  the  castle  went 
to  have  her  head  shaved  and  became  a  nun.  Her  infuriated  husband  swore 
that  he  would  kill  the  priest,  but  as  he  approached  the  room  in  which 
Ippen  was  seated  (apparently  teaching  the  nun)  he  was  struck  with  awe,  and 
throwing  to  the  ground  his  drawn  sword,  he  prostrated  himself  and  was  also 

IPPEN  died  in   1289. 

347.  IPPI    — •   ^.       Mythical    half    men    from    a    country    beyond    the 
Western    Sea,    who    walk   in   pairs   "like   fishes    or    birds,"    one    being    left- 
handed  the  other  right-handed,  clasping  one  another's  arm,  the  sides  without 
limbs  being  in  contact  (Todo  Kimmo  dzue,   V.),  or  each  with  his  solitary  arm 
round  the  other's  waist   or   neck.      They   have   only   one   eye  each,  and  long 
straight   hair. 

348.  ISETSU   Ifi  '|J5.      Chinese    Sage   who   resigned   his   office   to   study 
under   the   Taoist    CHOKOSHI   on   Mount   Kun.      One   day   he   saw   a   coloured 
cloud    approach   the   mountain,   and   saying :    "  I   will   go   up   to   the   sky   on 
that   cloud,"    became   one   of   the   Immortals. 

349.  ISHIGAMI  /£j   Jffi.     No  dance  player  with  bells  and  fan  ;    the  God 
in  the  Rock. 


HOWO    ((,.7.) 

IKKAKU    (.-;.) 

HOWO   AND    KIRIX    (,;.) 


JIXCO   KOGO    (../.) 

.H'ROJIX    (.^.) 
JO.MYO    AT    UJI    GAWA  (G./fM.) 



351.  ISHO  ^  Jl>  or  YOKI.     Transformation  of  MARISHITEN,  or   MARISHI 
DEVA,    described   as   one    of    the   sons    of   Benten,   and    often    figured    with    a 
bundle   of  clothing. 

352.  ISHUKU    ff    ^f.      A    young   male   genius   carrying   a    Tama    on    a 
lotus  flower.      He  represents  the  seventeenth  lunar  constellation. 

353.  IWAGENKAI   ffi    fP    j£    $$.       Taoist    worthy    who    had   always 
black  hair   and    looked   young.      He   rode,   without   a   bridle,    a   yellow    mare 
which   would   not   eat   grass.      His   saddle  was  a  piece  of  blue  cloth.      Upon 
her  back  he  crossed  the  sea,  and  travelled  often  from  Seishyu  to  Konshyu. 

354.  IWANAGA  %  7%     See  AKOYA. 

355.  IWASHI,  Sardine.     See  FISH. 

356.  IWAZARU.     See  MYSTIC  APES. 

357.  IZANAGI   ffi  ffi  ffi  (£.      The   creative    Divinity    of    Japan,    who 
was    sent    by    the    Heavenly   Deities    (according    to    Shintoist    teachings)    to 
make  and  consolidate  the  drifting  land,  accompanied  by  his  sister,  the  Deity 
IZA-NA-MI-NO-KAMI,  with  the  help  of  a  jewelled  spear,  which  they  used  from 
the    Bridge   of   Heaven   to    stir    the    brine — thus    was    created   the   Island   of 
Onogoro.     After  seeing  to  the  erection  of  an  august  pillar,  which  is  reckoned 
the  centre  pillar   of   the  land,   they  entered  into  a  rather  indelicate  courtship 
(set  forth  in  Latin    in    Chamberlain's   translation   of   the   Kojiki),   and   finally 
gave   birth   to   a   large    number    of    Islands    and    later    to    an    equally    large 
number   of    Deities.      After    giving    birth    to   the   Fire   Divinity,   Kagutsuchi, 
Izanami   died,  and    Izanagi  killed   one  of  his  children,  from  whose  body  and 
blood    were    created    eight    more    deities.      He    then    set   forth   to  YOMI,   the 
yellow  stream   (Hades),   to  see   IZANAMI,   and  call   her  back,  but  he  was  too 
late.      He   took  no  heed  of  her  warning  not  to  look  in  as  she  had   eaten   of 
the  food  of  Hades,  and  lighting  the  end  tooth  of  his  head  comb,   proceeded, 
when   he   saw  her   surrounded   by   maggots,  and   the   eight  thunder  divinities 
were  born  of  her  body  (see  IKAZUCHI).     She  sent  the  ugly  female,  Yomo  Tsu 


Shiko  Me  to  pursue  him.  He  however  escaped  after  casting  off  his  garments 
and  belongings,  which  formed  eatables  for  the  ugly  female,  and  he  blocked 
the  door  of  Hades  with  a  rock  which  a  thousand  men  could  barely  move; 
IZANAMI  f^'  ffi  $ft  H  thereafter  becomes  one  of  the  infernal  deities. 

358.     IZORA.     Kami  of  the  Sea  Shore.     See  JINGO. 

359.  IZENSHUN   2p!  ^  f^.      Sennin   (riding   a   black    clog.)      He    was 
once   followed   by  a   big   black   dog,  which   he   could   not   shake  off  and  had 
to    feed.       One    day    the    dog    became    a    black    dragon,    and    took    him    to 

360.  JAKO  H  ^.      One  of  the  sons  of  Benten.     See  INJAKU. 

361.  JEWEL  (sacred).     See  TAMA.     Attribute  of  several  Deities,  and  also 
of  some  Arhats.     Three  are  often  shown  on  a  rock  carried  by  the  Minogame, 
or   Tortoise   of    1000   years  ;    they   represent   Horai  San.      See   also,   EMBLEMS, 
BISHAMON,   DAIKOKU,   JINGO,   RIUJIN,  HOHODEMI  (jewels  of  the  flowing  and  of 
the  ebbing  tide),  HACHIMAN  ;   see  MAGATAMA. 

362.  JIDO   ^  jjj|.     Other  name  of  KIKUJIDO  (q.v.).     The  Sennin,  KEUH 
TSZE    TUNG,    shown    as    a    boy    throwing    chrysanthemum   in   a   stream  ;    in 
netsuke,  with  chrysanthemums  and  a  writing  brush  in  his  hands. 

363.  JIGEN   DAISHI    ££  H&  ^C  gift.      Posthumous   title  of  TENKAI   who, 
like   Ryogen   (Jiye   Daishi),  was  a  celebrated  priest  of   the   Tendai    Sect,   and 
for  some  time  head  priest  of  NIKKO. 

364.  JIGOKU  iflj  fjfc.     The  Buddhist  Hades.     See  HELL. 

365.  JIGOKU    REIGAN   Jflj  gfc  >fc  ^C-     Famous  Hetaira  of  the   XVth 
century,    who    was    adopted   by   the   poet    IKKIU    (q.v.)      She    is    also    called 
Jigoku  Dayu,  and  is  depicted  with  scenes  from  Hell  painted  on  her  dress. 

366.  JIJIN   jfa  Jffl.      The    Chinese    Earth   Gods,   or   divinities,   protective 
of  the  soil.     See  under  KAMI. 

367.     JIKAKU    ^    ^   (DAISHI   j±    ftp).      Buddhist    priest   who,   coming 
back  from  China  during  a  terrific  storm  had  to  throw  in  the  sea,  to  appease 



the  waters,   the  image  of  the   God   of  Wisdom,   YAKUSHI   NYORAI,   which   he 
had  carved  to   obtain  the  cure  of  his  own  eye  disease. 

The  figure  was  brought  back  to  land  by  an  octopus  near  the  temple 
of  Taku  Yakushi,  in  HIRADO,  and  its  presence  was  revealed  to  the  priests  in 
a  dream  (during  the  IXth  century),  as  a  result  of  Jikaku's  earnest  prayers. 
Jikaku  Daishi  is  said  to  have  struck  the  rock  at  An  yo  In  (Meguro)  with 
his  Yajra,  and  from  the  stone  sprung  the  spring  Tokko  no  taki,  which  never 
dries  up. 

368.  JIKOKU  TEN  $f  |cj  Ji.     One  of  the   SHI   TENXO,   or   Four  Kings 
of   Heaven,    guardian   of   the   East.      It   is   the   transformation   of   the   Indian 

JIKOKU  supports  the  heavenly  mountain  of  Buddhist  fiction,  Mount 
Meru.  He  is  represented  as  an  armed  warrior,  sometimes  with  the  sword 
or  the  Vajra,  trampling  under  foot  a  devil. 

369.  JIMMU   TENNO   f$  ^  ^  Jl.      First    Emperor   of   Japan,    usually 
depicted  in  the  dress  of  a  warrior,  with  abundant  hair  and  beard. 

370.  JINGORO.     Left  handed  sculptor,  better  known  as  HIDARI  JINGORO. 
See  that  name. 

371.  JINGO   KOGO  f$  $]  Jl  jg1.      OKINAGA    TARASU    HIME,    or    also 
KASHI    IDAI    MIOJIN,    Empress   of    Japan.      Always    shown    in    the    garb    of    a 
warrior,  and  usually   with   a   wide   band   around  her  forehead*,  often    in    the 
company  of  her    son,    OJIN    TENNO,    and    of    her    minister,    TAKENOUCHI    NO 

The  Deities  twice  ordered  her  husband,  the  Emperor  CHIUAI,  to  conquer 
Korea,  but  the  monarch  took  no  heed.  The  Deities  then  inspired  JINGO  (or 
rather  Okinaga  Tarashi,  as  her  name  then  was),  and  she  transmitted  the 
request  to  the  Emperor,  who  said:  "There  is  no  land  to  the  west,  these 
dreams  are  inspired  by  lying  Deities,"  and  suddenly  fell  dead.  The  Empress 
was  then  enceinte,  but  decided  to  start  herself  on  the  conquest.  She  stopped 
to  fish  at  Matsura  Gawa,  with  three  grains  of  rice  as  bait,  the  catch  of  fish 

5  The  statue  in  the  Yakushiji  differs,  and  has  no  band  on  the  forehead.     See  Kokkwa,  161. 


being  a  lucky  omen.  She  prayed  also  that  if  she  was  to  succeed  her  hair 
would  part  as  she  was  bathing,  and  it  parted.  All  the  Kami  are  said  to 
have  come  to  her  aid,  with  the  exception  of  the  Kami  of  the  sea-shore, 
Izora,  who  later  came  clad  in  mud,  and  whom  she  sent  to  Riujin  to 
"borrow  the  tide-ruling  jewels."  The  Korean  fleet  came  to  her  and  sub- 
missively offered  her  their  country,  after  which  she  planted  her  lance  upon 
the  door  of  the  chieftain  of  Shiragi,  and  came  back  to  Japan,  when  OJIN, 
whose  birth  she  had  delayed  by  attaching  a  heavy  stone  to  her  waist, 
was  born,  in  the  province  since  called  Umi.  She  then  had  a  meal  with  one 
of  the  Gods,  since  named  Aguchi  (open  mouth),  at  Sakai.  She  is  often 
shown  writing  with  her  bow  the  words  Koku  0  (ruler  of  state)  upon  a  rock. 
See  Jingo  Kogo  Sankan  Taiji  (1840,  illustrated  by  Hokusai). 

372.  JIRAIYA  j&  f|  ili  [H  -Jj  ±  ,g|]  or  OGATA  SHUME,  son  of  the 
Lord  of  Ogata,  in  his  youth  was  called  Young  Thunder.  At  the  death  of 
his  father  in  the  destruction  of  his  castle,  Jiraiya  flew  to  Echigo,  which  was 
then  infested  with  robbers.  Jiraiya's  retainer  was  killed,  and  the  boy  joined 
the  robbers,  soon  to  become  their  chief.  Hearing  of  the  existence  of  a  very 
rich  old  man  in  Shinano,  he  started  alone  to  rob  him,  but  he  was  overtaken 
by  a  snowstorm,  and  had  to  take  refuge  in  a  hut  inhabited  by  an  old 
woman.  In  the  night  he  attempted  to  murder  her,  but  his  sword  was 
broken  to  pieces,  and  the  woman  appeared  transformed  into  a  man,  SENSO 
DOJIN,  who  revealed  himself  as  being  the  Toad  Spirit,  and  finally  taught 
him  all  the  toad  magic,  which  gave  him  power  to  control  the  frogs,  but 
which  had  no  effect  upon  snakes.  Later,  he  met  a  girl  whom  a  Sennin  had 
advised  to  marry  him,  and  to  whom  the  sage  gave  the  secret  of  the  magic 
of  the  Snail,  to  enable  Jiraiya  to  kill  OROCHIMARU  (Dragon  Coil  Robber), 
the  son  of  the  serpent,  who  lived  at  the  bottom  of  the  lake  TAKURA,  and  was 
helping  the  INUKAGA  clan  in  their  war  against  the  TSUKIKAGE.  One  day 
while  they  were  resting  in  a  temple,  the  snake  crawled  upon  the  ceiling  of 
the  room,  and  poured  its  venom  upon  the  head  of  Jiraiya,  carrying  away 
with  him  his  own  affianced  bride,  the  Princess  TAGOTO,  who  had  fled  from 
him  with  Jiraiya.  The  Abbot  of  the  temple  was,  however,  equal  to  the 



occasion,  and  sent  to  India,  on  a  Tengu,  the  retainer  RIKIMATSU,  to  fetch  the 
only  available  elixir.  The  man  returned  in  time  for  Jiraiya  to  be  saved  and 
made  Daimio  of  IDZU.  He  is  often  represented  slaying  the  serpent,  or  busy 
with  magical  preparations  with  the  toad  spirit  (see  Griffis).  This  story 
forms  the  theme  of  a  popular  play  of  the  same  name. 

373.  JISSHUDO  "df  •$£,  ?|n),  drawn    in   a   fisherman's   net   amongst   fishes. 
JISSHUDO   went   about   the   world    to   sell   an   elixir   vitre  for    120,000  cash;    a 
governor   wished  him  to  bring  some  to  his  palace,  but  Jisshudo  then  refused 
to  sell  it  for  less  than  1,200,000  cash,  saying  that  a  rich  man  could  afford  to 
pay   that    much.      The    governor,   in   reply,    had   him   put    into   a   basket  and 
thrown   into   the   bay.      The  sea  currents   lifted  the  basket   from    the   bottom 
and  carried  it  to  Hairyo,  where  two  fisherman  caught  it  in  their  net.     When 
they  discovered  Jisshudo  inside,   they   thought  that   he  was   some   uncommon 
individual  who  had  been  voluntarily  buried  alive,  and  struck  a  copper  vessel 
to   try  and  wake  him.      He  awoke  and  said :    "  How  far   is   this   place  from 
Doryo  ? "      After  this  miracle  he  ranked  amongst  the  Taoist  worthies. 

374.  JITTOKU  ^  ffi.     The  Chinese  Sennin,  Sinn   TE,  represented    as  a 
boyish  figure,  upon  whose   face   are  deeply    marked    the   furrows   of   old  age ; 
he   holds   a   besom,    and   is   shown    either   singly   or    with   his    brother    Rishi, 
KANZAN    (q.v.),  or  with  the  latter  and  the  other  Taoist  Rishi,  BUKEN  ZENSMI, 
and  his  tiger.     He  had  been  found  in  the  mountains  by  Buken  Zenshi,  who 
had  received  a  divine  message  to  the  effect  that  his  foundling  was  an  incarna- 
tion of  the  Buddha.     The  story,  however,  varies.     See  BUKEN  ZEXSHI,  KANZAN, 
SLEEPERS    (the    Four).      A    Chinese    sage    is    also    depicted    with    a    besom, 
sweeping   the   ground,    HIANG  YEN,   of   Ch'ing    Chou,   a   priest,   after   lengthy 
studies  decided  to  find  out  what   Ling  Yii  thought  of  his  knowledge.      After 
a   weary   journey,    he   bowed   before   the   philosopher,   who,   instead  of   asking 
questions  bearing  upon  Hiang  Yen's  studies,  simply  said :   "  What  were  your 
duties  before   your  birth  ? "   and,   on   receiving   no  satisfactory  answer  but   a 
request   for   his  own   opinion,   replied :    "  My   opinion   is  but   my   own ;    what 
good  would  it  do  you  to  hear  it?"     The  crestfallen  inquirer  trudged  back  to 
his   temple  and  continued  his  studies,   but  after  a  few  years,  comparing  the 



reading  of  books  to  the  painting  of  rice  cakes — an  occupation  which  never 
allayed  hunger — he  burnt  his  books  and  hied  himself  to  the  woods,  to  a  place 
where  Su  chung  once  had  lived.  One  day,  sweeping  the  ground,  he  sent  a 
stone  flying  against  a  big  bamboo,  the  trunk  of  which  gave  a  ringing  sound. 
This  reminded  him  of  Ling  Yii's  reply,  the  depth  of  which  he  now 
understood,  and  "  he  saw  truth "  (Ehon  Hokmi). 

375.  JIUGO  DOJI  -f-  3JL  H  Ip.     "The  Fifteen  Youths,"  sons  of  Benten 


376.  JIU  XI  O  -f*  H  5E,  or  Jiu   NI  TEN  ~h  H  5£.      The  Twelve  Deva 
Kings,    Buddhistic    adaptations   of   Brahmanic   divinities,   amongst   which   the 
Shi  Tenno,  or  Four  Guardians  of  Heaven,  are  the  best  known. 

The  BUTSU  DZO  DZUI  (Vol.  Ill,  p.  20}  illustrates  them  as  follows  :— 

JITEX  illi  3^.-  The  Earth  Deva  PrWivi  (Sanskrit),  a  woman  holding  in 
her  right  hand  a  basket  of  peonies,  the  right  hand  held  in  a  miidra. 

GWATEX  /)  Jfc.  The  Moon  Deva,  Tchandra  or  Soma,  a  woman  holding 
in  her  right  hand  a  disc  emblematic  of  the  moon.  Mr.  L.  Gonse,  in  L'Art 
Japonais,  illustrates  a  somewhat  different  Gwaten,  from  a  painting  in  the 
Kounoji  temple,  in  which  a  male  figure  stands  on  a  lotus,  on  clouds,  both 
hands  holding  a  figure  of  the  moon,  with  the  crescent  and  moon  hare  shown. 
The  head  is  surrounded  by  a  flaming  halo.  In  other  pictures,  the  moon  hare 
is  depicted  in  the  dress  of  the  Deva. 

BISIIAMON  J|,  ^!?  P^  ^C  (q-v-)>  Vais'ramana,  Vaisvavana,  the  Hindoo  God 
of  Riches;  Kuvera,  one  of  the  Shi  Tenno,  and  as  such  Guardian  of  the  North. 
Eitel  says  that  he  was  canonized  as  God  of  Riches  by  Hiuen  Tsung  in  753, 
and  that  he  plays  an  important  part  in  exorcism.  He  was  re-born  as  King 
of  the  Yakchas,  and  his  name  is  derived  from  the  fact  that  Shaka  converted 
him  and  raised  him  to  the  priesthood  (Eitel,  C.B.  193).  He  also  receives  the 
name  DANADA,  as  God  of  Riches,  and  is  one  of  the  Shichi  Fuku  Jin  under 
the  name  Bishamon.  He  is  depicted  with  a  blue  face,  clad  in  armour  and 
carrying  a  pagoda  in  the  left  hand,  a  sceptre  in  the  right  one  (as  King  of 
the  Rakshasas  and  Yakshas),  or  a  lance,  or  three-pointed  halberd,  when  as  one 
of  the  Shi  Tenno  he  often  receives  the  name  TAMONTEN  ^  |"J  ^,  meaning 



"universal  hearing"  (Eitel).  Sometimes  he  is  accompanied  by  ZEXNISHI  DOJI, 
or  by  KICHIJO  TEN. 

An  interesting  figure  in  the  South  Kensington  Museum  shows  him  standing 
on  a  tortoise,  around  the  body  of  which  is  coiled  a  snake. 

FUTEN  Jill  ^i  (q-v.),  Vasu,  the  Deva  of  the  Winds,  also  called  Vasava  (Fuxo 
SHIN).  An  old  man  bareheaded,  with  flowing  beard  and  garments,  walking, 
holding  in  his  left  hand  a  banner  blown  by  the  wind.  A  picture  presenting 
these  characters  was  in  the  Hayashi  collection,  in  which  the  nether  garments 
were  depicted  as  made  of  leopard  skin,  a  character  associated  also  with  om. 
The  more  modern  form,  as  an  om  carrying  a  wind  bag,  is  described  in  the 
article  FUTEN. 

SUITEX  7jC  ^C  (q-v-)'  The  Water  Deva  Varuna,  also  Guardian  of  the  West, 
as  one  of  the  Eight  Gods  of  Heaven  in  the  Brahmanic  Pantheon,  in  which,  as 
God  of  the  Waters,  he  had  the  names  Jalapiti,  Yadapati  and  Amburaja,  and 
he  was  represented  as  an  old  man  sitting  upon  the  makara,  a  mythical  animal 
whose  body  and  tail  were  that  of  a  fish,  while  it  had  an  antelope's  head 
and  legs.  In  the  Butsn  dzo  dztii,  the  figure  is  that  of  a  young  man  holding 
in  his  right  hand  a  sword,  in  his  left  hand  a  snake,  coiled  like  a  query  mark, 
and  with  five  snakes  issuing  from  his  hair,  erect  as  if  ready  to  strike. 

RASETSU  TEX  fj|  ^Ij  ^.  Bearded,  with  upright  hair,  a  sword  in  the  right 
hand,  the  left  raised  in  a  miidra.  He  is  the  King  of  the  Rakshasis. 

BONTEX  ^  Jfc  3E-  Brahma,  depicted  as  a  figure  standing  on  a  lotus  leaf; 
three  heads  of  equal  size,  and  with  three  eyes  each,  are  surmounted  by  a 
smaller  one  with  two  ^eyes  only.  One  hand  holds  a  lotus,  another  a  trident, 
a  third  one  a  water  vessel ;  the  fourth  and  last  one  is  directed  downwards, 
with  open  palm  and  fingers  extended  in  the  mudra  of  charity  (J^ara  mudra). 

NITTEN  f]  ^.  The  Sun  Deva,  Surya.  A  female  figure  holding  a  lotus, 
on  the  calix  of  which  reposes  a  sphere,  emblematic  of  the  Sun.  Anderson 
mentions  a  picture  in  which  the  sphere  is  replaced  by  a  red  disc  bearing 
the  three-legged  crow  (q.v.)  described  by  Hwai  Nan  Tsze  in  the  $j|  ^  ?'] 
(Mayers'  C.R.M.,  235). 

ISHANA  TEN  ^"  ^  ffi  ^.  Mahesevara  or  Siva,  depicted  as  a  fierce  figure, 
with  the  usual  three  eyes,  holding  in  the  right  hand  a  trident  and  in  the 



left  a  shallow  vessel  containing  clotted  blood.  The  third  eye,  open  vertically 
in  the  forehead,  and  which  is  often  called  the  eye  of  wisdom,  originated 
according  to  the  Mahabharata  when  Siva  was  seated  in  the  mountains 
meditating.  His  wife  Uma,  coming  behind  him,  playfully  clapped  her  hands 
on  his  eyes,  when  the  world  was  suddenly  cast  in  gloom,  but,  as  suddenly, 
in  an  outburst  of  flame  issuing  from  Siva's  forehead,  a  third  eye  appeared, 
the  radiance  of  which  scorched  everything  within  sight  until  Uma  repented. 
Siva's  favourite  mount,  a  white  bull,  is  not  shown  in  the  Japanese  figure, 
nor  are  the  eight  arms  usually  depicted.  The  Butsii  dzo  dzui,  in  its  short 
description,  identifies  ISHANA  TEN  with  IZANAGI  NO  MIKOTO  (q.v.),  which  is 
written  fjP*  -££  ^  t&  [-4  "f  ^  ¥]  >  J|t  instead  of  the  usual  form.  The  fact 
is  of  interest,  as  an  attempt  by  Buddhists  to  form  links  with  the  original 
Shinto  belief  by  modifying  or  adapting  divinities,  such  as  happened  in  the 
case  of  the  Gongen. 

TAISHAKU  TEN  *j^  fa|  3^-  Sakra,  the  mighty  Lord  fnelra,  ruler  of  the 
Devas,  to  whom  no  particular  attribution  appears  to  be  given.  He  is  depicted 
as  a  woman  with  the  three  eyes,  holding  in  the  right  hand  a  vajra  with  one 
point  at  each  end,  called  Dokko  $jj  $£,  and  in  the  left  a  cup. 

KWATEN  ^C  ^C..  The  Fire  Deva,  Agni,  depicted  as  a  bearded  old  man 
with  four  arms,  holding  respectively  a  bamboo  twig  with  a  few  leaves 
attached,  a  water  vessel,  the  flaming  triangle  emblematic  of  fire  in  Brahmanic 
symbolism,  and  a  rosary.  He  stands  in  front  of  a  large  flame.  In  the  Hindoo 
figure  he  was  depicted  as  a  red  man  with  two  heads,  like  a  Janus  bifrons, 
seven  arms  and  three  legs,  riding  on  a  ram,  wearing  the  Brahmanical 
thread,  a  garland  of  fruit,  etc.,  and  with  flames  issuing  from  his  mouth. 
He  may  be  dressed  in  flowing  robes  or  clad  in  tiger's  skin,  as  in  the  wood- 
cut by  Riokin  illustrated  in  Anderson's  Japanese  Wood  Engraving. 

YEMMA  TEN  jfc  JH  ^.  The  Deva  of  Hades,  Yama,  or  more  properly 
speaking  the  King  and  Chief  of  Ten  Regents  of  Hell. 

The  Butsu  dzo  dzui  depicts  him  as  a  youth  with  three  eyes,  carrying  in 
his  right  hand  a  sceptre  terminating  in  a  small  Boddhisattva  head.  The 
various  appearances  of  Yemma  are  dealt  with  in  a  separate  article.  Eitel 
says  that  Yama  Raja  was  in  Brahmanic  mythology  a  Guardian  of  the  South 



and  Judge  of  the  Dead.  In  Buddhist  lore  he  is  a  King  of  Vais'ali,  who, 
having  during  his  earthly  life  wished  to  be  master  of  Hell,  had  his  wish 
granted  in  a  later  avatar,  and  is  accompanied  by  his  eighteen  generals  and 
eighty  thousand  men  as  judges  and  executioners.  His  sister,  Yami,  deals 
with  the  female  inhabitants  of  his  domain.  The  King  and  his  associates 
are  fed  every  eight  hours  with  molten  copper. 

The  Deva  Kings  are  all  represented  standing  and  with  a  halo  surrounding 
the  head.  There  are  variations  in  the  way  in  which  they  are  depicted,  but 
the  main  attributes  and  characteristics  are  rarely  departed  from.  Besides  the 
actual  carvings  displayed  in  the  Musee  Guimet,  fine  illustrations  of  a  number 
of  the  Jiu  ni  ten  have  been  published  in  the  Kokkwct,,  TAJIMA'S  Relics,  the 
catalogues  of  the  Hayashi,  Gillot  and  Bing  collections,  etc. 

377.  JITRI   5J^  ^Ij.      Mythical    half    men,    with    one    leg    and    one   arm 
only ;    their  head   is  normal,   but  their  body  is  soft  and  they  have  no  bones 
(Todo   Kimmo   dzue).      See    illustration    in    Hokusai's    Mangwa,    Vol.    Ill ;    see 

378.  JIZO    Jjjj.  ^,   or   Jix.o   BOSATSU   (Chinese,  Ti   TSANG).     The   Indian 
deity,   KSHITEGARBHA,   sometimes   thought  to  be  a  form   of   Kwannon.      It    is 
the    Buddhist   Saviour,   par   excellence,   and   rejoices   in   a   number   of   names, 
such    as    the    Never    Slumbering,    the    Dragon    Praiser,    Diamond    of    Piety, 
Embracing  the  whole  earthly  nature,  Countless  bodied,  Shining  King,  etc. 

He  is  represented  as  a  shaven  priest,  holding  in  one  hand  the  jewel  (Mani 
or  Tamo)  and  in  the  other  the  Shakujo,  or  ringed  staff,  the  rings  of  which, 
knocking  against  one  another,  warn  insects  of  the  approach  of  mendicant 
monks.  The  sleeves  of  his  dress  are  particularly  large ;  sometimes  he  wears 
a  lotus  leaf  in  the  guise  of  a  hat,  and  plays  the  flute.  He  spends  most  of  his 
time  in  the  Sat  no  Kaivara,  the  river  of  souls,  with  the  children,  helping  them 
to  pile  stones  as  prayers  (see  HELL).  He  manifests  himself  under  six  different 
forms,  called  Roku  Jizo  (the  Six  Jizo),  to  the  six  classes  of  creation.  As 
patron  of  pregnant  women  he  receives  the  name  KOYASU  Jizo.  He  is  also 
the  patron  of  travellers,  and  as  such  his  figure  is  often  met  on  the  roads, 

K  • 


often   with  a  broken   nose  (HANAKAKE  Jizo),  whilst  AGONASHI  Jizo  (q.v.),  the 
jawless,  is  prayed  to  against  toothache. 

He  is  one  of  the  Nure  Dotoke  (Wet  Gods),  because  of  his  numerous 
out-of-door  figures,  and  though  representative  of  the  utmost  benevolence  his 
patience  appears  to  have  limits,  according  to  the  proverb:  "Jizo  no  Kao  mo 
san  do  naderaba  hara  no  tatsu."  "If  one  passes  three  times  before  Jizo, 
he  ...  straightens  his  belly  .  .  .  " ;  or  less  literally:  "Abuse  of 
people's  patience  puts  their  back  up." 

According  to  the  Taijo-Hoshi-mingyo-nembiitsu-den,  quoted  by  Hearn,  Jizo 
was  a  human  being  who  lived  ten  thousand  Kos  before  the  Christian  era, 
and  who,  being  filled  with  the  desire  to  convert  all  living  beings  of  the  six 
worlds  and  the  four  births,  was  enabled  to  multiply  his  body  so  as  to  be  at 
the  same  time  amongst  them  all  in  the  six  states  of  transient  existence,  or 
Roku  Sho,  namely,  Jigoku,  Gaki,  Chikusho,  Shura,  Ningen,  Tenjo,  whose 
dwellers  were  thereby  converted.  Once  a  monk  was  taken  by  Ono  no 
Takamura  to  visit  Yemma,  and  in  the  lowest  circle  of  Hades  found  Jizo 
who  expressed  his  disgust  at  the  lack  of  worshippers  on  earth,  and  when  the 
monk  came  back  to  his  temple  he  started  upon  a  statue  of  Jizo  which  was 
miraculously  finished  by  a  supernatural  being.  It  is  now  in  the  temple  of 
Yata  no  Jizo,  near  Nara.  A  small  image  of  Jizo  tied  in  the  hair  of  a 
murderer  named  Saito  is  said  to  have  blunted  the  executioner's  sword  when 
Saito  was  sent  to  undergo  the  death  penalty ;  he  was  pardoned,  and  a  temple 
erected  in  honour  of  the  God. 

In  a  very  curious  fuchi-kachira  (Alexander  Collection)  Jizo  is  shown 
arm  in  arm  with  Yemma  O  fishing;  two  oni,  one  "horse-headed,  carry  the 
picnic  basket  slung  on  the  Shakujo  of  Jizo  as  a  coolie  pole — ! 

A  full  article  upon  Jizo  will  be  found  in  Hearn's  Unfamiliar  Japan, 
Vol.  /.,  and  also  in  the  same  author's  Ghostly  Japan.  See  also  the  Kan 
Toku  Den  ^  ffl.  ffi  of  Hayashi  Tanji. 

As  a  transformation  of  Jizo,  one  of  the  sons  of  Benten  is  called  Keisho 
or  Akujo. 

379.     JO  AND  UBA  U  and  jj£  [^  $>  U  #£].      The  Spirits  hunting  the 


JIRAIYA  (r./..) 

jo  (M.E.) 


JIZO   (J/.CC.) 


pine  trees  in  Takasago,  in  Banshu,  and  of  Sumiyoshi,  in  Settsu  (Tsu  no 
Kuni).  They  are  shown  as  an  old,  wrinkled  couple,  Jo  with  a  rake,  Uba 
with  a  besom  and  a  fan,  gathering  pine  needles. 

There  is  a  No  dance  due  to  a  priest  of  Asonomiya,  named  TOMONARI, 
and  commemorating  the  story  of  KINO  TSURAGUKI,  who  met  the  old  couple 
(XVth  century). 

The  two  old  people  are  usually  accompanied  by  the  attributes  of 
longevity,  the  crane  and  the  tortoise. 

According  to  some  the  spirits  are  those  of  the  two  admirals  SUMIYOSHI 
Daimiojin  and  SUWA  Daimiojin,  who  were  in  command  of  Jingo's  fleet  of  a 
thousand  barges,  but  the  more  popular  tradition  follows  the  text  of  the 
Takasago  no  Utai,  referred  to  above,  as  follows : — At  Takasago  there  is  a  very 
old  pine  tree,  the  trunk  of  which  is  bifurcated;  in  it  dwells  the  spirit  of 
the  Maiden  of  Takasago,  who  was  seen  once  by  the  son  of  Izanagi,  who  fell 
in  love  and  wedded  her.  Both  lived  to  a  very  great  age,  dying  at  the  same 
hour  on  the  same  day,  and  since  then  their  spirits  abide  in  the  tree,  but  on 
moonlight  nights  they  return  to  human  shape  to  revisit  the  scene  of  their 
earthly  felicity  and  pursue  their  work  of  gathering  pine  needles.  See  KODAMA 
KURA  NO  Jo. 

On  weddings  the  Takasago  no  Utai  is  recited,  and  figures  of  JOTOMBA, 
called  Shimadai,  are  placed  in  the  wedding  room. 

380.  JOFUKU  f$;  j|§.  The  Chinese  wizard  and  physician,  Su  SHE  of 
Tsi  (also  called  Sii  Fuh),  who  was  sent  by  the  T'sin  Emperor,  SHE  WANG  Ti 
(CHENG),  to  seek  the  elixir  of  everlasting  life,  and  having  persuaded  him 
that  it  was  to  be  found  in  the  Mount  Horai  (Horaizan,  PENG  LAI  SHAN)  the 
wily  wizard  took  with  him  three  hundred  Chinese  couples  and  some  of  the 
most  important  Chinese  books,  sailing  away  never  to  return.  These  books  are 
sometimes  credited  with  being  the  only  ones  to  have  escaped  the  general 
destruction  which  was  ordered  by  SHE  WANG  Ti,  but  there  seems  to  be  an 
anachronism,  as  the  travels  of  Su  SHE  (or  Su  FUH)  are  said  to.  date  from  219 
B.C.  and  the  general  burning  of  the  books  took  place  in  212.  This  is 
regarded  as  the  story  of  a  Chinese  attempt  to  colonise  Japan:  Mayers  says 



that   although   the   fleet   was   steered   within  sight   of  the   magic   islands,   the 
boats  were  driven  back  by  contrary  winds. 

JOFUKU  is  sometimes  represented  on  a  crane. 

381.  JOGA.      See  MOON. 

382.  JOGEN   FUJIN   J:  %  ^c  A-      The    Chinese   SHANG   HUEN   FUJEN, 
female  Sennin,  shown   riding  upon  a  Kirin.      According  to  the  Tapist  books 
JOGEN  FUJIN  came  down  from  Heaven  with  Seiobo,  in  the  period  of  Gempo, 
in  the  first  year,  the  seventh  month,  and  descended  before  the  palace  of  the 
Emperor  Wu  Ti,  of  the  Han  dynasty.     She  rode  a  unicorn,  and  wore  a  blue 
coat.     Her  hair  was  partly  made  up  into  three  plaits  and  partly  loose,  reaching 
to  her  waist. 

383.  JOKWA  "$£  i^.     The   mythical   Chinese  Empress,   Nu   KWA,   sister 
and  successor  of  FUH  Hi.     Her  legendary  story  is  variously  told.     When  KOKAI 
(KuNG  KUNG),  the  rebel,  aided  by  the  devil  of  the  waters,  flooded  the  earth 
with  the  help  of  the  two  erstwhile  rivals,  the  generals  HAKO  and  EIDO,  and 
the  assistance  of  the  genius  of  fire,  SHIKUYU  (CHUH  YUNG),  who  dwells  at  the 
North  Pole,  she  defeated  him.     But  the  gigantic  Kokai,  who  was  twenty-six 
feet  high,  knocked  with  his  head  one  of  the  pillars  of  Heaven,  and  brought 
down    the    "Imperfect   Mountain."      JOKWA    repaired    Heaven   with   stones   of 
five  colours,  white,  yellow,  black,  azure,  and  red;   trimmed  the  corners  of  the 
earth   with  the   feet   of   the   sacred   tortoise;    stopped  the  flood   by   means   of 
burnt  reeds;    created  the  Jade;    designed  the  course  of  the  River   of   Heaven, 
and  created  the  dragons — the  yellow  one  to  guard  the  Sun,  the  blue  one  to 
guard  the  East. 

384.  JORAN   CHO   ^  |H  J^,   Sennin,   found   a   man  dressed   in   white 
passing  through  the  gate  of  his  house,   and   reproved   him,    but   the   stranger 
there  and   then  transformed  himself  into  a  tortoise,  entirely  white. 

385.  JOMYO  ffi  ^  (Tsu  Tsui),  was  a  priest  in  the  Taira  army.     When 
the   floor   of   the   bridge    of    Kyoto    was    pulled   to   pieces   by   the   Minamoto, 
during  the  revolt  of  Yorimasa,  to  prevent  the  Taira  from  crossing  the  Ujigawa, 
the  cross  beams  were  left  in  place.     Jomyo  sprung  then  from  beam  to  beam  to 



(Shozo  Kato  collection) 


challenge  the  Minamoto.  A  soldier  named  ICHIRAI  HOSHI  accepted  his 
challenge,  and  both  fought  upon  the  beams  for  several  hours  without  any 

386.  JOSAKEI  ^  ^  HP,  Sennin  (shown  with  an  arrow),  lived  in  Shoku 
in  the  Tempo  period  of  the  To  dynasty.      He  was  wont  to  assume  the  form 
of  a  crane,  and  once  when   he  had  flown    over  a  mountain  he  was  shot   by 
the  Emperor  Genso  (q.v.),   who   was   hunting   in    the   western   gardens.      The 
Sage    came    back    carrying    the    arrow,    and    narrated    the    incident    to    his 
disciples  saying  that  he  had   been   hurt   by   a   stray   arrow,    and,   hanging   it 
on    the   wall,    ordered   that   if   the   owner   called   for   it    the   arrow   should   be 
returned  to  him. 

387.  JUROJIN   Sp  ^  A..      One   of   the   Seven    Gods   of   Luck,    depicted 
as  a  tall  old  man  in  the  dress  of  a  scholar,  with  the  attributes  of  longevity, 
more    especially   the   deer   and    the   crane.       He    wears   a   peculiar    headdress, 
upon   which   is   often   pictured   the   circle   of   the   sun.      He  carries  a  roll,   or 
makimono,  either  in  his  hand   or   attached    to   his  staff;    he    is    generally   of 
solemn    mien,    not    so    often    playing    with    children   as   Fukurokujiu    (q.v.), 
though  the  latter  exchanges  attributes  with  Juro.     It  is  thought  that  Jurojin 
is  only  a   variant  of  the  ever-smiling  divinity  with  the  elongated  brain  pan, 
Fukurokujiu,  but   if   so   the   grave   and   the   gay  must   have   parted   company 
at    an    early   date.      Jurojin    does    not    appear    amongst    the   Seven    Gods   in 
Ehon    Kojidan,    (Vol.    //)  ;    his  place  is  filled  by  Kishijoten,  who  plays  with 

388.  JURO  SUKENARI  +  !ft  f&  $•     See  SOGA  BROTHERS. 

389.  JUSHA   -$£  ^,   or  SEMUI,   or   Ruui    BOSATSU.      One    of    the    sons 
of  BENTEN,  whose  attributes  are  the  three  sacred  gems. 

390.  KACHI     KACHI    YAMA     fr    t>    fr    t>    \\\.       See    under    HARE, 
page   in. 

391.  KAFURI    UMIN    t$    jg.      Flying    men.      See    under    FOREIGNERS 
(mythical).     They  live  between  Kaito  (East  sea)  and  Nangai  (north  cliff). 



392.  KAGEKIYO  jp;  ffi  [^  -fc  &  Hf]  (AKUSHICHIBIOYE),  son  of  Fujiwara 
Tadakiyo  and  brother  of  Tadamitsu.      He  is  celebrated  for  his  strength,  one 
of  his  noted  feats  being  that   in   the   Yashima   battle,    in   single   combat,   he 
tore   off   the   neck-covering   (Shikoro)   of   the   armour    of    Minamoto   MIYO   NO 
YASHIRO   KUNITOSHI.      This   episode   is   called   the   Shikoro  biki,  and  Kagekiyo 
is   often   shown   hanging   the   shikoro   on   his   spear.      He   owed   his    name    of 
Akushibioye   (miscreant    Shibioye)    to    his    murder    of    his    uncle,    the    priest 
Dainichibo,  in  whose  temple  he  had  sought  refuge,  but  whom  he  believed  to 
be  a  creature  of  Yoritomo.      His  father  and  his  brother  were  killed  by  order 
of    the   latter,   and   the   popular    legend   has   it    that   his   attempt   to    murder 
Yoritomo  in   the  Daibutsu   temple  of  Nara   (Todaiji)   had   been    thwarted   by 
Hatakeyama   Shigetada.     Afterwards,   he   blinded  himself  rather  than  see  the 
triumph  of  his  enemy ;    since  then  he  has  been  the  patron  of  the  blind. 

See  also  AKOYA.  He  is  often  depicted  escaping  from  a  wooden  prison, 
though  it  is  said  that  he  was  confined  in  a  cavern  at  Nara  and  died  of 

In  1689  Kagekiyo's  adventures  were  partly  embodied  in  a  play,  the 
Kagekiyo  Sanddi  Osaka  Jum-ei,  and  there  is  another  play  called  Mekura 
(Blind)  Kagekiyo. 

393.  KAGESUYE   jjf;  2p.     KAJIWARA  GENDA  KAGESUYE  was  a  follower 
of  YOSHITSUNE   (q.v.),    whom   he  accompanied,   in    1184,    in    his   expedition  to 
quell    the   revolt   of   Kiso   YOSHINAKA   against   YORITOMO.      Guessing   that   his 
enemy   would   be   beyond   the   Uji    River,    then   in   flood,  Yoshitsune  directed 
his  men  to  a  ford   pointed  out   by  SASAKI   NO   SHIRO   TAKATSUNA,  who  knew 
that  part  of  the  country.     He   gave   to   Kagesuye  his  own   horse,   SURUSUMI, 
born  of  a  prayer  to  Kwannon,  and  Kagesuye  was  the  first  to  plunge  in  the 
water,   but   Sasaki   Takatsuna,   who   had   one   of  Yoritomo's   horses,    IKEZUKI, 
plunging  after  Kagesuye,  called   to  him   to   tighten  the   girdle  of  Suruzumi, 
which   was   getting  loose,  and  as  the  soldier  stopped  Takatsuna  got  first  on 
the   opposite   bank.      This   is   a   favourite  scene  for  artistic  treatment,  and  is 
easily   recognizable.      The    mon    (crest)   of   Kagesuye   is   the   Takanoha   formed 
of  the  pennate  end  of  two  arrows  side   by  side  (two  hawk's  feathers) ;    that 


of  Takatsuna  is  called  the  Yotsume,  and  consists  of  two  groups  of  four 
hollow  squares,  as  per  illustration. 

The  incident  is  often  described  under  the  name  of  the  battle  of  LJji 

KaGESUYE,  at  the  battle  of  the  forest  of  Ikuta,  placed  in  his  quiver  a 
large  branch  of  plum  tree  covered  with  blossoms,  which  made  him  an  easy 
mark  for  the  arrows  of  the  Taira.  Twice  he  dashed  into  the  enemy's  forces, 
finally  losing  his  helmet  and  narrowly  missing  death.  He  was  pulled  out  of 
the  fray  by  his  father,  HEIZO  KAGETOKI.  His  helmet,  with  the  plum  branch, 
form  a  terse  representation  of  this  episode. 

394.  KAGUHANA  AND  MIRUME.     The  two  witnesses.     See  HELL. 

395.  KAI  AWASE.     The  shell  Game.     See  GAMES. 

396.  KAIRISHI.      Puppet   showman,   often   shown    with    the   Handa   no 
Inari  board,  with  movable  top. 

397.  KAI  RYU  O  $|  f|  3E-     Another  name  for  RIUGIN. 

398.  KAISHO  ^  J|t,   of  KAIKEI.      Chinese    sage   who    lived   on   Mount 
Gaichiku  and  always  held  in  hand  a  branch  of  white  peach.     He  kept  ever 
young  in  appearance. 

399.  KAJIWARA  KAGETOKI  Iffe  J&  jjt  $f.     Bosom  friend  and  adviser 
of   YORITOMO    (q.v.),    and    principal   enemy   of  YOSHITSUNE.       He   is   generally 
represented   with   Yoritomo,   or   poking   his   bow   into   the   hollow   of   an   old 
tree,  from  which  escape  two  doves,  a  manoeuvre  by  which  he  saved  Yoritomo 
from    his    pursuers    when    he    had   to   llee    from    Ishi    Bashi    Yama,    in    1181, 
and,   hard   pressed,   hid   himself   in   the   decaying   trunk   of   a   tree.      His   full 
name    was    Kajiwara    Heizo    Taira    no    Kagetoki.      He    was    the    father    of 

400.  KAKO  fnj  -£^f.      Sage  (shown  with  a  spade,  and  walking  between 
a  river  and  a  rice  field)  who  lived  in  the  time  of  the  Emperor  GYO  (YAO),  in 
the    fastness    of    Mount   Sogo   with   three   hundred   of   his    relatives.      In   the 
time    of    the    Emperor    U    (Yu)    of    the    Ka   (HSIA)   dynasty,  the  five  divine 


Emperors  gave  him  an  elixir  in  a  pot,  and  told  him  to  put  a  drop  of  it  in 
his  wine.  This  he  did,  and  the  three  hundred  folks  drunk  of  it  without 
draining  the  whole.  Whatever  remained  he  poured  on  the  roof  of  his  house, 
which  rose  to  the  sky  with  all  its  occupiers.  The  Ressen  dzu  san  shows  him 
squatting  and  laughing. 

401.  KAKU     BAKU.       Chinese    philosopher,     depicted    with     a    demon 
following  him  as  an  attendant ;    identical  with  Hakuhaku. 

402.  KAKUDAITSU  f$  ^  }§,  or  TENNENSHI.     The  Taoist  rishi,  Ho  TANG| 
TUNG,  depicted  as  an  old  man  seated  on  a  rock  amongst  a  host  of  children, 
who  have  piled  a  pyramid  of  stones  on  his  head,  because,  according  to  legend, 
being    once    sitting   in   meditation   near   a   bridge,   he   ordered   some   boys   to 
pile    tiles   upon   his  head  in  the  shape  of  a  tower   to   amuse   theniselves,   and 
when  the  tower  was  finished  he  ordered  them  never  to  touch  it  or  damage  it. 
He  remained   motionless  for  six  years,  even  when  the  river  overflowed. 

403.  KAKKEI  f$  Jf|  (with  an  abacus)  was  a  peculiar  man  who  travelled 
about  with  a  cane  and   an   abacus   in   his   pocket.      When   he   stopped   in   a 
house  he  begged  for  fuel  for  the  night,  by  the  flame  of  which  he  read  books. 
Placing  the  abacus  on  his  knees,  he  divined  what  was  going  on  wherever  he 

404.  KAKKIO    i||5  M>    °r    KWAKKIO.      The    Chinese    paragon   of    filial 
virtue,  KWOH  K'u,  usually  represented  in  a  garden  with  his  wife,  who  carries 
their  son  in  her  arms.     Kakkio  digs  a  grave  for  the  baby,  as,   being  too  poor 
to  sustain  his  old  mother  and  his  own  family,  he  would  have  buried  his  son 
to  have  more  for  his  mother.     But  the  all-seeing  Deities  willed  it  otherwise, 
and  rewarded  his  piety :    he  found  in  the  soil  a  pot  full  of  gold,  upon  which 
was   inscribed,    "Heaven's   gift   to  Kwakkio;    let  no   one   take   it   from   him." 
Sometimes  Kwannon  is  associated  with  this  story. 

405.  KAKURE  ZATO  g  ft  4*  g|.     The  blind  old  man  entrusted  with 
the  conveyance  of  bad  people  to  Hades. 

406.  KAKWOKO   3[  ^  Q.      Old    man,   shown    with   three   others,   in 


Chinese  guise,  and  with  a  peculiar  headgear,  playing  Go  on  Mount  Shang, 
where  they  had  retreated  under  She  Wang  Ti.  As  the  calculating  regent, 
KAU  Tsui,  intended  to  banish  the  Crown  Prince  of  China  in  the  third 
century,  under  the  Empress  LEU,  of  the  Han  dynasty,  these  four  sages  were 
appointed  on  the  recommendation  of  CHORYO  to  defeat  his  ends.  They  were: 
KA-KWO-KO,  LOK-LI-SEN-SAI,  KI-LI-KI,  and  TOYEN-KO.  See  illustrations  in 
Kokkiva,  Vol.  XII.,  and  Tajima's  Relics. 

407.  KAMAKURA  GONGORO  KAGEMASA  H  It  HI  £  IB  :S  ifc  was 

a  follower  of  YOSHIIYE  in  the  war  of  Dewa.  He  was  but  sixteen  years  old 
at  the  battle  of  Oshu,  in  1060,  when  he  was  wounded  by  an  arrow  in  the 
left  eye,  but  without  even  drawing  the  weapon  from  his  eye,  he  shot  dead 
his  opponent,  TOURINOUMI  YASABURO. 

408.  KAMA    ITACHI   H  ||.      The   weasel    with    the    sickle,    who   flies 
about   and   cuts,  scratches  or  tears    people's  skin  without  reason.      Upon  this 
mythical  creature   is   usually  fastened   the   blame  for  any  scratch  or  cut,   the 
cause   or   origin   of   which  cannot  be  stated  or  needs  to  be  kept  secret.     The 
usual  formula  in  such  a  case  is:   Kama  itachi  ni  kirare  ta — "cut  by  the  weasel 
with  the  sickle."      This  is  often  used  when  sandal  straps  break  (Griffis). 

409.  KAMATARI   $&  &  (NAKATOMI  NO  41    £l  J53L).  also  called  TAISHO- 
KUKWAN    ^  J|f|  xl,    is    the    founder    of    the    FUJIWARA    clan.       He    became 
minister    of    the    Emperor   KOTOKU   after   exposing   the   disloyal   ways   of   the 
ministers   Sogo   no   Iruka  and  Sogo  no  Emishi.     At  the  death  of  Kotoku  he 
passed    into    the    service   of   the   Empress   Seimei.      His   title,   Fujiwara,   was 
granted  him  and  his  family  by  the  Emperor  Tenchi.     He  died,  fifty-five  years 
old,  in  669,  leaving  several  sons. 

Several  episodes  in  Karnatari's  life  have  been  seized  upon  by  dramatists. 
In  a  popular  play  he  is  made  to  attempt  the  murder  of  the  minister,  Soga 
no  Iruka,  in  644,  when  he  was  only  a  retainer  of  Naganoe.*  In  this  play 
his  name  is  given  as  Motome.  It  is  stated  that  TACHIBANA  HIME,  the 
daughter  of  Iruka,  was  his  mistress,  and  she  led  him  through  the  devious 

*  Iruka  was  murdered  two  years  later. 


passages  of  her  father's  palace  by  means  of  a  thread.  But  Motome  had 
reckoned  without  his  affianced  bride,  Omiwa,  who,  having  her  own  suspicions, 
had  followed  him  by  means  of  another  thread,  which  she  had  deftly  attached 
to  his  kimono.  She  thus  thwarted  his  efforts  at  the  cost  of  her  own  life, 
as  she  was  caught  by  the  retainers  of  Iruka,  but,  fortunately  for  Motome, 
the  thread  which  she  held  snapped  in  the  scuffle,  and  she  proved  loyal 
enough  to  keep  his  secret. 

But  the  legend  with  which  Kamatari's  name  is  most  often  associated  is 
that  of  the  MUGE  HOJIU  NO  TAMA,  illustrations  of  which  are  of  frequent 
occurrence  in  art.  It  is  said  that  the  daughter  of  Kamatari  had  become 
the  wife  of  the  Chinese  Emperor,  Tai  Tsung  (627-650  A.D.),  and  that,  after 
living  several  years  in  China,  she  desired  to  cause  a  temple  to  be  constructed 
in  Japan.  To  achieve  this  purpose  she  collected  a  number  of  very 
valuable  objects,  amongst  which  was  a  jewel  the  fame  of  which  spread  over 
the  three  Empires  of  India,  China  and  Japan.  She  entrusted  the  treasures  to 
a  retainer,  named  Manko,  to  be  carried  to  her  native  land,  but  the  Dragon 
King  of  the  Sea,  Riujin,  who  had  decided  to  get  possession  of  the  precious 
jewel,  sent  a  host  of  devils  to  encounter  Manko's  ship  near  Chigura  ga  Oki. 
Manko  defeated  them,  and  proceeded  as  far  as  Shikoku,  where  he  found  a 
huge  tree  trunk  floating  on  the  sea,  upon  which  he  saw  a  beautiful  woman 
standing,  who  suddenly  disappeared.  He  stopped  his  boat  and  caused  the 
tree  to  be  hauled  on  board,  when  the  woman  was  found  to  be  hidden  inside 
the  trunk.  Manko,  after  a  while,  felt  passionately  drawn  towards  the 
stranger,  and,  failing  to  see  that  she  was  an  emissary  of  Riujin,  obtained 
her  favours  by  consenting  to  show  her  the  treasures  with  which  he  had  been 
entrusted.  Soon  after  the  siren  disappeared  from  the  ship,  and  the  gem 
was  missed.  It  had  been  carried  away  by  Manko's  charmer. 

The  bereaved  mariner  managed  to  reach  Japan,  and  after  apprising 
Kamatari  of  his  misfortune,  committed  suicide.  Kamatari,  distracted  by  the 
loss  of  the  jewel,  shaved  his  head  and  retired  in  the  fastness  of  the  Fukuzan 
(Fukusaki),  where  he  led  a  hermit's  life. 

He  met  on  the  shore  a  beautiful  fisher-girl,  who  ministered  to  his  wants, 
and  whom  he  finally  married.  She  noticed  that  her  husband  was  of  a 


higher  station  than  herself,  but  refrained  from  any  enquiry  until,  after 
several  years  of  bliss,  she  bore  him  a  son,  when  Kamatari  informed  her  of 
his  past  history.  She  exhorted  him  to  return  to  his  previous  life,  and, 
knowing  herself  unworthy  to  be  the  wife  of  such  a  high  lord  (as  the  custom 
of  the  period  forbade  a  noble  to  marry  so  far  below  his  rank),  she  decided 
to  commit  suicide,  despite  all  entreaties. 

She  wished,  however,  before  dying,  to  attempt  to  wrest  from  Riujin 
the  precious  gem  and  return  it  to  Kamatari.  To  this  end,  she  swam  away 
from  the  land  for  many  thousands  of  ri,  so  fast  that  Kamatari  and  his 
followers  could  not  head  her  in  a  boat.  She  carried  with  her  a  dagger, 
and  finally  reached  the  gates  of  Riujin's  palace,  the  guardians  of  which 
were  taken  unawares  and  slain.* 

Several  times  she  attacked  the  Dragon  King,  and  at  length  she  appeared 
floating  to  the  surface  near  Kamatari's  boat.  She  was  picked  up  dying 
from  the  poisonous  wounds  made  by  the  dragon's  claws,  and  Kamatari 
noticed  a  sharp  cut  in  her  breast,  evidently  self-inflicted,  from  which  issued 
a  dazzling  light.  In  it  was  concealed  the  precious  gem  which  the  courageous 
woman  had  succeeded  in  wresting  from  the  dragon. 

It  was  put  as  an  attribute  in  the  hand  of  the  statue  of  Buddha  in  the 
Kifukuji  temple. 

The  episode  is  sometimes  depicted  with  Kamatari  standing  in  a  boat 
on  a  stormy  sea,  beholding  the  jewel  which  has  just  been  rescued ;  but 
more  often  with  the  woman  holding  the  jewel  and  fighting  the  dragon. 

410.  KAMI  jji$.  Generic  name  of  the  numberless  legions  of  Shinto 
deities,  for  extensive  lists  of  which  the  Kojiki  and  Nihongi  should  be  con- 
sulted.! The  soul  of  every  man  becomes  Kami  after  death. 

KAMI  SAMA  shoots  once  a  year  an  arrow  into  the  thatch  of  a  house  to 
give  notice  that  he  wishes  to  eat  a  girl,  failing  which  he  will  destroy  the 
crops  and  cattle. 

e  In  Anderson's  version,  the  woman  fails  at  the  first  attempt,  and  Kamatari  resorts  to  the  use  of 
musicians  in  a  boat  to  draw  from  Riujin's  palace  its  faithful  attendants.  The  diver  then  attacks  the  dragon 
whilst  his  retainers  are  away.  In  most  cases,  however,  the  boat  filled  with  musicians  is  not  represented. 

t  See  also  Aston's  Shinto  and  Hearn's  works. 


Several  of  the  Kami   are  protective  deities  of  the  soil : 

UGA  NO   MITAMA  NO  MIKOTO  is  the  spirit  of  food. 

SUKUNA  IIIKONA  NO  KAMI,  the  scarecrow  god. 

SUIJIN    SAMA  is  the  god  of  the  wells. 

KOJIX,  of  the  kitchen  fire,  assisted  by  the  deities  of  the  cauldron,  O 
KITSU  HIKO  (Kudo  no  Kami),  and  of  the  saucepan,  O  Krrsu  HIME  (Kobe  no 
Kami),  and  the  god  of  the  rice  pots,  O  KAMA  SAMA;  while  the  ponds  chief 
deity  is  IKE  NO  NUSHI  NO  KAMI,  the  god  of  trees,  KUKUNOCHI  NO  KAMI.  The 
goddess  of  grasses  is  KAYANU  HIME  NO  KAMI;  another  god  of  trees  is  AMANOKO. 
The  moon  has  her  deity,  JOKWA;  the  divinity  of  fever  is  KARU,  depicted 
astride  a  fish  with  a  yellow  toad  on  her  head. 

Some  of  the  Kami  are  black;  they  have  ghostly  faces  with  pointed 
mouths.  They  come  from  the  starving  circle  of  Hell,  and  are  the  gods 
of  hunger,  of  penuriousness,  of  poverty  (Bimbogami),  of  hindrances  and 
obstacles,  of  small  pox  (Hoso  no  Kami),  of  colds  (Kaze  no  Kami),  of 
pestilence  (Yakubiogami). 

Lightning  was  forged  by  ISHI  NO  KORE,  TAJIKARA  is  the  god  of  the 
dragons,  and  SARASVATI  is  the  goddess  of  language,  borrowed  from  the 
Indian  pantheon.  Each  god  has  three  spirits:  the  rough  Aramitama,  the 
gentle  Nigi  mitama,  and  the  bestowing  Saki  mitama.  See  Hearn's  works 
and  Satow's  Revival  of  Pure  Shinto. 

Kami  ovoshi  is  a  sort  of  ecstatic  trance,  perhaps  of  an  auto-hypnotic 
character,  which  is  considered  to  be  a  union  with  the  divinity. 

411.  KAMI   GASHI    HIME   jji$  Jlf  ?f|  JJ£  was  a  woman   of  the  time  of 
KEIKO   Tenno   who   killed   a   huge   spider   in   Sumo.      It   is   generally    agreed 
that   she   killed   many,   but   that   these  spiders,  seven  feet  long,  were  robbers 
in  ordinary  human  shape,  whose  natures  had  been  altered  to  suit  the  general 
love  of  legend. 

412.  KANAME   ISHI   3g  ~fi.     See  EARTHQUAKE  FISH;   see  MITO    KOMON 


413.  KANAYE   KABURI   $&  fr  &    ty .     See  SUKUMAMO. 


EBIRA   KAGESUYE   (s  M  ) 


KAN   NO   KOSO   (r./..) 
KENSU    (O.C.K.) 

KANF-KO   (./.) 

KAKUDA1TSU    (ir.l..K.) 

KANSHIN   (7K/..S.) 


414.  KANEKO   ^  -f1   (KUGUTSUNE).     A  strong  woman,   often  depicted 
in   one   or   other   of   the   following    incidents :    Once   she   stopped   a   runaway 
horse  by  treading  on  the  tether  which  he  dragged  on  the  road  (see  Hokusai's 
Mangwa  and  Ehon  Hokan). 

On  another  occasion  a  man  attempted  to  strike  her  as  she  was  carrying 
a  basin  of  milk  on  her  head,  but  she  held  him  captive  by  grasping  his 
arm  under  her  own  without  spilling  a  drop  of  the  liquid,  despite  her 
assaulter's  wrigglings. 

415.  KANJIA    ^  ^.      One   of   the   comic   personages    in    the   Suye-hiro- 
gari  (Kiogen)  interlude  in  ATo  dancing.      Kanjia  is  the  new  servant  from  the 
country,  raw  and   frolicsome,  whose  dialect  his  master  does  not  understand ; 
nor    does    Kanjia    understand    the    niceties    of    the    latter's    polished    speech. 
When  asked  for  one  thing  he  brings  another,  dancing  about  with  the  wrong 
implement  until  he  induces  his  master  to  join  him   in  a  comic  pas  de  deux. 

416.  KANKO.      Drum    of   the   palace.      See   COCK. 

417.  KAN  NO  BUTI  g|  ^  ^.     Wu  Ti  (HAN),  fourth  Emperor  of  the 
Han   dynasty,   and   one   of   the    most  famous  of  the   Chinese  rulers.     He  died 
in   87   B.C.    after   a    reign    of    fifty-four   years.      His   armies   were   engaged    in 
victorious    wars   in    the   surrounding   provinces,    in   central    Asia,    in   Yunnan, 
whilst  Wu  Ti  indulged  in  superstitious  celebrations  and  in  extensive  travels  to 
the  shrines  of  numberless  mountain  deities.     At  first  a  diligent  adept  of  the 
Confucian  doctrines,  he  leant  later  towards   Buddhism  and   the  black  arts  of 
the   Taoist   sect.      Finding   it    impossible  to  get  any  priests  for  his  Buddhist 
temples,   he  liberated   a   number   of  felons  on  the  condition   that  they  should 
embrace   the   priesthood.      He   is   said   to    have   had  a   tower  over  a  hundred 
feet   in  height  erected   in   the  palace  gardens   to   support    a    bronze  figure,    in 
the   hands   of   which  was   a   precious  vase,   intended  to  receive  the  dew  from 
the  stars,  which  he  drank  in  the  belief  that  it  would  keep  him  ever  young. 

Wu  Ti's  sensual  passions  were  beyond  control.  He  was  told  once  by 
his  eunuch  and  musician,  Ri  in  Nen  ^  $§  ^,  that  in  the  north  of  China 
was  a  beautiful  woman,  but  one  glance  of  her  eyes  was  enough  to  destroy 


a  castle,  and  if  she  looked  twice  she  could  ruin  a  kingdom.  Although 
greatly  elated  by  the  description  of  the  lady,  Kan  no  Buti's  enthusiasm  was 
chilled  by  the  unpleasant  prospect  of  losing  his  kingdom  if  he  secured  her 
favours,  and  he  had  to  be  content  with  a  substitute  introduced  by  Eiyokoshu, 
the  sister  of  Ri  in  Nen,  who,  although  she  was  not  capable  to  wreck  cities 
and  kingdoms,  yet  became  the  favourite  of  the  monarch,  who  called  her 
RIFUJIN  ^  ^  A.-  She  was,  however,  but  mortal,  and  died  young;  the 
Emperor  could  not  master  his  grief  at  her  loss,  and  he  had  her  portrait 
placed  in  one  of  his  palaces.  One  day,  however,  the  wizard,  Ri  SHO  Ko 
??S  ^b  ;|j  (or  Li  SHAO  KUN),  who  was  instructing  the  monarch  in  the  magic 
arts,  placed  in  front  of  a  screen  some  candles  and  an  incense  burner,  in 
which  he  threw  some  magic  incense  (Hangonkd).  As  the  smoke  arose  it 
assumed  the  form  of  a  woman,  and  slowly  the  radiant  figure  of  the  favourite 
appeared  smiling  to  Wu  Ti.  This  performance  was  afterwards  often  repeated 
by  the  wizard  (Ehon  Kojidan,  VII.}.  Rifugin's  brother  fell  into  disgrace 
after  her  death  and  was  beheaded;  another  lady,  CHAD  (Kow  Yin  Fu  Jin), 
became  the  Emperor's  favourite,  and  after  causing  by  treachery  the  execution 
of  the  heir-apparent,  she  herself  was  unmasked  and  condemned  to  death. 

Wu  Ti  was  then  deeply  engaged  in  astrological  and  magic  studies, 
watching  the  stars  in  his  high  tower,  where  he  died  after  a  complete  fast 
of  seven  days'  duration.  It  is  said  that  tears  were  seen  flowing  from  the 
eyes  of  the  bronze  figure  when  later,  at  the  fall  of  the  Han  dynasty,  the 
tower  was  thrown  down  by  the  usurper. 

Kan  no  Buti's  journeys  to  the  palace  of  Si  Wang  Mu  (SEIOBO,  q.v.)  and 
her  visit  in  return,  coupled  with  the  story  of  TOBOSAKU  (q.v.),  are  well- 
known  legendary  traditions,  often  illustrated,  and  derived  from  the  Taoist 
inclinations  of  the  Emperor. 

418.  KAN  NO  KOSO  ^  igj  |R,  or  KAO  Tsu;  also  called  Liu  PANG. 
Founder  of  the  HAN  dynasty  of  China,  though  from  very  low  birth.  He 
was  supported  by  CH'EN  PING  (Chimpei),  CHANG  LIANG  (Chorio),  FANKWAI 
(Hankwai),  and  HAN  SIN  (Kanshin),  and  after  seven  years  of  small  wars  he 
rose  from  his  self-assumed  title  of  Duke  of  Pei  to  the  Imperial  throne, 



which  at  his  death  passed  to  the  ill-famed  Empress,  Lii,  his  consort.  See 

After  some  years  of  wise  government  he  gave  way  to  licence,  and  is 
credited  with  having  spent  long  periods  of  time  in  his  palace  amongst  his 
women  and  eunuchs,  much  to  the  disgust  of  Hankwai  (q.v.),  who  upbraided 
him  and  was  condemned  to  death. 

KAN  NO  Koso  is  sometimes  depicted  killing  a  dragon. 

419.  KANSHIN  ^  j|j.      The  celebrated   Chinese,   HAN  SIN.     The  most 
popular   representation   of   Kanshin    shows    him    crawling    between    the    legs 
of  a  coolie.      In  netsnke  the  carver's  fancy   sometimes   leads   him    to    increase 
the   number   to   two   coolies,    or    warriors,    or    to    show    five    or    more    boys 
standing  in  single  file  "playing   at   Kanshin,"   dressed  like   Chinese,  and  one 
of   them   crawling   between   the   legs   of    the    others.      KANSHIN   was   the   son 
of  a   prince   of   Han,   and   after   being    dispossessed   by   SHE   WANG   Ti    (Shin 
no  Shiko),  of  Tsin,  was  reduced  to  fishing  in  the  moat  of  his  father's  castle, 
until   some   poor   woman    took   pity  upon  him.     A  braggart   once   challenged 
him  to  creep  between  his  legs,  in  a  public  place,  and  Kanshin  consented   to 
this    humiliating    performance    rather    than    create   a   disturbance   or   fight   a 
man  of  low  birth ;    but   later,  when  he  became  a  general  and   Prince  of  Tsi, 
he  caused  the  man   to  be   found   and   attached  him   to   his  person.      He  also 
caused  the  old   woman  who  had  supported  him  in  his  youth  to  be  presented 
with   a   large    sum    of    money.      He   was   twice    accused   of   treason   by   Kan 
no  Koso,  and  later  by  the  Empress   Lii,  who,  forgetting  the  services  he  had 
rendered    to    her    late    consort,    had    him    beheaded.      The    Chinese    classify 
Kanshin   amongst  the   three    Heroes   of   Han,    with   Ch'eng   Ping   and    Chang 
Liang.      It   is   sometimes   said   that    the    old    woman   was   a   dyer   by   trade, 
and  that   it   was   she    who    compelled    Kanshin    to    pass    between    her    legs 
before  he  could  leave  her  service  to  become  a  soldier. 

420.  KANSHOSHI  $f  $H  -f .     The  Chinese  immortal,  HAN  SIANG  TSZE, 
usually  shown    playing   the   flute   or   floating   on   a   hollow   tree   trunk.      He 
was    a    pupil    of    RIOTOSHIN    (Lu    YEN,   or   LU-TUNG-PING),   and  having   been 
carried   to   the   top   of   the   magic   peach    tree    growing    near    the    palace    of 


Seiobo,  he  dropped  from  it  through  the  breaking  of  a  bough,  entering 
immortality  as  he  fell.  He  is  reported  as  having  during  his  life  magically 
filled  with  wine  an  empty  tub,  and  in  the  same  way  caused  flowers  to 
grow  out  of  an  empty  pot,  with  golden  poems  written  on  their  leaves. 

421.  KANSHUSAI   If  5|  ^   was    the    son    of    MICHIZANE.      After    his 
father's    downfall    in    890,     he    was    sent    to    one    of    his    retainers,    Genzo 
Takebe,  who,  with  his  wife  Tonami,  kept  a  school  near  Kyoto.      The  chief 
of   the  Fujiwara  clan,  Shihei,  heard  of  it,  and  sent  two  of  his  men,  Gemba 
and   Matsue,   to  kill    the   boy.      Matsue   alone   knew   Kanshusai,   and   he   was 
therefore  relied  upon  to  identify  the  head  which  Genzo  had  been  commanded 
to  give  him.     Genzo  was  in  a  sore   plight,    but   as   it   happened   that   a   new 
boy  had  just  been  brought  in  whose  features  were  almost  identical  with  those 
of  Kanshusai,  he  determined  to  kill  this  boy  and  even,  if  need  be,  the  boy's 
mother   to   save   his    late   master's    son.      After   he   had    handed   the   head   to 
the  retainers  of  Shihei,   the  boy's  mother   came   in  with  a  box,   and   with   it 
she   managed   to   parry   the   blow    with    which   Genzo   tried   to   fell   her.      A 
shroud    falling    from    the    open   box,    Genzo   saw   that    there   was   something 
amiss,   and,   according   to   the    legend,   his   fears    were   allayed   by   the   return 
of    Matsue,    who,    having    been    one   of   Michizane's   retainers,    had    sent    his 
own   son   to   the    school,    trusting   to    Genzo's    loyalty   to   kill   him   and   thus 
save   Kanshusai.      This   forms   the   subject  of  a  play   called   Sugawara   denjiu 
tenarj  kagami,   which    was   partly    translated    in    English    some    fifteen    years 

422.  KANZAN  ^  ll|.      The   Taoist   rishi    HANZAN,   shown   in   company 
with   JITTOKU   (q.v.),    to   whom   he   apparently    expounds    the    contents    of    a 
scroll.     Both  lived   in   the  kitchen  of  the  monastery  of  Kuo  Ching  Ssu  like 
madmen,    and    speaking    a    language    unknown    to    everyone    else,    resenting 
visitors,   to   whose   greetings   they   replied    with    insults,   and   making   friends 
only   with   Bukan    Zenshi    and    his    tiger.      The   four,   shown   together   in   a 
cavern,  form   the  group  known  as  the  Four  Sleepers  (q.v.). 

423.  KAO  TSU.     See  KAN   NO  Koso. 

1 60 



Walter  I..  Rehreui  Collection 



424.  KAPPA     vfij"    jjf',     or     KAWAKO.        Child    of    the    river:      mythical 
amphibious   goblin    living   in   the    rivers   of   the   Island    of    Kiushiu.      It    has 
the  body  of  a  tortoise,  the  limbs  of  a  frog,  and  the  head  of  a  monkey,  with 
a  hollow  at  the  top  of  the  skull,  in  which  is  contained  a  fluid  which  gives 
the   animal   its   strength.      This   goblin   attacks   and   devours    human    beings, 
but   there   is   an   easy   way   to   thwart   its   attack:    be   very    polite    and   bow 
to   him;    the   creature   is   very   civil    though   ferocious,   and    will   bow   to   you 
in    return   as   deeply   and   as   often;    in   so   doing   it   spills    its    life   fluid   and 
loses  its  strength. 

The  Todo  Kimmo  Dzite  gives  it  the  name  KAWATARO  (compare  the 
Osaka  form,  Gataro),  and  describes  it  under  the  name  Snik~>  (water  tiger): 
"It  is  like  a  child  of  three  or  four  years,  with  scales  all  over  its  back.  It 
lies  on  the  sand,  looking  like  a  tiger;  it  has  long  claws  which  it  hides  in 
the  water,  and  it  will  bite  little  children  if  they  touch  it." 

In  the  river  of  Kawachi  Mura  a  Kappa  was  caught  by  the  belly-band 
of  a  horse,  and  after  being  rendered  harmless,  as  above  described,  was  made 
to  sign  a  bond  not  to  attack  thereafter  any  man,  woman,  child  or  beast. 
As  netsiike,  sometimes  the  whole  creature,  but  more  often  its  head,  with 
lanky  straight  hair,  are  met  with;  some  carvers  even  disdain  the  traditional 
features,  and  simply  depict  a  child  with  gnarled  limbs  and  a  saucer-shaped 
hollow  on  the  top  of  its  head  amongst  rough  hanging  hair.  It  is  often 
shown  with  a  cucumber  under  the  name  Kappa  ni  Kittri. 

See  also   the  story  of  ROKI'SUKE. 

425.  KARASHISHI  J|f  $jp -fv;:  or  simply  Siiisin.      Buddhist  stone  lions, 
of  Chinese  origin,  freely  scattered  about   the  gardens  or  placed  at  the  gates 
of    temples,    like    the    Koma    Inn.       They    are    characterised    by    their    fierce 
expression,    large   eyes   and  curly  mane,   their   bushy   tail   and   curly   locks   of 
hair  on  the  legs.     They  show  traces  of  the  influence  upon  their  first  designer 
of    the   curly   dogs    which    are    the    pride    of    the    Chinese    Imperial    family. 
Karashishis    are    an   ever-recurring   subject    in   art   treatment,   with   the    regal 
peonies,    or    with    the    sacred    jewel,    which    often    takes    the    shape    of    an 

*  Literally  Chinese  (Kara)  Shishi. 



intricately  pierced  ball,  perhaps  because  emblematic  of  the  Buddha ;  some- 
times with  a  small  ball  in  the  mouth,  or  leaping  a  waterfall,  or  several  shishi 
playing  or  fighting,  are  but  a  few  of  the  presentments  of  this  Sinico-Korean 
import.  They  are  usually  associated  with  rocks,  waterfalls  and  peonies. 
On  such  a  lion  rides  Monju  Bosatsu,  whilst  the  same  creature  crouches  at 
the  feet  of  the  "Sennin  with  the  Shishi."  Legend  has  it  that  the  shishis 
tested  the  vitality  of  their  progeny  by  throwing  the  young  ones  from  the 
top  of  a  cliff  (shishi  no  saka  otoshi).  Should  the  animal  survive  it  was 
certain  to  live  long.  This  is  often  illustrated. 

Shishi  masks  are  worn  in  the  dance  named  Kappore,  Dai  Kagura  lion 
dance,  and  also  by  new  year  dancers,  under  the  name  of  Shishi  mai.  Such 
performers  are  often  met  carved  as  uetsuke,  with  the  lower  jaw  of  the 
mask  movable,  disclosing  the  laughing  face  of  a  boy,  finished  with  an 
exquisite  perfection  of  detail.  There  are  shishis  with  one  or  even  two 
horns,  partaking  of  the  appearance  of  the  Kirin  (q.v.),  or  carrying  the 
Tama  on  the  head. 

426.  KARIYOBIXGA  $to  %g  $ff  Ufl.     See   GARIO. 

427.  KARU.      The    goddess    of    fevers,     with    a    yellow     toad    on    her 
shoulder  and   mounted  astride  a   fish. 

428.  KARUKAYA  DOSHIX  )flj   ^   }j|    g.     It  was  popularly  believed  in 
olden  times  that  jealous  women    appeared  with   hair   like   snakes,   and   Ippen 
Shonin,  as  seen  above,  sometimes  suffered  from  such    delusions.     Another  well- 
known    personage,    Kato    Sayemon    Shigeuji,    Daimio   in   Kyushu   (Tsukushi), 
who   was   also   a   much-married    man,   fled   from   his   house   one   day   because 
the   hair   of   his   wife   and   mistresses   took    the    shape    of    writhing    serpents. 
He  took  refuge  in  the  mountains,  where  he  lived  an  hermit's  life  under  the 
new   name   Karukaya   Doshin. 

There  is  a  story  relating  how  he  met  wandering  in  Koyasan  a  young 
man  named  Ishidomaru ;  struck  with  the  adolescent's  face,  he  asked  him 
various  questions,  and  found  that  Ishido  was  looking  for  his  father. 
Karukaya  then  became  aware  of  the  fact  that  the  boy  was  his  own  son, 



but   worldly   matters   were  for  ever  forgotten  by  the  hermit,  and  telling  the 
boy  to  return  home  he  passed  on  his  way. 

429.  KARU   NO   DAIJIN   $g  ^  g.      The  popular   legend   has   it   that 
he  was  sent  as  ambassador   to   the   Emperor   of   China,   who   caused   him   to 
be    tortured,    to   be    made    a    mute,    to   be    painted    and    exposed    naked    in 
the   Imperial   gardens,   carrying   a   candle   on  his  head.      He  was  then  called 
the  Demon  Candlestick.      In  656  his  son,   HITSU  NO  SAISHO  HARUHIRA,  came 
from  Kawachi   on  an  embassy.      As  he  passed  through  the   Imperial  gardens 
his  father  recognised  him,  bit  his  finger,  and  with  his  blood  wrote  a  poem 
on  his  skin,   thus  causing  his   son   to   recognise  him.      Hitsu   then   petitioned 
the   Emperor   to   allow   his   father    to    return   to   Japan,   offering   to   take   his 
place  if  needed,  and  the  Emperor  granted  him  his  request  (compare  Abe  no 

The  foundation  of  this  legend  appears  to  be  the  story  of  FUJIWARA 
HARUHIRA,  who,  in  656  (Saimyo,  2),  brought  back  his  sick  father  to  Japan. 
The  old  man  died,  on  his  way  home,  in  the  island  of  Iwo  in  Satsuma,  and 
was  buried  in  another  island  called  KIKAIGASHIMA. 

Haruhira  is  one  of  the  twenty-four  Japanese  paragons  of  filial  virtue 
(Shaho  Bukuro). 

430.  KASENKO  [ft]  fll]  1$.     The  female  rishi,  Ho  SIEX   Ku,  shown   as  a 
young    woman    clothed    in    mugwort,    holding   a    lotus   stem   and   flower   and 
talking    to    a    phoenix,    or    is    depicted    carrying   in   a   basket    loquat   fruits, 
which   she    gathered   for   her   sick    mother. 

She  was  a  woman  of  the  time  of  Wu,  of  the  To  dynasty,  who,  having 
been  promised  immortality  in  a  dream,  fed  on  mother-of-pearl,  and  there- 
after moved  as  swiftly  as  a  bird.  She  may  be  confused  with  KOSENKO, 
%$z  1Hj  I&  wh°  learnt  Taoism  in  the  mountains  of  Ko,  and  after  she  had  been 
there  eighty  years  she  had  no  friends  left.  One  day  a  phoenix  with  blue 
wings  came  to  her  from  the  fairy  NANGAKU  JIFUJIN,  and  said  that  he  had 
come  to  fetch  her  to  be  married  to  him  at  the  altar  of  the  fairy  near  by 
her  residence.  In  the  period  of  Keiryu,  whilst  journeying  to  the  Court  of 



the    Empress,   Wu    How,   she   ascended    to    Heaven    in    broad    daylight,   and 
occasionally   came   back,   hovering   in   the   clouds   above   her   native   place. 

431.  KASENYO  H  fti]  j|j.     The    wizard    Ho    SIEN    WENG,    who    could 
take   a   mouthful   of    rice   and   change   it   into   live   bees,   which,  when  called 
back,  entered   again   his    mouth   and   became    rice    grains    again.       Compare 
Hokusai's   Mangwa,    Vol.    X.,   page   6. 

432.  KASHIMA   DAIMIOJIN   $£  %  ^  HJ§  f$.      See    EARTHQUAKE    FISH. 

433.  KASHO  $N  Iff.       One    of    the     disciples    of    Buddha    (KASYAPPA), 
whose   body  became  as  brilliant   as  burnished   gold   after   he   had   swallowed 
both    the   sun    and   the    moon. 

434.  KASUGA    DAIMIOJIN   ^  B  j<  ^  ft-      Posthumous  title  of    the 
first   of   the   FUJIWARA   clan,    Nakatomi  no  Muraji,  or  Ama   no   Kayane,  with 
temple   in   Nara. 

435.  KATSUGEN    H  ]£,    or  KATSIT-SEXKO.      The    Rishi    KWOII    YUEN, 
shown    born    on    the  waters  by  a  sword.      He  went   to  sea   with  the  lord  of 
Go,   but    their   ships  were  wrecked  in  a  storm,  and  no  one  knew  what  had 
happened    to    him,    but    he    was    seen    the    following    day    walking   on    the 
waves   like   a   drunken    man. 

436.  KATSUYU    H   &.      The    Rishi     HOII    Yiu,    depicted    as    a    wild- 
looking   man    riding   on   a   goat. 

KATSUYU  lived  in  the  time  of  SEI,  of  Shyu,  and  sold  carved  images  of 
sheep.  One  day,  when  he  was  coming  back  riding  on  a  sheep  from  a 
voyage  to  Shokuchu,  some  people  followed  him,  and  those  who  went  with 
him  to  the  top  of  the  Mount  Tai  never  came  back  because  he  taught  them 

437.  KAWAI    MATAGORO    M  'P*  X  3l.  |H-      Kawai's    father    was    a 
friend    of    Watanabe    Kinemon,    to    whom    he   had    promised   that,   after   his 
death,    his    own   precious   katana   would   be   given   him   by   his   son.      Kawai 
did    not    fulfil    his    father's    wish    until    Watanabe's    death,    when    his    son, 
YUKIE,   claimed   the   sword.     Kawai   then  gave  it,  but  with  some  reluctance, 


KAPPA    M    KIURI    (ir.L.B.) 
KAPPA    IN    SHELL    (./.) 
KATO    IN    KOREA    (.-/.) 

KATO'S    BANNER    (.l/.t.) 

KATO    KILLS    A    TIGER    (./.) 

KAl'I'A    (M.i;.) 
KATO    IN    KOREA    (M.I;.) 


which  incensed  Yukie,  whose  son,  KAZUMA,  advised  him  to  return  it,  saying 
that  a  blade  given  in  such  a  way  was  dull,  and  not  creditable  to  the  giver. 
Yukie,  following  this  advice,  returned  the  sword,  with  which  Kawai  killed 
him  on  the  spot.  But  Kazuma  avenged  his  father  after  a  few  years.  This 
is  the  theme  of  the  play  Igagoye  dochn  sugoroku. 

438.  KAWAKO.     See  KAPPA. 

439.  KAWAZU    NO   SABURO  SUKEYASU  ypj  ^  H  M  l&  ^-      Cele- 
brated   wrestler,    usually    shown    lifted    by    his    loin    cloth    by   his   opponent 
and   neighbour,   MATAXOGORO   Kuxi    HISA   (Kawazu   throw). 

440.  KAZE    NO   KAMI.     Divinity   of    Matsue;    also   called    Kamiya   san 
no    I nar i    san.      He    is    the   god   of   coughs   and    "bad   colds"    (Hearn).      See 


441.  KEHAYA    ^   Hpjt  jjg|  }||    (TALMA    xo),    who    took   his   name    from 
Kern    (kick)   and   Haya   (fast),    ran   all    over   the   country    giving   himself   out 
as   the   strongest   man    in   Japan,   challenging   others   to   light,    and   disposing 
of  them  by  smart  kicks.      The  Emperor  Suixix  TKXXO  heard  of  the  trouble, 
on    the    seventh    day    of    the    seventh    month    of    the    seventh    year    of    his 
reign   (23   B.C.),    when   Kehaya   was   in  Taima   sending   challenges  to  all  and 
sundry;    therefore,   on   the   advice   of   Nagaochi,    he    sent    to    Idzumo   for   the 
strong    NOMI    xo    SUKUXE,    who    kicked    Kehaya   so    smartly   across   the   ribs 
and  loins  that  the  champion  dropped  dead  to  the  ground.      Another  version 
says   that   he   caught   Kehaya   by   the  belt  and  threw  him  so  hard  upon  the 
ground  as  to  make  his  ghost   depart  from  him  on   the   spot,    and    the   place 
was  called   Koshi  ore  da,   "the  village  of  the  broken   loins." 

442.  KEN  EN  SHYU   ijtf  |J|  JH,  throwing  small  coins   to   poor  people 
whilst  on    his    travels.      Kenenshyu    was    an    old   sage   who    did    not   fail    in 
complexion,   and   had   a   long   beard    and    hair   trailing    to    the    ground ;    he 
was   said   to  have  lived  several  centuries.     He  was  summoned  to  the  court  of 
the    Emperor    SEXSO,    of    the    To    dynasty,    and    when    he    returned    to    the 
mountains  he  took  coins  from  his  cloth  bag  and  gave  them  to  people.     He 



distributed    many    thousands    before    reaching    Koryo,    but    his    supply    was 
inexhaustible.     (See  299). 

443.  KENGIU  SfB  •*%•,  or  KINGEN.  The  herdsman  who  was  chosen  by 
the  sun  to  wed  his  daughter  SHOKUJO.  On  the  wedding  day  the  bride 
gave  herself  up  to  so  much  frivolous  enjoyment  that  her  father  repented 
and  exiled  Kengiu  to  the  other  side  of  the  milky  way,  while  Shokujo 
became  the  weaving  Princess  (Chih  Nu).  They  may  only  meet  once  a 
year,  on  the  7th  day  of  the  seventh  month,  when  the  milky  way  is  spanned, 
according  to  the  Chinese  HWAI  NAN  TSZE,  by  a  bridge  of  magpies  (according 
to  some  by  maple  leaves,  called  Ushaku  Koyo  no  Hashi).  The  Chinese 
name  of  the  herdsman  is  K'IEX  Niu,  and  there  are  several  different  versions 
of  this  legend,  two  of  which  are  given  in  Things  Japanese.  According  to 
one,  the  two  lovers  were  wedded  when  respectively  fifteen  and  twelve  years 
of  age,  and  they  lived  to  103  and  99  years  of  age,  after  which  their  spirits 
reached  the  heavenly  river;  but  the  Supreme  Deity  bathed  daily  therein, 
and  only  on  the  seventh  day  of  the  seventh  month  were  these  human 
spirits  allowed  to  pollute  its  waters,  while  the  supreme  divinity  went  to 
listen  to  Buddhist  chants.  Another  version  has  it  that  the  spinner  was 
entrusted  with  the  making  of  garments  for  the  son  of  the  Emperor  of 
Heaven,  and  pined  for  a  lover,  one  may  suppose,  for  the  heavenly  Emperor 
gave  her  as  husband  the  herdsman  who  lived  on  the  other  side  of  the 
river.  She  then  paid  scant  attention  to  the  proper  performance  of  her 
duties,  and  the  Deity,  getting  angry,  forbade  her  husband  to  cross  more 
than  once  a  year. 

These  yearly  meetings  are  celebrated  in  Japan  with  due  accompaniment 
of  poems  attached  to  trees,  in  a  festival  called  the  TANABATA  (q.v.).  The 
story  is  frequently  illustrated,  either  by  both  personages  having  their  usual 
attributes  and  being  separated  by  the  milky  way,  perhaps  spanned  as 
indicated  above,  or  by  the  mere  cryptic  presentment  of  three  stars  and 
weaving  implements  suggesting  the  whole  story. 

One  emblematic  representation  of  the  Tanabata  festival  was  a  familiar 
theme  of  tsuba  decoration  used  by  the  Umetada:  upon  an  inkstone  lies 

1 66 


a  leaf,  and  perhaps  a  brush ;  on  the  reverse  a  poem  and  sometimes  a 
shuttle  are  also  wrought  in  the  metal.  This  composition  alludes  to  an 
old  Chinese  ceremonial  which  was  copied  and  enlarged  upon  by  the 
Japanese  Court :  on  the  seventh  day  of  the  seventh  month,  at  the  hour  of 
the  tiger  (4  a.m.),  a  court  lady,  sheltered  under  an  umbrella,  took  to  the 
palace  the  compulsory  presents  of  the  courtiers — seven  inkstones,  an  equal 
number  of  Kuzu  leaves  (see  the  story  of  Kuzunoha :  the  plant  is  the 
Puevaria  Thunbevgiana)  and  of  paper  slips,  besides  some  vermicelli :  with 
each  stone  were  presented  two  brushes  and  a  bunch  of  Yam  leaves 
(Dioscorea  balaias). 

The  inkstones,  carefully  washed,  were  placed  on  Kuzu  leaves,  and  the 
bunches  of  Yam  leaves  placed  on  them  to  gather  the  morning  dew,  which 
was  poetically  called  the  drops  from  the  heavenly  river.  Near  the  stones 
were  placed  upon  trays  suitable  offerings,  under  a  rope  taut  between  two 
stems  of  bamboo,  and  to  which  were  attached  coloured  slips  of  paper, 
generally  of  the  five  mystic  colours  attributed  to  the  Tanabata  stars; 
and  as  the  day  came  everybody  wrote  poems  with  the  ink  freshly  prepared 
upon  the  new  stones  with  the  drops  of  the  Ama  no  gawa. 

To  the  Tanabata  Festival  and  the  poems  recorded  in  the  Alanyoshiu 
which  it  inspired  in  olden  times,  the  late  Professor  Lafcadio  Hearn  has 
devoted  a  charming  essay,  under  the  title  The  Romance  of  the  Milky 
Way  (Constable,  1905).  Therein  the  reader  will  find  the  various  aspects 
of  the  legend,  and  a  description  of  the  Izumo  custom  called  Nemu  nagashi, 
followed  by  young  people,  to  throw  into  a  stream  leaves  of  the  mimosa 
(nemion]  and  of  the  bean  (mame),  the  latter  expected  to  remain  as  emblem 
of  vigour,  the  others  to  drift  away  with  the  current,  as  should  all  laziness. 

See  also   the  story  of   CHANG   KIEX.     KENGIU  is  also  called  HIKOBOSHI. 

444.  KEN-RO-JI-JIN.      One  of  the  Earth   Gods,   usually   depicted   with 
a  vessel   in   one  hand   and  a  spear   in   the  other. 

445.  KENSHI     '/^   ^.      Taoist    Sennin    shown    hooking    a    fish    whilst 
angling   from   a   boat. 



He  lived  three  hundred  years  cultivating  his  spirit;  he  wrote  forty- 
eight  volumes  of  the  book  Tenchi  jinkyo  (the  philosophy  of  Heaven,  Earth 
and  Man,  constituting  the  three  powers  of  Nature)  while  living  in  Sai. 
He  took  to  angling,  and  one  day  caught  a  carp  with  a  charm  in  her  belly. 

There  is  also  easy  confusion  with  Taikobo,  who  fished  with  a  straight 
pin  and  no  bait  from  the  shore. 

KENSU  was  a  priest  of  Keichofu,  whose  other  name,  Kensu  Osho,  the 
prawn  priest,  was  descriptive  of  his  tastes:  legend  has  it  that  his  staple 
and  daily  diet  consisted  of  prawns  only.  He  is  sometimes  identified  with 
KENSIII,  but  holds  a  prawn  on  his  shoulder,  his  name  is  written  j!|J|  -p. 

446.  KESA   §Q  Jg£    was   the  wife    of    Watanabe    Watura,    who,    rather 
than  wrong  her  husband  and  cause  his  death,   laid   her   own    life   under   the 
sword   of   his   would-be   murderer,   ENDO    MUSHADOKORO    MORITO   (q.v.). 

Her  proper  name  was  AZUMA  ;  her  nickname,  Kesa,  means  priest  robe, 
and  was  given  her  after  the  name  of  her  mother,  KOROMO  GAWA.  Her 
story  forms  the  subject  of  a  drama,  and  of  Sir  Edwin  Arnold's  romance, 

447.  KEZORI   KUYEMON   ^   $lj   jl   ffi  ffi.      Great   pirate   who   lived 
at  Akata,   in  Tsukuchi  (Chikuzen).      He  spent  an  adventurous  life   in   China 
and    Cochin-China,    whence    he    brought    home    considerable    riches.      He   is 
depicted  in  prints   with  a  dress  of  Chinese   brocade,   and   he   is   the   hero   of 
a  play,  the  strange  music  of  which  is  said  to  symbolise  the  various  episodes 
of  his   daring  career. 

448.  KIBIDAIJIN    ijj   Df  ^C   [5.      Posthumous    title   of  SHIMOMICHI   NO 
MABI,  credited   with   the  invention  of  the  Kata-kana  syllabary.      He  went  to 
China  to  seek  the  secrets  of  the  Chinese  calendar,  and  came  back  to  Japan 
in  754  without  having  achieved  his  purpose,  but  with  the  art  of  embroidery, 
the    game    of    Go,    the    musical   instrument   called   Biwa,   and   his   syllabary. 
Whilst   in   China    he    was    submitted    to    numerous    trials,    such    as    piecing 
together    the    jumbled   letters   of  a   classical   inscription   purposely   mixed   up 
to    puzzle    him.      He    was    then    assisted   by   a   friendly   and   learned   spider, 

1 68 


KAKASH1SHI    EGG   (.tl.E.) 

KIKUJ1DO   (.!/.<;.) 

KENGIU    (A.) 


KARASH1SHI    (.l/.i'.J 

KIO\U    (j.) 


which  went  from  character  to  character  in  the  proper  sequence  of  the 
inscription.  A  more  trying  ordeal  was  yet  in  store  for  him,  the  Emperor 
inviting  him  to  play  a  game  of  Go,  of  the  rules  of  which  he  was  ignorant, 
the  stakes  being  the  secrets  of  the  calendar  against  his  own  head.  His 
partner,  GENTO,  one  of  the  ministers,  was  helped  by  a  clever  wife,  but 
legend  (though  it  commits  an  anachronism),  makes  the  ghost  of  Abe  no 
Nakamaro  stand  by  Kibidaijin's  side  and  guide  his  hand  till  the  game 
ended  with  one  piece  on  KIBI'S  side.  His  partner's  wife  swallowed  this 
piece,  making  the  game  appear  a  draw,  but  on  counting  the  stones  it  was 
found  that  one  was  missing,  and  witli  the  aid  of  the  magic  mirror  (Ts'in 
King)  it  was  shown  in  the  woman's  body.*  The  Emperor  ordered  her 
execution,  but  on  KIBI'S  entreaties  he  consented  to  let  her  live.  However, 
a  plot  was  being  hatched  to  kill  Kibidaijin,  and  he  would  have  been 
murdered  but  for  this  woman,  who  showed  her  gratitude  by  warning  him 
and  helping  him  to  escape.  He  became  minister  of  the  Empress  SHOTOKU 
(KOKEN),  and  died  in  775,  at  the  age  of  83. 
He  is  also  called  KIBI  NO  MABI. 

449.  KICHIBEI    ^   &   ftf.       There     was     once     a     rich     but     miserly 
merchant  of  Tokyo,  named  Kizosaburo,  who  to  save  money  used   to   go  and 
sit    outside    the   shop    of   his    neighbour,    the    eel-broiler,    Kichibei,    eating    his 
rice  to  the  smell  of  the  cooking  fish.     But  the  latter,  finding  out  Kizaburo's 
game,  one  day  tendered  him  a  bill  for  the  smell  of  his  eels,  which  the  miser 
took   with    many   thanks,    to   discharge    the   day    after    by    jingling    near    his 
neighbour's   ears  (but  presumably   at   a   safe   distance  from  his  hands)  a  bag 
full  of  gold  Kobans.     It  is  interesting  to  compare  this  tale  with  the  French 
fable   of   the   sweep   and   the   rotisseur,   already   old  at  the  time   of   Rabelais. 

450.  KICHIZA.     See   OSHICHI. 

451.  KIDOMARU   Jfe.  jjr  ^L.      One  of  the   followers  of   the  SHUTENDOJI, 
who    tried   to   kill   Yorimitsu,    but   failed,    and    was    done    to    death    by    the 
companions   of   Raiko.      See   Usui   SADAMITSU. 

*  In  Ehon  Kojidan  a  picture  is  given  of  the  Magic  Mirror  ot  the  Tan  dynasty,  which  enabled  one  to 
behold  the  inside  of  a  man's  body.  The  drawing  shows  the  heart,  lungs,  and  part  of  the  abdomen  reflected  in 
the  mirror. 



452.  KIGA  2f:  1p|,    also    railed    CHOKITSU.       Chinese    worthy    who    died 
at  the  early  age  of  27,   but  when   he   was  seven   years   old   his   fingers   were 
a   foot   long   and   he   was   acquainted  with   literature.      When   he   was   about 
to    die,    a    genius   dressed   in   crimson   and    riding    upon   a   crimson    dragon, 
alighted    before    him    from    above    with    a    book,    and    said,    "Our   Emperor 
has   summoned   you!''      He    bowed,   and    replied,    "I    have    an    old    mother, 
and   do   not   like   to   leave   her."      The    angel    laughed,    and    said,    "Heaven 
is   all   pleasure,    and   pain    is   unknown   there."      Riga's  eyes  were  filled  with 
tears,    which   wetted   his   collar,   and   he   soon   expired. 

453.  KIICHI  HOGEN  ^  —  $£   0$  (YOSHIOKA  ^   p6))  was  a  strategist, 
and    the    inventor   of   the    Kyoryu,   or   Horikawaryu,   style   of   fencing.      It    is 
said  that  Yoshitsune,  when  a  boy  educated  at  the  temple  Kurama,  ardently 
wished   to   see   Kiichi,  and  to  borrow  from  him  a  work  on  the  arts  of  war, 
the    Tora-no-maki,    which    was    handed    from    father    to    son    in    the    Kiichi 
family.      Legend   has   it,   and   a   play   has   been    written   on    this   story,    that 
Yoshitsune  went  on  foot  to  try  and  reach  Kiichi's  house,  but  was  set  upon 
by  some   evil-minded   people  and  rescued   by   Kiichi    himself,    who   took   him 
to  his  home,  after  which  he  showed  him   the   book     ...     on   the   request 
of    his    daughter,    Minazuru    Hime,    with    whom    the    young   Minamoto   had 
fallen   in   love.      Kiichi    is   often   seen    in   prints,    talking   of   the   olden    times 
with   the   young   man. 

454.  KIKAZARU   ^  #*  Ht      One   of   the   three  mystic  apes  who   hears 
no   evil,  covering   its   ears   with   its   hands. 

455.  KIKU  ~$$.      The  chrysanthemum.      The  sixteen  petal  variety  forms 
the    Imperial    badge.      It    is    thought    that    Hideyoshi    used    this    crest.      A 
chrysanthemum   flower   partly   hidden   by   waves   was   the   crest   of   Kusunoki, 
and   is  called   Ktkusui. 

See  also  under  Fox  and   KIKUJIDO. 

456.  KIKUCHI    JAKWA  passed  once  on   horseback    before  the   temple 
Kushida;    his  horse   shied   without   apparent   reason,   and   Kikuchi,    who   was 
a    very   daring   soldier,   shot   an   arrow   straight    at    the    temple.      A   dragon 



thirty    feet    long    was    killed    by    his    arrow,    and    fell   on   the   steps   of   the 
temple,   a   terrific  earthquake   duly  following. 

457.  KIKUJIDO  ^J  %  H    (see    also    JIDO).       The   Chinese   KEUH   TSZE 
TUNG,  sometimes  shown  as  a  boy  throwing  chrysanthemums   in   a  stream,  or 
reclining    with   a   chrysanthemum   twig    clasped   to   his   breast.       He   was   an 
attendant    and    favourite   of   the    Emperor   Men    WANG   (BOKU    O),    and   once 
passing   near   the  monarch's  couch  he   touched    inadvertently   a   cushion   with 
his   foot.      Some   rival  reported   the   fact    to    the   Emperor,   and   obtained    the 
exile    of    Keuh    Tsze,    but    Muh    Wang,    before    sending    him   away,    taught 
him  a  sentence  of  Buddha  (sic,   in  940  B.C.  ! !),  ensuring   safety  and  longevity. 
Keuh  Tsze  went  away  to  a  valley  where  chrysanthemums  grew  in  profusion, 
and   from    morning   till   night   painted   on    their   petals   the   sacred   characters 
for    fear    of    forgetting    them.      The    dew    washing    them   away   became   the 
elixir   of   everlasting   youth :    Furo   Fushi   no   Kusuri. 

Kikujido   is   usually   shown    painting   on    the   chrysanthemum    the    magic 
words,  and  is  included  amongst  the  Sennins. 

458.  KIKWAHAKU    ftl]  fO  *H   (with    a    dwarf)    lived    in    the    Mounts 
Shyunan,    where    many    disciples   sought   his   tuition.      One    day    he    warned 
one   of   his   disciples   to   have  dinner  ready  for  a  stranger  who  would  arrive 
on  a  subsequent  day,  and   forbade   him   to   observe   them    through   cracks   in 
the   walls.     The   stranger   came;    he   was   five   feet    high,    of   which    the   head 
occupied   half;    he   was   three   feet   wide   at   the   waist;    he   wore   a   red    robe 
and  stroked  his   long    beard,   bursting   the  while   with   great   laughter.      He 
had  a  sceptre,   and  when   his    lips    opened   his   mouth   seemed   to   reach   his 
ears.     He  was  jocular,  but  his  language  was  not  human.0    See  FUKUROKUJIU. 

459.  KILILI  $jjf  J|  *p  (see  also  KA-Kwo  Ko).     One  of  the  four  "recluse 
grey  heads,"  who  retired  to  the  fastness  of  the  Shang  mountains  under  She 
Wang    Ti,   but    were   taken   as  councillors   by   the   Empress   Lu,   widow   and 
successor  of  Kan   no  Koso. 

51  This  article  is  a  literal  translation  from  a  manuscript  work  on  Chinese  Sages  and  Sennins  in  Mr.  P.  M. 
Saltarel's  colleceion.  The  same  subject  appears  in  Elwn  Shalio  Bukuro  (ix.,  20),  where  the  name  is  given  as 
31^  !U7HI*  YAWABOKU  in  the  drawing,  and  J^V  <  l>  ^>  <  KIKWABOKU  in  the  text.  The  Dwarf  is  called 
_K  TO  SHOTEI  and  the  disciple  4fe  8|f  SAISHO. 



460.  KILIN.      The  Chinese  unicorn.      See  KIRIN. 

461.  KIMOX    ^    f"j,   or   DEMON    GATE.      A   gate   placed   in  gardens  on 
the  north  side,  and   through   which   the  spirits  of  evil  are  supposed  to   pass. 
A  Shinto  shrine  is  erected  in  front  of  that  gate.     Compare  this  custom  with 
its  Chinese  prototype:    the  wall  erected  in  front   of   houses  to  keep   the  evil 
spirits  from  coming  in. 

462.  KINKO  ^  i^5  (KINKAO).     Sennin  shown  on  a  fish,  or  even  several 
fishes.     His  usual  presentment  is  in  the  shape  of  a  smiling  old  man,  bearded, 
and  with  a  small   Chinese  cap,   mounted  astride  a  large   winged   carp   (Koi); 
sometimes  ascending  a   waterfall. 

KINKO  was  a  Chinese  recluse  of  Clio,  said  to  be  skilled  on  the  lute, 
and  who  strolled  about  in  Takugun  practising  the  incantation  of  the  sage, 
KENHYO.  He  lived  near  a  stream  called  Takusui,  and  spent  the  best  part 
of  his  long  span  of  life  (two  centuries)  in  painting  fishes.  One  day  as  he 
bathed,  the  King  of  the  fishes  came  to  him  and  said  that  he  would  like 
to  lead  him  through  the  river  world  for  a  short  period;  he  agreed,  and 
informed  his  disciples  that  he  would  be  away  for  a  few  days  under  the 
water  and  then  return.  After  a  month  he  came  back  for  a  little  while, 
on  the  back  of  a  carp,  the  event  being  witnessed  by  more  than  10,000 
people  and  by  his  disciples,  who  had  awaited  him  on  the  banks,  spending 
the  time  in  purifications.  After  enjoining  his  disciples  never  to  kill  any 
fishes,  he  dived  in  the  river  and  disappeared  for  ever. 

463.  KINRYO  ^j£  f|.     "Golden   Dragon."     Chinese  name  given  to  the 
reflection  of  the  moonlight  on  the  waters  when  it  presents  a  wavy   appear- 
ance  of   motion. 

464.  KINTARO    &    -fc   J$-     The    golden    boy;     also    named    SAKATA 
SHUME    ^  H  ±  J|,    GORO  3t  IB,    No    KINTOKI    &  1$.     The    child    of    the 
forest,   found,   according   to   some,  by   the   wife   of   Sakata  no  Tokiyuki  in  a 
dismal   corner   of   the   Ashigara  Mountains,   while  another  version  has  it  that 
the  boy,  son  of  the  ronin  Kurando,  was  lost  in  the  mountains  by  his  mother, 
Yaegiri,  and  picked  up  by  the  mountain  nurse,  the  YAMA  UBA,  who  adopted 



him  and  named  him  KAIDOMARU  U  ]|f  ^L.  This  latter  version  is  generally 
adopted.  Kintaro  grew  to  an  enormous  strength,  wrestling  in  the  mountain 
with  all  the  beasts  and  goblins,  including  the  monkey,  the  stag,  the  bear, 
and  the  Tengu,  and  he  is  frequently  represented  fighting  one  or  other  of 
the  last  two.  His  usual  companions  are  the  deer,  the  hare,  and  the 
mischievous  "red  back,"  the  monkey.  His  weapon  is  an  enormous  axe,  and 
on  children's  kites  he  is  often  depicted  carrying  it. 

One  of  his  celebrated  feats  was  the  uprooting  of  a  huge  tree,  with 
which  he  made  a  bridge  over  a  foaming  torrent  for  himself,  his  three 
followers,  and  the  female  bear  once  when  they  had  been  surprised  by  a 
storm  on  their  way  home.  One  day,  when  YORIMITSU  (Raiko)  was  in 
need  of  a  squire,  he  noticed  a  curious  cloud  over  a  mountain,  and  sent  his 
retainer,  Watanabe  no  Tsuna,  (some  versions  say  Sadamitsu),  to  investigate 
and  report.  The  warrior  found  in  a  hut  the  Yama  Uba  with  Kintaro, 
who,  the  witch  said,  was  longing  to  become  a  warrior.  The  strong  boy 
was  brought  to  Raiko,  who  attached  him  to  his  person,  and  thereafter  let 
him  share  his  exploits  against  the  goblins,  ogres,  etc.,  which  appear  to  have 
been  very  numerous  around  Kyoto  in  the  eleventh  century.  See  RAIKO;  see 
the  Quest  of  the  SIIUTENDOJI. 

In  some  cases  the  young  Kintaro  could  be  easily  confused  with  another 
strong  child,  Momotaro  (q.v.),  the  little  peachling. 

Under  the  name  Kimbei,  he  is  the  hero  of  the  drama  Kimbei  Kashima 

465.  KIOSHI  ^  g^f.     The  Chinese  paragon  of  filial  virtue,  KIANG  SHE, 
who  with  his  wife,   CHOSHI   (CHANG  SE),  supported  his  old  mother.      The  old 
lady  was  rather  fond  of  the  water  of  a  certain    lake   and   also   of   raw   fish, 
and   for   many   years   the   couple   used  to  go  a  long   distance  to  procure  her 
the  water  and  the  food  of  her  choice,  praying  that  they  might  long  have  the 
strength    to  do  so.     One  day  the  Gods  took  pity  upon  them,  and  as  a  reward 
for    their    piety    caused    a    spring    to    suddenly    burst    in   their    garden,    and 
every  day  two  carps  came  to  the  surface  to  be  captured. 

466.  KIOSHIGA  ^  ^  3f,  or  TAIKOBO  (%  £  !g).     The  Chinese  sage, 


KIANG  TSZE  YA,  also  called  KIANG  Lu  SHANG,  who,  according  to  legend, 
lived  in  the  Xllth  century,  and  with  whom  storytellers  have  been  very 
busy.  He  is  reputed  to  have  been  one  of  the  advisers  of  the  Emperor,  Si 
PEH,  who  once  was  told  by  a  wizard,  as  he  set  out  for  a  hunt,  that '  he 
would  bring  back  neither  boar  nor  deer  but  a  virtuous  councillor.  He  met 
Kioshiga  seated  on  the  bank  of  a  river,  fishing  with  a  straight  pin  and  no 
bait,  and  understood  from  him  that  he  was  awaiting  to  catch  a  big  fish, 
that  many  fishes  had  already  fastened  themselves  to  his  implement,  though 
he  was  not  anxious  to  catch  them  but  to  be  alone,  thinking  of  scientific 
matters  far  from  his  wife,  who  thought  him  a  fool  and  abominably  reviled 
him.  The  Emperor  took  him  away  with  him,  and  after  he  had.  served  some 
twenty  years  at  court  the  sage  returned  loaded  with  honours  to  his  native 
province.  On  his  way  home  he  met  two  outcasts,  who  prostrated  them- 
selves before  him  and  begged  for  his  forgiveness.  On  inquiry  he  found 
that  they  were  his  wife  and  her  husband,  as  the  woman,  after  deserting 
him  whilst  he  was  fishing,  had  married  a  scavenger  and  fallen  to  the 
deepest  depravation.  He  called  for  a  cup  full  of  water,  and  throwing  it  to 
the  ground,  said:  "It  is  no  more  possible  for  man  and  wife  to  be  reunited 
after  such  a  separation  than  for  the  water  spilt  on  this  road  to  be  replaced 
in  this  broken  cup."  Then  he  departed  on  his  way,  and  died  a  few  years 
later  at  the  age  of  ninety,  in  1120.  His  past  wife  and  her  mate  hanged 
themselves  to  a  tree  by  the  roadside  (compare  Shubaishin). 

The  story  varies  somewhat ;  lie  is  also  said  to  have  been  a  subject  of 
CHU  O  (CHOW  WANG),  and  to  have  emigrated  to  Hankei,  in  the  dominions 
of  BUN-O  (WEN  WANG),  to  escape  the  tyranny  of  his  previous  King.  BuN-5 
gave  him  his  name  of  Tai  Rung  Mang  (Taikobo),  meaning  grandfather's 
expectation,  and  made  him  governor  of  Sei. 

He  is  usually  shown  with  a  fan,  leaning  on  a  writing-table  or  upon 
a  jar,  but  more  often  fishing  with  his  straight  pin.  Compare  KEISHI 

467.  KIOYU  f\:  fjj,  or  KIYOYU.  The  legendary  Chinese  sage,  Hi)  YEO, 
adviser  of  the  Emperor  YAO  in  the  semi-mythological  ages  of  China,  circa 



2360  B.C.  When  his  master  suggested  abdicating  in  his  favour  he  ran  to 
the  nearest  waterfall  to  wash  his  ears  from  the  defilement  they  had  incurred 
by  listening  to  such  a  temptation.  His  companion,  SOFU  (CH'AO  Fu),  on 
hearing  the  reason  of  Kioyu's  hurried  ablutions,  felt  compelled  to  go  one 
better,  and  washed  his  ears  and  eyes  of  the  taint  of  ambition  which  was 
spreading  upon  him;  further,  noticing  his  ox  drinking  from  the  brook  below 
the  waterfall,  he  rushed  to  lead  the  animal  away  from  the  contaminated 
water.  This  story  of  extreme  virtue  is  often  illustrated. 

Another  story  of  Kioyo  is  to  the  effect  that  some  charitable  person  saw 
him  drink  water  from  the  palm  of  his  hand,  and  gave  him  a  shell,  but  the 
recluse  simply  strung  it  up  to  a  neighbouring  tree,  until  he  noticed  that  the 
wind  caused  the  shell  to  vibrate  in  a  pleasant  way,  when  he  broke  it,  as 
even  that  rude  music  reminded  him  of  the  outside  world  (Shaho  Bukuro). 

468.  KIRI  ^jjjj   $£,  or  KIRIMON.      Imperial  badge  formed  of  three  leaves 
and   racemes   of   flowers   of   the   Pawlonia  Impen'alis,    the   central   one   having 
seven   buds   and    the   two  outers  five;    but  the  court   "mon"  differs  from  the 
Emperor's   own   crest    by   having   five   and   three    flowers    respectively   on    the 
upright  racemes.      It  was  used  by  Hideyoshi. 

469.  KIRIN  $$t  $$JL     The  mythical   Chinese  monster,   K'ILIN,  combining 
the    male   animal,   K'l,   and   the    female,    LIN,    into   a   compound    name.      Its 
body  is  that  of  a   deer,    its   legs   and   hoofs   like   those   of   a   horse,    its   head 
like  a  horse  or  a  dragon,  its  tail  like  an  ox  or  a  lion.      It  has  one  horn  on 
its  head,   the  end  of  which  is  fleshy;    its  colour  is  yellow.     The  Li  Ki  book 
makes    the    monster    twelve    Chinese   feet   high,   and   of   five   colours.      Some 
representations  endow  it  with  scales,  but  it  is  more  usually  hairy;   in  fact,  it 
is  the  chief  of  the  three  hundred  and  sixty  hairy  creatures.     This  mythical 
monster  is  a  paragon  of  virtue,  filial   and   otherwise,    treading   so    lightly   as 
to    produce    no    sound,    nor    hurting    anything    living,    so    just    that    it   was 
appealed   to   in   difficult   cases   by   the    Emperor    Kao   Yu,    living   alone,   and 
appearing   only   under    wise    rulers    as    a    lucky   omen.      It   appeared   to   the 
mother  of  Confucius  and  to  Confucius  himself. 

The   Kirin   is   fairly   often    met   with   in   Japanese   art.      In    its   squatting 



position  it  has  served  as  a  model  for  netsuke,  with  the  horn  resting  on  the 
back  and  the  body  shown  with  scales,  or  with  protuberances,  perhaps 
intended  to  make  it  appear  like  a  piebald  horse,  and  often  surrounded 
with  flames.  Its  horn  and  flames  are  sometimes  added  to  the  Karashishis. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  writer  Picard,  of  the  Xlllth  century, 
describes  a  race  of  men  with  a  horn  on  the  forehead,  who  live  in  the  deserts 
of  India  and  fight  Sagittarii.  This  tradition  may  be  based  upon  the  lost 
Maha  prajna  paramita  saslra,  the  Chinese  translation  of  which  (Ta  chi  tu 
Inn)  says  that  a  creature  with  a  human  face  and  body,  but  with  the  feet 
of  a  stag  and  a  horn  on  the  forehead,  was  born  from  the  intercourse  of  a 
hermit  and  a  doe,  but  received  from  its  father  remarkable  magic  powers. 
One  wet  day  the  creature  slipped  and  broke  a  water  jar;  in  its  anger  it 
commanded  the  Gods  to  stop  all  rain  for  ever,  and  the  land  suffered  greatly 
from  the  drought.  But  the  King  of  Benares  promised  half  his  kingdom  to 
whoever  would  cause  the  unicorn  to  lose  its  magic  power  over  the  elements. 
A  courtesan  attempted  the  task,  and  succeeded  in  tempting  the  creature, 
who  succumbed  to  her  charms,  and  the  rain  fell.  The  courtesan  then 
mounted  upon  the  back  of  the  unicorn  and  went  back  to  Benares.  This 
story  is  also  said  to  be  the  origin  of  the  legend  of  Ikkaku  Sennin  (q.v.), 
upon  which  is  based  a  No  performance,  translated  into  German  by  Muller. 

The  fall  of  Ikkaku  Sennin  is  in  accordance  with  the  usual  Aryan  myth 
of  the  unicorn,  which  in  the  classical  and  mediaeval  mythology  is  emblematic 
of  chastity.  In  fact,  the  symbolical  meaning  has  been  taken  by  Robert 
Brown  in  The  Unicorn  (iSSi)  as  a  proof  that  the  unicorn  is  an  emblem  of 
the  moon. 

Several  varieties  of  Kilins  without  horn,  or  with  one  or  more  horns, 
are  met  with  in  Chinese  art,  and  as  the  Japanese  artists  have  freely 
drawn  from  such  sources,  it  may  be  well  to  summarise  the  characters  of  a 
few  from  Mr.  Deshayes'  lecture,  delivered  at  the  Musee  Guimet  in  April, 

The  LUNG  MA  (dragon  horse),  Riu  ma,  resembles  a  horse  and  is  hornless; 
round  spots  in  regular  sequence  are  found  on  its  back. 

The  HIAI-CHI  is  the  Japanese  Kaitshi.  It  is  figured  with  a  head  akin 


Kakutan  Sui  sei 


SUISEI    (/;'./..«•)  KIRIN   STANDING   (sl.B.) 

HAKUTAKU    (1I'.I..K.)  SINIU    (u'.I-.K.) 


Si-  niit 

HAKUTAKU   (^.) 
KIRIN    (li:/..B.) 


to  that  of  a  dragon,  a  single  horn,  a  bushy  tail,  even  with  the  curly  mane, 
tail,  and  locks  of  a  Shishi. 

The  KIOTOAN  (Japanese,  Kaktitan)  is  figured  in  the  Hsai  Tst'ng  Ku  Kien, 
chapter  38,  p.  34.  It  is  more  akin  to  the  tiger  in  shape,  although  Morrisson 
describes  it  as  a  creature  with  the  shape  of  a  pig  and  a  single  horn. 

The  TIEX  LUH  (Tenroku]  has  the  head  of  a  goat,  with  one  or  two  horns; 
the  Pin  TSIEH  (Hakutakii)  has  an  elongated  Shishi  head,  sometimes  with 
two  horns,  bushy  tail,  strong  forepaws  with  claws,  and  flames  surrounding 
its  body.  This  creature  could  talk,  and  appeared  to  Huang  Ti.  It  is  also 
called  Kaichi  (one  horn  Shishi)  and  Shinyo  (God's  goat)  in  the  Kumozui, 
Taisei,  which  says  that  it  devours  all  that  is  evil. 

The  PIH  SIE  is  described  by  Hirth  in  the  T'oung  Pao  (1895),  and  its 
pictures  vary  somewhat,  the  head  taking  intermediate  shapes  between  the 
goat  and  the  shishi. 

The  Liu,  or  Liu  mi  horned  ass,  is  illustrated  with  a  tiger's  head  in  the 
Kuyutoupu,  and  in  the  usual  way  in  Gould's  Mythical  Monsters. 

The  POH,  is  a  horned  horse  credited  with  enough  strength  to  kill  and 
devour  tigers ;  the  HOANSU  affects  practically  the  same  shape. 

The  TOUNGTOUNG  is  a  unicorn  goat ;  the  KUTIAO,  a  horned  leopard ; 
the  Si  appears  to  be  a  cow  with  single  horn ;  the  Si  NIU  is  long  necked, 
but  hardly  enough  to  be  a  giraffe :  it  has  only  one  horn  and  is  surrounded 
with  flames.  The  SZE  is  the  Indian  or  Malay  rhinoceros.  The  CHUI  si 
(Japanese,  Suisai)  is  the  rhinoceros  "living  in  rivers";  it  has  often  two 
horns,  and  sometimes  three ;  it  is  embellished  by  some  artists  with  a 
carapace  like  a  tortoise.  The  LUH  appears  to  be  a  deer  pure  and  simple. 
Gould  gives  also  the  TOOJOUSHEN,  from  stone  figures  of  the  Ming  tombs. 

470.  KISEGAWA  KAMEGIKU  #  $&  )\\  H  If.     The  Joro  who  led  the 
Soga   brothers   to   the   tent   of   their    father's   murderer,    Kudo   Saemom.      See 

471.  KISHIDJO  TENNO  ^  jjj£  5t  (probably  an  adaptation  of  LAKSHMI 
or  SRI    DEVI).      She   is   depicted   with   a   very  beautiful  face,  erect,  with  one 
red    arm    and    a    white    one,    holding    in   her   left   hand   the   sacred    gem   or 

177  - 


scattering   gems   about.      She  is  the  Goddess   of   Luck,   and   in   the   Japanese 
Pantheon   the  sister  of  BISHAMON. 

KISHIJOTEN  in  some  works  take  the  place  of  Fukurokujiu  amongst 
the  Seven  Gods.  She  is  also  called  Kudoku  Niyo,  or  Tai  Kudoku  ten.  Sri 
Devi  is  one  of  the  titles  of  Mahesvara  (Siva),  said  by  the  Sogenjigo  to  be 
a  son  of  Takchaka  (King  of  the  Naga)  and  of  Haritei  (Kwei  tzu  mu, 
or  Kishimojin). 

472.  KISHIMOJIN   Jl,  =^  -HJ:  1$,  or   KARITEI  Bo.      Sanskrit,  HARITI  or 
DAITJA   MATRI  ;    Chinese,   KUEI   TSZE    Mu    CHIN.      She    is    represented    as    a 
comely   woman   holding   a   naked    baby    on    her    left    arm,    the    right    hand 
grasping   a   pomegranate,   a   peach,    or   a   lotus    blossom,    the   first    "  fruit    of 
happiness"    (jakuro,   or   Sanskrit,    Siphrala]   being   the   most   usually   depicted, 
and,   according   to   legend,    because    Buddha,    to   stop   her   cannibalism,    gave 
her    pomegranates    to    eat,    their    flavour    being    reputed    similar   to   that   of 
young    human    flesh.       KISHIMOJIN     was    a    cannibal     woman,    mother    of    a 
thousand    children,    the    youngest     of    which,     BINGARA,     was    converted     by 
Buddha,    who   afterwards  converted   the  mother.      She    became  a   Rakchasi  in 
Hades,    and    was    condemned    to    give    birth    to    five    hundred    children    in 
extenuation  of  her  bad  deeds,  and  she  is  accordingly  often  called  the  Mother 
of   the    Demons.      According   to   another  version  she  was  sent   to   Hades  and 
re-born    in    the   shape   of   a   ghoul    to   give   birth    to   five   hundred   devils,   of 
which  she  was  to  eat  one  a  day,  because  she  had  once  sworn  to  devour  all 
the   children    living   in    the   town   of   Rajagriha.      She   was   converted    during 
her    second    existence.      In   Japan   she   is   the   deity   of   women    in   childbirth, 
prayed    to    for    offsprings,    but    she    is    also    honoured    as    protector    of    the 
Buddhist  world  and  of  children  in  particular.     She  is  also  called  Kishimojin 
the  Maternal  in  the  Nichiren's  Sect. 

473.  KITSUNE  &.     See  Fox. 

474.  KITZUKI  JJ?f  ffS.     Temple   (OHOYASHIRO)   of   Daikoku,   which   was 
rebuilt  in  the  third  year  of  Tennin  (mi.)  from  a  tree  trunk  two  hundred  and 
fifty  feet  long,  found   stranded   on   the   coast   of   Minayoshita,   and   in    which 



was  a  god  in  the  form  of  a  dragon.     See  Hearn's  Unfamiliar  Japan,  Vol.  1, 
p.   193-5. 

475.  KIYOHIME  :Jff  $£  was  the  daughter  of  an  innkeeper  at  Masago, 
at  whose  house  the  holy  monk  ANCHIX,  of  the  monastery  of  DOJOJI  }|£  $£  ^p, 
used  to  stay  when  on  the  pilgrimage  of  Kumano.  The  monk  was  wont 
to  pet  the  child,  and  gave  her  a  rosary  and  some  charms,  never  thinking 
that  her  childish  affection  would  one  day  develop  into  fiery  love.  But  the 
maiden's  immodest  advances  soon  became  the  bane  of  his  life,  getting  more 
and  more  pressing  till  the  monk's  refusals  changed  this  girl's  passion  into 
the  deepest  wrath.  She  begged  the  help  of  the  infernal  deities  against  him; 
she  performed  the  Ushi  Toki  mairi,  or  envoutement  at  the  hour  of  the  ox,  all 
to  no  avail.  The  Namii  Amida  Biitsu  of  the  priest  preserved  him  from  evil, 
but  not  from  the  importune  visit  of  the  incensed  woman,  who  pursued 
him  right  into  the  temple,  when  to  try  and  escape  her  Anchin  hid  himself 
under  the  great  bell,  ten  feet  high  and  in  weight  more  than  a  hundred  men 
could  move.  Kiyohime,  as  she  approached  the  bell,  lashed  herself  into  a 
fury,  and  as  she  nearly  touched  it  the  superstructure  of  the  bell  suddenly 
gave  way,  and  the  bell  fell  with  a  dull  sound  over  the  monk,  imprisoning 
him.  At  the  same  moment  the  figure  of  Kiyohime  began  to  change,  her 
face  grew  like  the  witch  mask  of  Hannya,  her  body  became  covered  with 
scales,  her  legs  joined  and  grew  into  a  dragon's  tail,  and  she  wrapped 
herself  around  the  bell,  striking  it  with  the  T-shaped  stick,  and  emitting 
flames  from  all  parts  of  her  body.  Her  blows  rained  upon  the  bell  till  it 
got  red  hot  and  finally  melted,  Kiyohime  falling  in  the  molten  mass,  from 
which  was  heard  in  a  whisper  the  last  Namu  Amida  Biitsu  of  Anchin, 
whilst  the  horrified  monks  unremittingly  prayed  around  the  scene.  From 
the  debris  only  a  handful  of  white  ash  could  be  found,  remains  of  the 
body  of  the  monk.  Of  Kiyohime  there  was  no  trace.  She  is  also  said  to 
have  changed  herself  into  a  dragon  on  crossing  the  Hitakari  gawa  before 
reaching  the  temple. 

This  legend  has  given  rise  to  the  No  play  or  dance  called  Do-jo-ji.  A 
versified  account  of  the  story  can  be  found  in  Hearn's  Kotto. 



As  a  subject  for  netsuke  and  okimono,  the  story  of  Anchin  affords  the 
carver  a  theme  for  skilled  treatment  which  is  fairly  often  met  with,  Kiyohime 
coiled  on  the  ball,  or  partly  so,  sometimes  in  the  same  material  as  the  bell 
itself,  but  often  in  a  different  one,  taking  the  most  fantastic  and  weird 
shapes.  The  Kiyohime  of  the  No  dance  is  pretty  before  the  event ;  netsuke 
masks  are  met  with  in  which  the  graceful  face  on  one  side  and  the  horned 
Hannya  on  the  other.  A  curious  Kiyohime  is  even  found,  in  the  shape  of 
an  octopus,  dressed  in  a  kimono  and  holding  a  bell  in  its  tentacles,  or  as 
an  imp  on  a  bell-shaped  inverted  lotus  leaf. 

476.  KIYOKU  SUI   NO  EN   g]  ?K  £>  ^      The  picnic  on  the  winding 
stream.      This   is   a   Chinese   recreation    for    literati,    who   take   seats   on   the 
banks  of  a   very   winding  river  and  make  poems.      From  the  higher  part  of 
the  river  wine  cups  are  set  floating  upon   the  waters,  and  picked  up  by  the 
players  with   the  exception  of  those  who  could  not  compose  a  poem.     These 
could    not    take    any    cup    until   one   stopped   at   their   feet   naturally.      This 
curious    proceeding    took    place   regularly   every   year   in    the   gardens   of   the 
Chinese  court  on   the  third  day  of  the  third   month.     See  GAMES. 

477.  KIYOMASA  iff  JH  (KATO  #n  j&).     One  of  the  celebrated  generals 
of  the  sixteenth  century,   usually  shown  bearded   and   on   horseback.      Under 
the    rule    of    Hideyoshi    he    directed     the    Korean    war    (1592-8)    with    such 
impetuosity    as    to    earn    for    himself    the    surname    of    devil    warrior   (KJsho 
Kwaii)  from  the  enemy.      He  became  one  of  IEYASU'S  chief  adherents  at  the 
death  of  Hideyoshi,  at  which   time  he  was  master   of   the  whole  province  of 
HIGO;    but    the    shogun    had    no    liking   for   ambitious   captains,   and   he    is 
credited   with    having    encompassed    the    death    of    Kiyomasa,    in    1614,    by 
causing  one  of  his  retainers  to  poison  him  at  a  tea  ceremony  least  he  might 
join   hands   with   his   rival,    Hideyori.      There   is   a   fine   equestrian   statue   of 
Kato  Kiyomasa  in  the  South  Kensington   Museum. 

Kato  Kiyomasa  is  said  to  have  had  a  helmet  three  feet  high.  He 
carried  on  his  back  a  banner  with  the  invocation,  Namu  mio  ho  renge  kyo, 
of  the  Nichiren  sect,  who  have  honoured  him  with  the  name  SEI  SHOKO, 
and  have  dedicated  two  temples  in  Kumamoto  to  his  memory. 

1 80 

K1VO.MORI    (a.^/.) 
KOAN    (O.C.K.) 

SOTOBA    KOMACHI    (j.) 

KOKO   (x.M.) 
KUMASAKA   (../.) 

KIYOMOKI    (A'..l/) 

DOJOJI    (./.)  KOAX    (II'./.K.) 

KUDAN    (ir.L.S.) 

KUDAN  (M.K.) 




His  crest  (man)  is  a  large  circle  with  the  centre  cut  out,  and  easily 

Kato  Kiyomasa  is  sometimes  shown  killing  a  tiger  with  a  spear 
(Kiyomasa  no  Toragari).  Kato  Kiyomasa  had  a  small  monkey,  and  one 
day  he  was  greatly  amused,  on  entering  a  room,  to  find  it  with  a  book  in 
its  hand,  apparently  imitating  its  master. 

478.  KIYOMI  HARA  NO  TENNO  ^  JjL  Jjg  0  Jfc  J|  played  the  harp 
in  Yoshino  with  such  skill  that  the  angels  came  down  from  Heaven  to  listen 
to  him,  and  danced    in    the   courtyard   of   his    palace   five   times,    turning   up 
and   down  their  sleeves. 

From  this  legend  are  derived  the  dances  of  the  fifth  of  May. 

479.  KIYOMORI  :jpf  -§§•  (TAIRA  ^)  was,  according  to  popular  tradition, 
the  son   of  a  concubine   of  the   Emperor    Shirakawa    Tenno,   who   gave   her 
to  Taira  TADAMORI.      He   became   governor  of   IGA,   under   the   name   Iga  no 
Kami,    supported    the    Shirakawa    in   the    Hogen   war,   and    being   victorious 
became    all-powerful    at    court.        He    fought    and    defeated    the    Minamoto, 
sent   YORITOMO    to   exile,    took   as  a   mistress   YOSHITOMO'S   wife,    the    TOKIWA 
GOZEN,    whose    three     sons,     Imawaka,     Otowaka,     and    Ushiwaka,    he    sent 
to    a    monastery,     his    clemency    being    requested    by    his    stepmother,     Ike- 

Elevated  to  the  dignity  of  Dajo  Daijin  in  1167,  he  distributed  the 
important  places  in  the  government  to  his  relatives,  and  became  the  real 
master  of  Japan.  According  to  legend,  he  desired  a  certain  temple  to  be 
completed  on  a  certain  day,  but  although  the  number  of  artisans  engaged 
on  the  task  was  immense  the  sun  began  to  set  on  the  horizon  before  the 
last  touch  was  put  to  the  work.  The  imperious  minister  climbed  to  the 
top  of  the  roof,  and  with  his  fan  kept  beckoning  back  the  sun  until  the 
work  was  completed.  To  this  rash  enterprise  is  ascribed  the  terrible  burning 
fever  (Hi  no  Yamai)  which  seized  him  in  1168  (and  of  which  he  died  in 
1181).  He  then  took  the  robe  of  a  monk,  shaved  his  head,  and  adopted 
the  name  JOKAI,  but  without  altering  his  dissolute  life.  To  go  more  easily 
to  the  shrine  of  Itsukushima,  he  caused  a  canal  to  be  made  in  Kure,  but 



neither  his  devotions  nor  the  exertions  of  troops  of  servants  continuously 
filling  his  bath  with  the  iced  water  from  Mount  Hiyeizan,  or  fanning  his 
half-naked  body,  could  allay  the  tortures  which  the  fever  inflicted  on  his 
wasted  frame.  Having  married  his  own  daughter,  TOKOKU,  to  the  then 
Emperor,  TAKAKURA  TENNO,  he  obtained  from  the  latter  his  abdication  in 
1180,  in  favour  of  the  offspring  of  this  union,  the  child  Antoku. 

During  the  same  year  the  Yamabushis  of  Mount  Hiyeizan  became 
boisterous,  and,  relying  on  the  help  of  Yoritomo,  entered  into  open  revolt. 
Kiyomori  decided  to  reduce  them,  and  sent  a  force  against  them,  which 
found  the  Yamabushis'  skill  as  warriors  greatly  above  their  piety  as  monks. 
One  of  the  monks  defended  the  Ujigaxva  bridge  alone,  against  three  hundred 
horsemen  of  the  general  KIYOTADA,  and  returned  to  his  monastery  after 
receiving  no  less  than  seventy- two  wounds. 

The  famous  Benkei  was  amongst  the  Yamabushis.  But  all  this  resistance 
was  of  little  avail ;  the  Hiyeizan  was  stormed  and  its  temples  burnt.  After 
his  retreat  to  the  palace  of  Fukuhara,  in  Settsu,  in  1181,  Kiyomori  was 
beset  by  the  idea  that  the  ghosts  of  the  Genji  haunted  the  place.  Once  he 
saw  his  garden  filled  by  numberless  skulls,  jumping  about  like  grasshoppers, 
which  suddenly  coalesced  into  a  hillock  a  hundred  and  fifty  feet  in  height, 
with  a  ghostly  warrior,  dressed  like  Yoshitomo,  standing  on  the  top  of  it 
(Zoho  Ehon  Issaoshi  gusa,  Vol.  V.,  and  also  Hokusai's  print). 

KIYOMORI  died  in  1180,  his  last  request  being  that  the  head  of  the 
exile,  YORITOMO,  should  be  laid  upon  his  grave.  But  Yoritomo  was  not 
caught,  and,  indeed,  he  was  to  take  a  full  revenge  in  1185,  when  the  whole 
Taira  family  was  destroyed  at  the  battle  of  Dan  no  Ura,  the  widow  of 
KIYOMORI,  the  Nn  NO  AMA,  jumping  into  the  sea  with  her  grandson,  ANTOKU, 
rather  than  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  victorious  Minamoto,  Yoritomo  and 

KIYOMORI  is  usually  shown  corpulent,  with  hard-set  face,  small  bristling 
moustache,  shaven  head,  thin  lips  and  high  forehead,  and  clad  in  the  robes 
of  a  monk.  Mr.  Bertin,  in  Les  grandes  guerres  civiles  du  Japan,  gives  a  fine 
reproduction  of  the  painting  in  the  Bibliotheque  Nationale  of  Paris,  showing 
the  servants  of  Kiyomori  fanning  him  during  his  illness. 

(By  courtesy  of  Messrs.   Yauinnaka) 


480.  KIYOTAKA  fjf  jlrj.     A  presumptuous  courtier  of  Go  DAIGO  TENNO, 
who,  knowing   the   Emperor's  secret   opposition   to   the   advice   given   him   in 
1336   by  Kusunoki   Masashige  to  abandon   Kyoto   for   the    Hiyei/an,   strongly 
opposed    Kusunoki's    proposal.      Masashige    accused    him    and    the    "curtain 
government "   of   being   the   worst    enemies   of   the   Emperor,   and   subsequent 
events  fully  justified  his  opinion.      After  the  disaster  of  Minato  gawa,  when 
Go  Daigo  and  his  court  flew  to  Yoshino,  Kiyotaka  was  ordered  to  commit 
seppuku.      His    ghost    haunted    the    palace    gardens,    heaping    curses    on    the 
imperial  family  and  its  advisers,  until  the  princess,   IGA-NO-TSUBONE,  carrying 
a   lantern   filled   with   fireflies,   went   to   argue  with  the  yurei;   she  convinced 
him  of  his  wrong  and  obliged  him  to  cease  his  nocturnal  visits. 

481.  KIZABURO.     See  KICHIBEI. 

482.  KO-AN  j|;  T£.     The  Chinese  rishi,  HWAN  NGAN,  usually  represented 
naked  or  semi-naked  and  riding  on  a  horned  tortoise.      He  is  identical  with 
Lu   NGAO  or  ROKO,  of  Hokusai's   Mangwa.      The   Taoist   books   say:    "KoAN 
was    ten    thousand   years   old,    but    childish    in    his    appearance.       His    body 
was   covered   with    red   hair,   and   he   rarely   wore   any   clothes.       He   used   to 
ride  upon  a  sacred  tortoise   three  feet  long." 

483.  KO  AWASE  ff  ^  •£.     The  perfume  game. 

484.  KOBITO   /J^  A..      Pigmies   figured    in    Hokusai's   Mangwa,    Vol.   3, 
p.  67.     They  lived  in  Yezo  before  the  Ainu,  who  call  them  Koropokguru. 

485.  KOBODAISHI    j&  &-  ^C  8P-      Title    conferred    in   921    by   DAIGO 
TENNO   upon   the   Buddhist  priest,  KUKAI  (774-834),  wizard   and  caligraphist, 
to    whom   is   attributed    the   invention    of    the    Hira-gana   alphabet   of   forty- 
seven    sounds   and   the   disposition   of   these    syllables   into   the   Iroha   poetry. 
Born  at  Biyobu-ga  Ura,  near  Kompira,  in  774,  he  became  a  monk  when  only 
nineteen  years  old.      He   went   to   China   in   804,   and   came   back   to   preach 
Buddhism,   founding   the   Shingan   sect   and    various    temples.      Many    stories 
are  told  of  his  caligraphic  talent.     Having  once  painted  some  characters  on 
the  name   board  (Gaku)   of  a  palace  gate,  he  noticed  on  coming  down  that 
he    had    forgotten    one    dot,    but,    throwing    up    his    brush,   he    finished   the 



character  accurately  without  climbing  up  again.  On  another  occasion  he 
painted  with  five  brushes,  one  in  each  hand  and  foot  and  one  in  his  mouth, 
according  to  caricatures,  and  this  performance  brought  him  the  nickname  of 
Go  hitsu  Osho  (the  priest  with  the  five  brushes).  Once,  in  806,  in  a 
discussion  with  the  Emperor  Saga,  he  propounded  the  theory  that  one  can 
attain  Buddhahood  while  in  the  flesh,  and  on  the  Emperor  dissenting  from 
him,  he  at  once  gave  him  visual  proof  thereof  by  transforming  himself  into 
the  appearance  of  the  Buddha  Maha  Vairocana.  (For  his  praying-for-rain 
sword,  see  AMAKURIKARA-KEN.)  He  once  made  the  pilgrimage  of  the  eighty- 
eight  places  in  Shikoku,  or  Hachi  ju  hakka  sho  Mairi,  wearing  straw  sandals 
(warajt),  and  to  these  days  the  pilgrims  who  undertake  this  lengthy  journey 
carry  small  waraji  suspended  to  their  neck  in  memory  of  Kobodaishi. 

Kukai  is  also  credited  with  a  sculptor's  ability,  which  only  his  magic 
powers  could  have  insured.  He  is  said  to  have  carved  unaided,  and  in  one 
single  night,  twenty-two  out  of  the  twenty-five  Bosatsu  in  the  hard  rock 
near  Ashinoyu  (though  Murray's  Guide  dates  it  1293),  near  the  tomb  of  the 
Soga  brothers,  and,  further  along  the  same  road,  also  in  one  night,  a  huge 
Jizo  Bosatsu.  An  image  of  himself  which  he  had  carved  while  in  China, 
and  thrown  into  the  sea  with  a  prayer  that  it  might  be  cast  on  some  shore 
the  inhabitants  of  which  were  in  need  of  Buddhist  teachings,  was  found  in 
the  twelfth  century  by  a  pious  Buddhist  of  Kawasaki,  and  enshrined  in  the 
Yaku  joke  Daishi  do. 

Kobodaishi  is  also  said  to  have  thrown  his  brush  at  a  black  rock  in 
the  pool  of  Kammanga  fuchi,  near  Nikko,  and  the  brush  wrote  the  sacred 
characters,  HAMMAN.  His  specimens  of  caligraphy  and  drawing  were 
considered  highly  valuable  relics,  and,  like  the  relics  of  Western  saints, 
number  so  many  as  to  cause  wonderment  at  the  phenomenal  activity  of  their 
author.  Many  stories  are  told  of  Kukai  in  Hearn's  works  and  in  the  Guides 
to  Japan. 

486.  KOBU.     See  Moso. 

487.  KODAMA  KURA   NO  JO  fa  3s.  ft   jfc  &  was  a  leader  of  the 
seamen   of   Mori.      After  the  battle  of  Ishiyama  with  Nobunaga,   he  camped 



on  the  beach  of  Takasago,  and  ordered  his  men  to  cut  down  a  certain  tree. 
They  resisted,  and  he  compelled  them  to  obey  his  order,  but  at  the  first 
stroke  of  the  axe  against  the  tree  trunk  smoke  issued  from  the  cut.  Kodama 
then  desisted.  This  esprit  fort  was  a  good  soldier,  but  irreverent  when 
dealing  with  the  Buddhist  faith.  One  day,  in  the  lake  of  AWA,  when 
returning  from  Ishiyama,  his  ship  was  heeling  over  frightfully  amongst  the 
whirlpools,  and  he  feared  death.  He  then  remembered  a  Buddhist  charm 
given  him  by  a  friend,  and  offered  to  it  a  hurried  prayer;  the  hurricane 
abated  and  he  returned  to  land,  thereafter  to  become  very  religious.  Before 
he  died  he  had  a  dream  in  which  the  whole  of  the  Buddhist  Pantheon 
appeared  to  him. 

488.  KODOKWA  m  jf|  =lp.     On  top  of  a  pine,   looking  at  a  crane,   is 
one   of   the   Taoist    worthies.     It    is    written    of    him :     "  Kodokwa    used    to 
climb    in    dangerous    places    and    stand    on    steep    rocks    as    if   he   were   on 
level     ground,     fearlessly,     like    a    lunatic.        Later     in    his     life    he    got    a 
mysterious    medicine    named    Tan,    and    climbed    upon    the    top    of   a    pine, 
whence  he  soared  in  the  sky  with  a  crane.     This    verily    took   place    in    the 
fifth  year  of  Taichyu,  in   the  reign  of  Senso,   of  To." 

489.  KOGEN  JL  7C  was  an  old  Chinese  sage,   170  years  of  age.     One 
day  he  was  invited   to   drink  wine,  and   did   so   like   a   dog,    head   foremost, 
and   supporting   his   body   with   his   cane.       He    is    sometimes    confused   with 

490.  KOGO   NO  TSUBONE  /h  ^  JBJ.      Inimitable   musician,   favourite 
of  the  Emperor   Go   SHIRAKAWA  (Xllth  century),   but   hated   by   the  Empress 
Hatsu,   who,   by   her   intrigues,   succeeded   in   compelling  her  to  fly  from  the 
palace.      For  three  years  the  Emperor  caused   her  to  be  sought  for  all  over 
Japan   without  being  able  to  discover   her  retreat.      At  last   a  courtier,   the 
poet    NAKAKIMI,    also    celebrated    as    a  musician,   who  had  boasted   that  he 
could    recognise   her   playing   amongst   ten   thousand   hidden   performers,   was 
sent    to    find    her.      He   located   the  favourite   in   the   village  of  Saga,   near 
Kyoto,    where    he    heard    her    playing    the    Koto    in    a    closed    house.      See 
NAKAKIMI  (Shako  Bukuro). 



491.  KOHAKU    £t   J|L.      The    Chinese    paragon,    KIANG    KEH,    scholar 
and  official  of  the   fifth  century,  whose  claim  to  celebrity  consists  in  having 
once    rescued   his   mother   from   a   band    of    brigands    by   carrying   her   for   a 
long  distance  on  his  back. 

KOHAKU  SENNIN  $£  H  ftlj  A,  was  wont  to  visit  Mount  Bui, 
accompanied  by  a  crane,  and  there  to  read  fairy  books.  He  is  usually 
shown  with  a  book  and  a  yellow  crane.  His  Chinese  name  is  HWANG  PEH. 

492.  KOJIMA    TAKANORI    Jf£   ^  jt$  ffj.       Noble    of    the    fourteenth 
century,  whose   popular   title  is  BINGO  NO  SABURO   ("Off  ^  3l  J}|$).      He   is   as 
a  rule  depicted  standing  near  a  cherry  tree,  on  the  trunk  of  which  he  writes 
the  following  verses,  allusion   to  an  episode  of  Chinese  history : 

"  Ten  Kosen  wo   munashiu  sum  nakare 

Toki  ni   Hanrei   naki  ni  shimo  arazu." 
"O    Heaven,   do  not  destroy  KOSEN   whilst  HANREI   lives." 

When  Go  Daigo  was  exiled  Kojima  attempted  to  rescue  him,  but  in 
vain.  He  then  rode  in  advance  of  the  deposed  Emperor,  by  a  different  road, 
and  stopped  at  an  inn  where  Go  Daigo  was  expected  to  stay,  tore  the  bark 
off  a  cherry  tree,  wrote  in  Chinese  characters  upon  the  trunk  the  verses 
quoted  above  to  assure  the  late  monarch  of  his  lasting  fealty.  This  story 
was  originally  mentioned  in  the  Taiheki  only,  and  modern  historians 
discredit  it  altogether.  He  entered  into  a  plot  against  TAKAUJI,  was 
discovered,  and  had  to  take  refuge  in  the  Shinano,  where  he  died 
(circa  1350). 

493.  KOJIN  5nL  !$•     Shinto   God   of  the   Kitchen. 

494.  KOKEI   ^  )y£.      Mythical   human   being  with  crooked   legs.      See 

49j.     KOKEN  )§  Hfc.      Sennin ;    is  shown  with  a  divination  book. 

496.  KOKO  j|f  Q.  Sennin;  the  Chinese  Hu  KUNG,  the  old  man  in  the 
pot.  Wizard  and  leach,  who,  according  to  legend,  lived  in  China  about 
the  third  century  A.D.,  and  who  at  night  used  to  retire  into  a  gourd-shaped 
pot,  much  to  the  bewilderment  of  his  neighbours,  who  could  not  discover 

1 86 

KOJIMA    (.!/.(;.) 

KicHijori;x  (7..v. 


KOMEI    (..;.) 
KOKEMOCHI    (j/.t;.) 


his  whereabouts  after  sunset.  One  FEI  CHANG  FANG  (HICHOBO)  discovered 
the  gourd  hanging  from  a  rafter  and  the  old  man  in  it,  shrunk  to  a  suitable 
size.  He  became  the  disciple  of  KOKO  and  adopted  his  practice,  hence  the 
confusion  which  often  arises  between  the  two  and  with  Mei  So  Gen  (q.v.). 

497.  KOKO   ]H;  ^,    or   BUNKIO.      Celebrated   Chinese    paragon   of   filial 
virtue   who,   being  left  motherless  when   only  seven   years   old,    ministered    to 
the  wants  of  his  father,  fanning  him  during  the  summer  nights  and  warming 
his  father's  couch  with  his  own   body  in  winter,  before  his  parent  retired. 

498.  KOKUSENYA     @(]   *J4  stfT       Famous    pirate     of    the    seventeenth 
century.     Son  of  a  Chinese  father,  CHENG  CHE  LUNG,  and  a  Japanese  mother, 
and  called  by  the  Jesuits  Coxinga.      He  seized  upon   the  island  of  Formosa, 
and    his    daring    acts,    set     forth     in     Chikamatsu's   play,    Kokusenya    Kassen 
(1715),    have   raised   him  to  the  popularity  of  a  gallows  hero.      A   humorous 
presentment   of   him   shows   him  as  a  small   man  leading  away  a  tiger  or  a 
large   elephant,  or  carrying  it  away.      See   synopsis  of  the  Kokusenya  Kassen 
in  Aston's  Japanese  Literature. 

499.  KOMACHI  /J>  PJf  (Oxo  NO  /]>  iff).     Often  spelt  KOMATI  by  French 
writers.     One  of  the  Six   POETS  (Rokkasen).     She  lived  in  the  ninth  century, 
and  her  name  is  almost   synonymous  with   beauty,  followed  by  disappointed 
love  and  the  most  appalling  decrepitude.     Nothing  accurate  is  known  as  to 
her  history,  but    legend   has   it    that  she  was  the  daughter  of  DEWA  NO  KAMI 
YOSHIZANE,    and   that   she   was   remarkably    beautiful,    given   to   great   luxury 
and  unduly  proud  whilst  in  the  spring  of  life  and  the  height  of  her  glory. 
In  866,  when  the  land  was  parched,   the  magic  of  her  verses   brought  forth 
the  rain  which  prayers  had  failed  to  obtain.     On  the  occasion  of  a  poetical 
competition   at   the   Imperial  palace  her  rival,  OTO.MONO  KURONOSHI,  accused 
her   of   having   taken   from   the   Manny o   Shiu   a   poem   which   she   recited    as 
her  own  composition,  and  in  support  of  her  allegation  brought  forth  a  copy 
of   the  book  with  the   poem   in   it.      Komachi   called    for    some    water,   and, 
washing   the   book,    the   fresh   ink   disappeared,    leaving  the  rest  of  the  texts 
uninjured.     Kuronoshi  had  listened  to  Komachi  reciting  the  poem  to  herself, 
and  had  written  it  in   the  old  book  thinking  to  encompass  the  downfall  of 



his   rival.      This   is   a   scene   of   Komachi's  life  which   is   often    depicted,  and 
forms  the  theme  of  a   No  dance,  the  Soshiarai.      The  poem  reads: 

Makanaku   ni 

Nani  wo  tanetote 
:  »  (<  Ukikusa  no 

t  J  Nami  no  une  une 


i  Oi  shigeruran. 

"  You  who  have  never  been  sown,   from  which   seed   did   you   grow    Ukikusa 
(Alguae),   tossed  by  the  waves;    how  did  you  germinate  and  live?" 

She  is  sometimes  represented  as  a  court  lady  with  a  female  attendant, 
and  writing  verses,  but  the  fancy  of  the  artists  seem  to  have  more  specially 
run  upon  the  later  stages  of  her  life,  when  toothless,  her  face  furrowed  with 
the  deep  lines  and  decrepitude  of  old  age  and  poverty,  clad  in  rags,  her 
hair  short,  unkempt  and  matted,  she  was  reduced  to  beg  and  starve  by  the 
roadside.  An  iron  okimono  in  the  British  Museum  and  hosts  of  netsukes, 
depicting  her  squatting  with  her  large  dilapidated  hat  and  a  stick,  vie  with 
each  other  in  the  presentment  of  the  aged  poetess  as  a  destitute  hag.  Old 
age  and  misery  had  overtaken  her  swiftly  if  one  judges  by  her  own  poem  : 

p    ;r  Hana  no  iro  wa 


*>  utsun  ni  kenna, 

-•  * 

T,  *>  Itazura  ni 

Wagami  yo  ni  furu 
Naga  me  seshimani. 

"  The  flowers  have  faded  without   my  knowing  it,   while  a  long  storm  kept 
me  indoors." 

The   various   presentments   of   Komachi   have   been   set   into   a   numerical 
category,  under  the  name  Nana  Komachi,   the  seven  Komachi. 
These  seven  forms  are  as  follows  : 
Soshi  arai  Komachi,  washing  the  book  (see  above). 
Seki  dera  Komachi,  entering  a  temple. 

Kiyomidzu  Komachi,  from  the  Kiyomidzu  dera  temple  in  Kyoto. 
Kaiyo  Komachi,  visiting,  with  an  attendant  whilst  still  young. 
Ama  koi  Komachi,  praying  for  rain. 

1  88 

T,  > 
>  7  ,A 


Omu  Komachi,  or  Parrot  Komachi,  because  once,  when  old,  she  received 
from  the  courtier  Yukiuye  a  poem  sent  her  by  the  Emperor  Yosei,  and  she 
sent  it  back  to  the  monarch  with  only  one  character  altered. 

Sotoba  Komachi,  so  called  because  she  is  depicted  seated  on  a  sotoba 
(wooden  post  set  at  the  head  of  a  grave,  with  the  name  of  the  dead  written 
on  it,  pending  the  erection  of  a  suitable  monument).  This  last  phase  of 
her  existence,  when  old,  is  said  by  some  (amongst  whom  M.  Bertin)  to  have 
been  a  self-inflicted  penance,  as  the  impossible  tasks  which  she  imposed  on 
her  lover,  Fukakusa  no  Shosho,  caused  his  death,  and,  seized  with  remorse 
she  became  a  mendicant. 

Komachi's  remains  are  said  to  be  buried  in  the  Fudarakuji  temple,  at 
Ichihara,  near  Kyoto,  but  many  other  temples  also  claim  that  distinction. 

500.  KOMAN  ']•»  Ji?J  was,  according  to  a  romance,  the  widowed 
daughter  of  the  peasant  Kurosuke,  living  near  lake  Biwa,  and  to  whom 
the  Genji  leader,  TATEWAKI  YOSHI  KATA  had  entrusted  his  wife,  Aoi  NO 
MAYE,  and  the  white  banner  of  his  clan  after  his  defeat.  The  two  separated 
to  escape  the  pursuit  of  the  Heike,  but  Koman  was  surrounded,  and  the 
only  resource  left  to  her  was  to  jump  in  the  lake  with  her  burden.  She 
caught  sight  of  some  barges  and  swam  to  them  to  try  and  get  across  the 
lake,  but  found  too  late  that  they  were  owned  by  Munemori,  the  son  of 
the  Shogun  KIYOMORI,  leader  of  the  Heike.  The  warriors,  knowing  that 
she  was  carrying  the  Genji  banner,  attacked  her  fiercely,  but  her  arm  was 
cut,  and  it  dropped  to  the  bottom  of  the  lake  with  the  silk  ensign,  to  be 
soon  after  joined  by  her  dead  body.  Four  days  later  her  own  little  son, 
Tarokichi,  fishing  in  the  lake,  brought  back  her  arm  with  the  hand  tightly 
clenched  on  the  banner,  and  took  it  to  his  grandfather,  in  whose  hut  the 
lady,  Aoi  NO  MAYE  was  awaiting  confinement. 

Kiyomori  had  heard  of  the  escape  of  the  lady,  and  sent  two  men, 
Kaneuji  Seno  and  Sanemori  Saito,  to  inquire  into  the  sex  of  the  child  at 
the  very  moment  of  his  birth :  if  a  boy,  he  was  to  be  killed,  if  a  girl,  she 
would  escape  with  her  life.  Saito  had  been  a  Genji  man,  and  his  learning 
and  ingenuity,  coupled  with  the  unexpected  interference  of  Tarokichi,  saved 



the  Genji  heir.  The  boy  entered  the  room  with  the  arm  of  his  mother 
wrapped  in  a  cloth,  and  handed  it  to  Saito,  saying:  "This  has  just  been 
born  to  the  lady."  Saito  thereupon  wondered  upon  the  ways  of  the  Deity, 
and  quoted  the  classics,  to  the  surprise  and  anger  of  Seno,  who  accused 
him  of  being  party  to  a  plot  to  deceive  Kiyomori.  Nothing  daunted,  Saito 
said:  "It  is  written  that  in  the  days  of  old  the  consort  of  a  King  of  Chu 
gave  birth  to  a  mass  of  iron,  presumably  because  she  was  wont  to  use  a 
rod  of  that  metal  to  keep  down  the  temperature  of  her  bed  in  summer; 
and  from  that  mass  of  iron  the  learned  astrologers  ordered  the  sword  of 
KAN  TSIANG  Mu  YE  (Kanshoba  Kuya)  to  be  made.  Strange  and  unknown 
to  men  are  the  ways  of  the  Gods;  why,  therefore,  should  not  this  woman 
give  birth  to  an  arm?"  He  was  ready  to  back  his  learning  with  his  sword, 
and  succeeded  in  taking  away  Seno.  The  young  boy  who  was  thus  saved 
lived  to  avenge  his  clan  and  drive  the  Taira  from  Kyoto,  under  the  name  of 
Kiso  YOSHINAKA  (q.v.).  See  Takenobu's  Tales. 

501.  KOMEI  JL  Pf§.  The  celebrated  Chinese  sage  and  general,  Cnu-Ko 
LIANG  j^f  Jj|J  ^,  said  to  have  been  eight  feet  high.  He  was  so  famous  for 
his  wisdom  that  the  Emperor  Gentoku  (Liu  Pei)  went  himself  in  the  middle 
of  winter  to  find  him  in  the  fastnesses  of  the  mountains  to  ask  him  to 
become  his  councillor.  When  he  arrived  he  found  the  hermit  in  a  hut  of 
reeds,  deeply  engrossed  in  reading,  and  he  waited  six  hours  without  saying 
a  word  for  fear  of  disturbing  him.  Even  then  Komei  could  but  with 
difficulty  be  persuaded  to  accept  the  Emperor's  offer.  He  became,  however, 
a  clever  generalissimo  of  the  troops  of  Gentoku  and  of  his  son.  He  went  as 
far  as  the  Yunnan  to  subdue  the  rebel  tribes  of  the  south,  and  later 
attempted  to  conquer  Wei.  He  was  then  opposed  by  SzE-MA-I,  who  steadily 
refused  to  engage  in  battle  till  Komei,  who  was  then  old,  sent  him  the 
headdress  of  a  court  lady  with  the  intimation  that  such  a  headgear  befitted 
such  a  cautious  warrior. 

Komei    is   usually  shown   with   the   Three    Heroes  of  Han. 

Amongst  other  stories  it  is  related  that  he  stopped  the  sacrifices  made 
of  forty-nine  human  victims  to  dissipate  the  fogs  of  the  river  Lu  Shui,  in 



Pegu,  and  instituted  instead  the  use  of  clay  figures.  He  is  credited  with  the 
invention  of  mechanically  propelled  figures,  the  attack  in  eight  lines  in 
battle,  the  stratagem  of  the  empty  city  when  the  walls  were  deserted  and 
the  gates  left  open,  a  man  sweeping  outside  the  walls  and  Chu  Ko  Hang 
playing  the  guitar  within  the  gate,  to  mislead  the  army  of  the  enemy,  Tsao 
Tsao,  as  to  his  whereabouts.*  It  is  also  said  that  during  the  war  between 
Wu  and  Wei  he  used  magic  to  alter  the  wind  on  the  twenty-first  day  of  the 
eleventh  month  from  N.W.  to  S.E.,  which  suited  his  plans  better,  and  since 
then  the  wind  is  always  south-east  on  that  day. 

In  A.D.  234,  seeing  his  star  declining,  he  resorted  to  magic  to  try  and 
delay  his  impending  death  by  lighting  forty-nine  candles  to  burn  for  seven 
days  on  a  heap  of  rice.  But  Wei  Yen  came  to  inform  him  of  the  defeat 
of  the  enemy,  and  in  his  eagerness  to  meet  him  Komei  kicked  the  candles, 
fell,  and  died,  at  the  age  of  fifty-three.  Before  expiring  lie  ordered  that 
seven  grains  of  rice  should  be  put  in  his  mouth  so  that  his  body  might  keep 
unchanged  for  ever,  and  to  sew  in  his  sleeves  two  live  pigeons,  then  to  lay 
his  corpse  on  the  battlefield.  The  enemy  were  afraid  when  they  saw  his 
sleeves  moving,  and  they  flew,  giving  his  successor  time  to  retreat  to  a  more 
favourable  position. 

He  had  no  confidence  in  Wei  because  he  had  high  cheek-bones,  and 
he  instructed  his  lieutenant  Matei  to  kill  Wei  so  as  to  prevent  him  from 
turning  rebel. 

502.  KOMPIRA  ^  jfc  HL  The  Indian  divinity,  Kumpira,  one  thousand 
feet  long,  with  a  thousand  heads  and  as  many  arms,  personified  in  India 
by  the  crocodile,  and  having  for  attribute  in  the  Japanese  Pantheon  the 
tortoise.  It  is  also  identified  with  the  Shinto  God  KOTOHIRA,  or  even  with 
Susano-o-no  Mikoto,  or  with  Kanayama  Hiko.  Its  name  has  been  given  to 
one  of  the  twenty-eight  constellations  or  followers  of  Kwannon. 

Kompira  is  also  the  name  of  a  temple  in  Shikoku,  celebrated  by  its 
pilgrimages,  to  which  as  many  as  nine  hundred  thousand  worshippers  muster 
every  year. 

9  This  stratagem  is  sometimes  attributed  to  CHOHI  (q.v.j. 


Kompira,  reduced  in  height  to  nine  feet  two  inches,  and  with  a  terribly 
red  face,  plays  the  principal  role  as  a  demon-queller  in  the  play,  Kompira 
Eon,  of  Oka  Seibei  and  Yonomiya  Yajiro  (Aston's  Japanese  Literature). 

503.  KONGARA  DOJI  &  $H  $1  H  ^     One  of  the  attendants  of  the 
god  of  the  cascades,   FUDO  Mio  O  (q.v.),  shown  as  a  weird  male  individual 
with  an  iron  club.      His  companion  is  SEITAKA  DOJI. 

504.  KONOHA  TENGU  ^v  CD  ^  ^  $J.     A  Tengu  dressed  in  leaves; 
he  has  a  very  long  nose,  and  shows  himself  amongst  people  in  the  guise  of 
a  Yamabushi  priest,  with  narrow  clothes  and  the  small  characteristic  cap. 

505.  KONSAI  ^  $,  or  SHOJO.     One  of  the  sons  of  Benten,  shown  with 
a  balance  for  weighing  money.      Adaptation   of   BAICHADJYAGURU   and   trans- 
formation of  YAKUSHI  NYORAI. 

506.  KOREIDJIN  g  ft  \.     The  Taoist   Sennin,  Ku  LING  JIN,  whose 

attendant  is  a  white  tiger  (Shaho  Bukuro  VII). 

507.  KOREMOCHI  ^P  $f  j3|  (TAIRA  NO,  883-953),  also  called  Yogo  no 
Shogun,    went   one   day   to   Taka-o-san   (Toka   Kushi   Yama),  in   Shinano,  to 
see  the  maple  trees.     He  met  there  a  party  of  young  girls,  and,  as  they  were 
picnicing,  not  only  did  he  accept  their  invitation  to  join  them  but  he  soon 
became   intoxicated.      He    was    awakened    from    his    drunken    slumber   by   a 
strange   noise,   and   saw  above   him   a   huge   oni   coming  to  devour  him,  but 
he  killed  it  with  his  sword.      The  No  play  of  Momijigari  (maple   picnic)    is 
based  upon   this  legend  (Ehon  Kojidan). 

508.  KOREMORI   $|  $&   (TAIRA  NO)  was  defeated  by  Yoritomo  at  the 
battle    of    the    Fujikawa  .  because    he    was    frightened    by    the    noise    made 
overhead    by   a   thousand    ducks    and    geese,    and    in    his    fright    forgot    his 
knowledge  of  strategy. 

509.  KOSEI  ^  fre-      One  °f  tne  sons  °f  Benten.     See  HIKKEN. 

510.  KOSEISHI   J|f  $£  ~7*   was  a  saSe  °ld  man   living  in  the  time  of 
the   divine   Emperor   KEN-EN    in   a   cave   of   Mount   Koto.      The   Emperor  Ko 
heard   of  him  nineteen  years  after  his  accession  to  the  throne,   and   went   to 


KONGARA   DOJI    (jlf.ct.) 

KOHAKU    ( 



consult  him.  He  did  so  again  three  years  later,  when  he  found  that  the 
old  man  had  turned  round  with  his  face  to  the  south,  he  therefore  advanced 
in  front  of  him,  bowing  low  and  repeatedly,  and  asked  his  advice  upon 
important  points  of  dogma. 

511.  KOSEKIKO  ^  ft  £.     The  legendary  Chinese,  HWANG  SHE  KUNG, 
whose  shoe  was  reluctantly  picked  up  by  CHANG  LIANG.      See  CHORIO. 

The  episode  of  Kosekiko  on  his  mule,  with  the  roll  in  his  hand,  whilst 
Chorio  picks  up  the  shoe  under  the  bridge  and  tenders  it  to  the  old  man, 
is  treated  by  artists  in  a  great  variety  of  ways,  Kosekiko  is  even  jocularly 
shown  riding  on  a  huge  fish  and  Chorio  wading  in  the  water  (modern!!). 

512.  KOSE    ]=?    §§*.      Family    name   of   a   series   of   celebrated    painters. 
Amongst   them,   KOSE   xo  KANAOKA  ^j£  [5j,  who  lived  in  the  nintli  century,  is 
said  to  have   painted  a  horse  for  the  temple  of  Ninnaji,  near  Kyoto,  which 
left  its  canvas  to  browse  in  the  neighbouring  fields,   until  one  of  the  monks 
added  a  tether  and  a  peg  to  the  picture.     Another   of  his  horses  was  guilty 
of  the  same  practice  until  its  eyes  were  blurred  in  the  kakemono.      KOSE   xo 
KANAOKA    is    sometimes    shown    under   a   tree,    throwing    away   his   brush   in 
despair  of  doing  justice  to  the  landscape   before   him,  on   the  slope  of  Fuji- 
shiro-saka,    near    Yuasa,    in    Kishiu.       This    has    passed    into     a     proverbial 
sentence   meaning   that   something  is  so   beautiful   that   even    Kanaoka   could 
not    have    painted    it.      His    fourth    descendant,    KOSE   xo    HIROTAKA,   had   a 
presentiment   of   his   coming   death   as   he   began   a   picture    of    the    Buddhist 
hell.      He   died   as   he   was   putting   the    last   stroke   to   his   signature   on    the 

513.  KOSENSEI.      See  GAMA  SEXNIN. 

514.  KOSH1    JL   ~P>   or    MoNSEX-O.      The    Chinese    philosopher,    K'UNG 
Kiu,    called    in    Europe    CONFUCIUS,    from    the   Latinised    sound   of   his   title, 
K'UNG   FU-TSZE,   of   the    fourth    rank   of    nobility,    which   he   had   received   in 
his  lifetime.      See  CONFUCIUS. 

A  humorous  presentment  of  KOSHI  is  fairly  common  in  the  group  of 
the  Three  Sake  Tasters,  when  he  is  shown  in  company  with  SHAKA  and 



ROSHI  (Lao  tsze)  drinking  sake  from  a  jar,  the  varied  expression  of  the  three 
faces  conveying  the  meaning  that  the  same  doctrine  can  be  appreciated 
in  various  ways. 

Some  of  his  works  have  become  highly  popular  in  Japan,  where 
Confucianism,  and  especially  the  modified  doctrines  of  Wang  Yang  Ming 
(Oyomei)  were  followed  by  the  Samurai  class.  Amongst  some  of  these 
works  which  were  published  with  numerous  illustrations  and  a  running 
commentary  giving  examples  drawn  from  history  or  legend,  may  be 
mentioned  Ehon  u'a  Kongo  (Lun-yu) ;  Daigakit  (Ta-hio).  The  Ehon  Chukio 
and  Ehon  Kokio  (Hiao  King)  both  illustrated  by  Hokusai  deals  with  filial 
piety  and  loyalty  of  retainers  respectively. 

5I4A.  KOSHI  ^  jj^  was  a  Taoist  hermit  of  Mount  Ko,  and  he  used  to 
go  about  upon  a  blue  cow,  and  with  a  small  basket  in  his  hand. 

515.  KOSHI-DOSHI    3£    fob    all    it,    Sennin,    had   a   shuttlecock    in   the 
shape   of   a   chanticleer.      He   used    to   keep    it    in    his   pillow    so    as    to    be 
awakened  by  the  crowing   of   the    magic  bird.      He   also   had   a    monkey   no 
bigger    than    a    bull    frog,    which    was    attached    to   a   silk   string   and   was 
allowed  on  the  table  to  clear  away  the  crumbs.      He  also  possessed  a  small 
tortoise  the  size  of  a  cash,  which  he  kept  in  a  small  box. 

516.  KOSHIX  Hi  |2  ^  (|f|  ^).     God  of  the  roads,  to  whom  is  sacred 
the  Enoki  tree.     He  is  also  called  Saruta  Hiko  no  Mikoto,  and  his  attendants 
are    the    Three    Mystic    APES    (q.v.),    Sambiki    Saru.       KOSHIN*    is    sometimes 
represented    with    many   arms;    dolls   are   offered   to   his   shrines   in   memento 
of  departed  folks.     Lafcadio  Hearn,  in  Unfamiliar  Japan  (/.,  p.  100),  describes 
an  old  statue  of  Koshin  showing  signs  of  Hindoo  inspiration,  in  which  the 
God    is    shown    with    three    eyes    opening    vertically    in    the   middle   of   the 
forehead,    six    arms    holding    respectively   a   monkey,   a   serpent,   a   wheel,    a 
sword,   a   rosary   and   a   sceptre;    serpents   are   coiled    around   his   wrists    and 
ankles.     At  his  feet   is  the  head  of  the  demon  Amangako  (Utatesa,  sadness); 
three   apes   are   carved   on    the   pedestal,   and   one   on   the  high    tiara,    in    the 
shape  of  a  mitre,  placed  on  the  God's  head. 



The  name  Koshin  is  applied  to  the  "  day  of  the  monkey,"  the  Kano  e 
Saru,  recurring  every  two  months  at  the  coincidence  of  the  Ka-no-e  term 
(seventh)  of  the  decimal  cycle  with  the  ninth  term,  Saru,  of  the  duodenary 
cycle,  when  festivities  in  honour  af  Saruta  Hiko  regularly  take  place;  and 
offerings  are  set  before  the  rough  stone  images  of  the  three  monkeys  or  of 
the  God  himself  along  the  roads. 

517.  KOSHIN.      Chinese   female   sage   who   lived   in   To,    shown    riding 
the  back  on  of  a  huge  bull  frog,  upon  which  she  crossed  the  sea. 

518.  KOSHOHEI   ^  |fl  ^p.      One   of   the   Eight   Sennins,    the   Chinese 
HWAXG  Cn'u-P'ixc,  sometimes  described  as  an  incarnation  of  the  rain  priest, 
CH'IH   SUXG   TSZE   ifc  ^  ^,    who  lived    in   the   Kwenlun    mountains   at    the 
court    of    the     Fairy     Queen     Seiobo,     after     leaving    the     Chinese    Emperor 
Shennung  (SniNxo),  whose  daughter  followed   him    later   and   became   one   of 
the   Genii    (Mayers'    C.R.M.). 

KOSHOHEI,  when  fifteen  years  old,  led  his  herd  of  goats  to  the  Kin  H\va 
mountains,  and,  having  found  a  grotto,  stayed  there  for  forty  years  in 
meditation.  His  brother,  Shoki,  was  a  priest,  and  he  vowed  to  find  the 
missing  shepherd.  Once  he  walked  near  the  mountain  and  he  was  told  of 
the  recluse  by  a  sage  named  Zenju,  and  set  out  to  find  him.  He  recognised 
his  brother,  but  expressed  his  astonishment  at  the  absence  of  sheep  or  goats. 
Koshohei  thereupon  touched  with  his  staff  the  white  stones  with  which  the 
ground  was  strewn,  and  as  he  touched  them  they  became  alive  in  the  shape 
of  goats. 

This  story  is  frequently  illustrated,  but  Koshohei  is  usually  shown 
alone,  without  his  brother. 

519.  KOTAIRO  Jl   ^  ^  and  her  daughter   lived  on   "yellow   spirit," 
and   could   produce   the   rain  and   wind  at   will.      They   were   beloved  of  the 
people  of  Shin,  and  travelled  often  on  a  cloud. 

520.  KOTEIKEN   ^  |i  ig,   or  SANKOKU    Uj  Q.     The   Chinese   HWANG 
T'IEN   KIEN,   celebrated  as  a  poet  and  official,  lived  from   1045  to   1105,  and 



although    he    attained    a    high   official    rank   was  so   devoted   to   his   mother 
that   he   washed  her  chamber  vessels. 

Hokusai  pictures  him  emptying  an  urn  over  a  balcony. 

521.  KOTEI    ^   fff.        The    Yellow    Emperor    HWANG    Ti,    also    called 
ijff  H|  HIEN  Yi'AN.      He  was  the  third  of  the  five  legendary  rulers  of  China 
circa  2697  B.C.,  and  is  credited  with  over  a  century  of  life.      See  SHINANSHA. 

522.  KOTORO-KOTORO    =f-  flfc  />  =£  ^  ^ .      "  Catching   the  child." 
A   game  of  Chinese   origin,    in   which   a   child   agrees  to  act  as  father  of  the 
party,    whilst    another   one   becomes   the   oni.      The    "father"   and   his   party 
form  a  single  file,  grasping  one  another's  obi,   and   he   swings   the   file   so   as 
avoid    the    oni    touching    the    last    boy   of    the   line.      When   this   occurs   he 
changes  place  with  the  oni,  who  then  goes  to  the  tail  of  the  file. 

523.  KUBI-KUBI  Hf  k    (KuBi   HIKI),  or  KUBIZURI.     A  game  or  trial   of 
strength  by  neck  pulling.     The  two  players  squat  opposite  one  another,  with 
an    endless    rope    joining   their   necks,   and    pull   in   opposite   directions.     See 
the  trial  of  strength  between  ASAHINA  SABURO  and  the  ONI. 

524.  KUDAN.      Fabulous   animal   who    always    tells    the    truth.      It    is 
shown    with    the    head   of   a   man   and   the   body   of   a   bull,    generally   with 
three   eyes   on    its   flanks   and   horns   on   the   back.'* 

525.  KUDARA    KAWANARI    ^  ffi  ffif  fa    later    called    KUDARA    NO 
ASOMI,    was   a   Corean   painter   who  attained  the  rank  of  Harima  no  sake  at 
the  courts  of  Nimmio  and  Montoku.     Once  one  of  his  servants  was  lost,  and 
he   painted   from    memory   a   portrait   which   enabled    the   missing   boy  to  be 
found.       He    wrangled    with    the    architect,    HIDA    NO    TAKOAMI,    about    the 
respective  worth  of  their  arts,  and  the  architect  invited  him  to  decorate  the 
walls  of  a  pavilion  which  he  had  just  built.     Kudara  accepted,  but  he  -could 

*  It  is  interesting  to  compare  with  the  Kudan  the  three-legged  ass  with  six  eyes,  nine  mouths,  one  horn, 
and  a  white  body,  which,  according  to  the  Bundahis,  stands  in  the  middle  of  the  sea  (E.  W.  West,  Palhlavi  texts, 
Bundahis  XIX,).  Its  eyes  are  distributed  equally  in  the  usual  position,  on  the  top  of  the  head  and  on  the  hump  ; 
its  mouths  are  three  in  the  head,  three  in  the  flank,  and  three  on  the  hump.  This  animal  is  righteous,  and  eats 
spiritual  food  ;  it  cleanses  the  ocean  of  all  corruption.  It  is  associated  with  a  divinity  named  Tistar,  who  had 
three  forms :  that  of  a  man,  a  bull,  and  a  horse.  Can  this  curious  type  of  unicorn  have  affected  the  appearance  of 
the  Kudan  ? 



not  get  inside  as  the  walls  were  so  contrived  as  to  swing  round  like  doors 
and  put  him  out  every  time  he  touched  them.  As  a  revenge,  he  asked  the 
architect  to  his  house,  and  when  at  last  Hida  came  he  almost  flew  back  at  the 
unexpected  sight  of  a  putrid  corpse  stretched  across  the  room.  It  was,  however, 
merely  as  an  exhibition  of  his  host's  skill  painted  on  the  sliding  panels. 

526.  KUFUJIN     -H  ^C  A    was  the  wife  of  the   paragon  of  filial  virtue, 
OcENSEN7,  ^  JC  f[Jj>    who    was    a    very    poor    man.       She    weaved    cloth    to 
support   him,  his    mother  and  herself  for  ten  years,  after  which  she  ascended 
to    heaven    in    the    form    of   a     blue    cloud.       She    is  represented    weaving. 
Compare   TOYEI. 

527.  KUGANOSUKE    ^  |f    2.     &J    AND     HINADARI    $|  J|.       The 
heroes     of    a    dramatic    story    which    took    place     in     the    seventh     century. 
Kuganosuke   was   the   only   son   of   the   governor   of   Kii,   Daihanji   Kiyozumi, 
and   the  ex-page    of    the  consort    of   the    deposed    Emperor    Kogyoku.      The 
minister,    Iruka     no    Omi,    who    was    practically    master    of    Japan     at     the 
beginning   of    Kotoku's    reign,    suspected    the    father    and    his    son    of    being 
secretly  allied  with  Nakatomi   no  Kamatari,    the    founder    of    the    Fujiwara 
family,    and    his    own    enemy.       The    same    suspicion    attached    to    another 
family,    then   in   possession   of   the   province   of   Yamato,   the   head    of    which 
was  Sadataka,  the  mother  of  Hinadari.     The  t\vo  provinces  are  only  separated 
by  a  small  river,  but  there    was    an    ancient    feud  between    the   two   families. 
Iruka   commanded   the   youth  to  come   to  court,  thinking  to   wrest  from  him 
the  knowledge   of   the   hiding-place   of   the  deposed   Empress,   and  he  sought 
to  get  also   Hinadari  sent   to   Kyoto   to    marry   her.      The  two  offsprings    of 
the    rival   families,   sooner   than   break    their    tryst,    both    committed    suicide, 
the    father    acting    as    Kaishakunin    (second)    to   his   son.      The   two   hillocks 
on  either   side   of   the   river,    where    the    two    youths    lived,    are   still   called 
Imoyama   and   Seyama.     The  boy  and  girl  were  buried  as  manand   wife.      See 
Takenobu's   Tales.      The  play   based  on   this  story  is  called  Imoseyama. 

528.  KUKOKU  ffi]   Hcj.      Mythical    creatures    with    a    dog's    head    on   a 
man's  body.     They  live  in  the  dogs'  country,  Inu  no  Kuni.     See  FOREIGNERS. 



529.  KUMAGAI  NAOZANE  ffi  Q  y|  ^.     Minamoto  general  who  lived 
in    the    twelfth   century.      He    is    frequently   depicted   in   the   episode   of   the 
battle  ICHI  NO  TANI  (1184),  where  he  killed  Taira  no  ATSUMORI  (q.v.).     He  is 
usually  on   horseback,  with   a   fierce   appearance,   a   quiver  full   of   arrows,   a 
black  beard,   a  two-horned  helmet,  and  a  war  fan  in  his  hand. 

The  story  of  the  episode  is  given  in  Griffis'  Mikado  s  Empire,  page  145 
and  seq.,  and  another  version  under  ATSUMORI.  Bertin's  theatrical  version 
(Guerres  civiles  du  Japori)  is  to  the  effect  that  Kumagai,  when  an  officer  at 
the  court  of  Kyoto,  had  seduced  one  of  the  palace  maids,  Sagami,  and  that 
the  FUJI  NO  TSUBONE  secured  the  escape  of  both.  His  son,  Kojiro,  was  born 
on  the  same  day  as  Atsumori,  the  son  of  the  Fuji  no  Tsubone.  At  Ichi  no 
Tani  he  was  separated  from  his  son,  and  seeing  a  warrior  who  had  a 
similar  appearance  wading  in  the  water  on  horseback,  he  rushed  after  him, 
found  that  the  man  was  an  enemy,  but  very  much  like  Kojiro.  He  began 
to  inquire  into  the  youth's  story,  and,  recognising  the  son  of  the  Fuji  no 
Tsubone,  would  have  let  him  go  but  for  the  taunt  of  his  companion  who 
had  then  come  up  to  them.  Atsumori  gave  him  his  flute.  Filled  with 
sorrow,  Kumagai  gave  up  his  calling,  shaved  his  head,  and  became  a  monk, 
under  the  name  Renshobo,  in  the  temple  Kurodani  at  Kyoto,  where  he  died 
in  1208. 

Amongst  miracles  attributed  to  him,  it  is  related  that  once  he  borrowed 
some  money  on  the  security  of  ten  Namu  Amida  Butsu.  On  repaying  the 
loan  he  demanded  the  return  of  his  deposit,  and  as  his  friend  repeated  the 
prayer  he  was  stopped  short  by  his  wife,  who  explained  that,  when  the 
monk  borrowed  the  money,  ten  lotus  flowers  appeared  in  their  garden,  but 
that  they  were  fading  away  as  her  husband  returned  the  "security."  The 
couple  transformed  their  house  into  a  monastery. 

530.  KUMASAKA  CHOHAN  ££  gR  Jt.  IB-      Famous  robber  who   was 
killed  by  Yoshitsune.      He  is  usually   depicted  in  a  peculiar  dress,  hiding  in 
a    pine   tree   and   scanning   the   neighbourhood.      As   a   weapon   he   carries   a 
huge  halbert.      He  is  often  seen  as  a  No  character,   in  the  play  of  the  same 
name,    in   painted   Nara  netsuke. 



See  the  story,  Tsukt  no  Kumasaka  (1790),  illustrated  by  Hokusai  (signed 

531.  KUME  NO  MAI  ^.  %.   0)   |!|.      Dances   which  commemorate  the 
treacherous    slaughter  of  the  Aino  chief   YASUTAKERU,   of  Yoshino.      During 
his   wars   Jimmu   Tenno   found   it   impossible  to  subjugate  him;    he  therefore 
had  him  invited  with  his   suite   to  some   festivities,  and  when  the  Ainos  got 
intoxicated  his  men  killed  the  whole  party  on  a  pre-arranged  signal,  a  song 
of  Jimmu. 

532.  KUME   NO   SENNIN  #.  %  0)  fll]  A-      Rishi  shown   falling   from 
the   clouds   whilst    looking   at   the   reflection  of  a   girl  in  the  stream.      He   is 
the  only  Japanese  Sennin ;    the   Kume  family  was  the  oldest  warrior  clan. 

533.  KURUMA  $.      Vehicle.      See   HOTEI   (KARUMA  SAN). 

A  common  enough  design,  especially  on  metal  work,  consists  in  a 
peculiarly  shaped  barrow  filled  with  flowers,  peonies  and  chrysanthemums; 
it  is  called  Hana  Kuruma  the  lucky  flower  cart.  Sometimes  a  dilapidated 
waggon,  like  a  house  on  wheels,  is  also  met  with,  representing  the  chariots 
used  in  war  by  Chinese  Emperors  or  Generals.  Another  vehicle  called 
j^  If!  Kiu  Sha  or  dove  carriage  consists  of  a  pigeon  on  two  wheels, 
often  with  a  smaller  bird  standing  on  the  first  one,  it  is  described  as  a 
toy  in  Wakan  sansai  zuye  and  as  an  implement  of  war  in  Todo  Kunimo  Zue. 
A  common  object  called  Buri  Buri,  consisting  of  an  octogonal  piece  of 
wood  mounted  on  two  wheels,  is  a  very  ancient  toy  which  was  pulled 
at  the  end  of  a  string.  Kioden  says  that  it  was  derived  from  the  Roku 
Doku  fl|l  m,  a  sort  of  corrugated  roller  used  by  Chinese  peasants.  A 
figure  standing  on  the  front  part  of  a  vehicle,  with  the  left  arm  extended, 
pointing  forward  is  the  Shinansha  (q.v.). 

A  broken  wheel  amongst  weeds,  or  a  wheel  and  a  praying  mantis  are 
a  common  subject,  the  wheel  of  the  law  is  often  meant  in  such  repre- 
sentations, and  the  wheel  of  drums  of  the  Thunder  God  is  of  frequent 

534.  KURUMA  ^C   C7)    ^  (Hi  NO).      Flaming  wheel  propelled  by  three 



devils,  one  red,  one  green,  and  one  black,  which  rolls  amongst  flames  and 
fetches  bad  people  to  Hell.  Sometimes  a  hideous  head  figures  in  the  centre 
amongst  the  flames.  "To  roll  the  Hi  no  Kuruma"  proverb  "To  be  penniless." 

535.  KUSUDAMA  ~jj^  3L      Hanging  bouquet  made  of  paper  or  cloth 
of  five  colours,  in  the  shape  of  artificial  flowers,  and  hung  in  houses  on  the 
fifth  of  the  fifth  month  (Tango  no  Sekku,  or  boys'  festival).     See  also  CHARMS. 

536.  KUSUNOKI   MASASHIGE  7|$f  IE  J$.      Often  called  the  "Bayard 
of  Japan,"  this  warrior  remains  in  history  as  the  type  of  loyalty  and  unselfish 
devotion  coupled  with  a  deep  knowledge  of  military  science.      Born  in   1294, 
son  of  Kusunoki    Masazume,    he   was  given   the   name   TAMONMARO,   and   was 
educated   until   fifteen   years   old   at   the    monastery   of   Hinozan,    in   Yamato. 
He    became    very    proficient    in    the    military    knowledge    of    his    time,   and 
obtained  the  loan  of  the  thirty  volumes  on  strategy  which  had  been  bought 
from  the  Chinese  Emperor  by  Oye  no  Koretoki  in  697,  tradition  says,  at  the 
huge  cost  of  thirty  thousand  gold  taels.      He  devoured  these  books,   and  his 
learning  became  so  great  that  his  superior  attempted  to  have  him   murdered 
at  night  in  the  woods  of  Kagada.      In  1331,  Go  Daigo  Tenno  was  badly  in 
need   of   a   general,   and   his   adviser    recommended   Masashige;    the   etiquette 
of  the  court  was  however  respected,  by   the   Emperor  declaring  that   he   had 
had  a  dream  in  which  the  Gods  ordered  him  to  take  shelter  beneath  a  tree, 
the    branches    of    which    stretched    to    the    south.       This    agreed     with     the 
description  of  a  camphor  tree  (Kusu-no-ki),  and  was  interpreted  by  Fujifusa 
in  accordance  with  his  own  desire. 

The  ability  of  Masashige  was  soon  put  to  practical  use.  TAKATOKI 
deposed  and  exiled  Go  Daigo,  sending  his  general,  OSARAGI  SADANAO,  with 
twenty-eight  thousand  horsemen  against  Masashige,  who  was  entrenched  in 
a  hastily  constructed  fort  at  Akasaka.  After  several  successful  sorties  the 
latter  got  blockaded,  and,  lacking  provisions,  he  had  to  resort  to  stratagem. 
A  wood  pile  was  built  and  covered  with  corpses  of  dead  enemies.  Masashige 
and  his  troops  then  escaped  one  night,  leaving  only  a  few  men  in  the  fort 
to  fire  the  pyre  and  spread  the  false  news  of  his  suicide. 

SADANAO   was   deceived   by   this   ruse,   and   after   capturing  the  fort   went 


<    D 


£  o 



away,  leaving  only  a  handful  of  men  to  guard  it.  Later,  Masashige  sent 
one  of  his  retainers,  ONCHI  SAKON,  disguised  as  a  monkey  showman,  to 
inquire  into  the  affairs  of  the  enemy.  Onchi  found  that  a  convoy  was 
expected;  Masashige  intercepted  it,  and  hiding  men  and  weapons  in  the 
waggons,  effected  an  entrance  to  the  fort,  the  garrison  of  which  took  service 
with  him. 

Later,  he  fortified  himself  in  Chihaya,  and  having  inserted  a  spurious 
roll  in  the  temple  of  Tennoji,  amongst  the  prophetic  writings  of  Shotoku 
Daishi,  Masashige  went  with  his  army  to  consult  the  oracle.  The  spurious 
roll  was,  of  course,  opened,  and  in  it  he  was  cryptically  compared  to  a  big 
bird  which  would  overcome  the  huge  fish  whose  presence  would  cause  the 
country  to  be  Hooded  during  the  reign  of  the  ninety-sixth  Emperor,  whilst 
the  sun  would  not  be  seen  for  seventy  days.  The  oracle  once  interpreted,  he 
led  his  army  to  battle  against  the  besieging  forces  of  Takatoki,  whom  he 
defeated  (1333).  His  next  exploit  was  the  siege  and  capture  of  Kioto  during 
the  Ashikaga  revolt  (see  SUGIMOTO),  when  he  used  another  ruse  against 
Takauji.  But  the  revolt  of  the  Akamatsu  then  taking  place  and  the 
re-organisation  of  the  defeated  Ashikaga  forces  being  rapidly  effected  did 
not  leave  any  chance  of  peace.  Masashige  advised  Go  Daigo  to  leave 
Kioto  for  the  Hieizan,  which  could  easily  be  fortified,  whilst  Nitta 
YOSHISADA  and  himself  would  protect  the  surrounding  country.  His  advice 
was  set  at  nought  by  the  intrigues  of  the  courtier  KIYOTAKA  (q.v.)  and  the 
obstinacy  of  the  Emperor  (1336). 

Masashige  then  left  Kioto,  and  sent  all  of  his  retainers  back  to  his  own 
family,  keeping  with  him  only  his  brother  Masatsuye,  and  his  son  Masatsura. 
At  the  posting  station  of  Sakurai',  where  they  stopped,  he  refused  to  allow 
his  son  to  follow  him  any  further,  and  presented  him  with  a  book  on 
strategy.  He  also  gave  him  some  loyal  advice,  and  exhorted  him  to  defend 
at  all  costs  their  own  castle  of  Kongozan.  The  boy  was  to  prove  himself 
worthy  of  his  father,  and  although  the  episode  above  related  is  not  credited 
by  modern  critical  historians  it  is  still  kept  in  the  elementary  Japanese 

Masashige   gathered   together  some  seven   hundred   men   and   set  out  for 



the  Hiogo  coast,  where  the  Emperor,  hearing  of  his  decision,  sent  him  an 
order  to  come  back  to  Kioto;  but  it  was  raining,  his  men  were  tired, 
and  Masashige  decided  to  delay  till  the  morrow.  The  army  of  Yoshisada 
was  near  by  to  defend  the  coast  near  Minatogawa,  and  he  would  have 
returned,  but  in  the  morning  mist  the  fleet  of  Ashikaga  Takauji  was  sighted 
near  the  land  and  the  army  of  Tadayoshi  closing  behind  at  the  same  time. 
Yoshisada  faced  the  lleet,  leaving  Tadayoshi  to  Masashige,  who  inflicted 
upon  his  opponent  a  slight  defeat.  On  the  second  day  his  followers  were 
reduced  to  four  hundred;  on  the  third  there  remained  only  seventy- three, 
and  Masashige  had  been  wounded  eleven  times.  Surrounded  by  the  army 
of  Tadayoshi  and  that  of  Takauji,  under  Ko  no  Moronao,  they  retreated 
into  some  houses,  and  Takauji,  moved  by  their  valour,  sent  a  messenger  to 
Masashige  offering  to  let  him  pass  through  his  lines  unharmed.  The  hero 
replied  that  if  he  needed  a  road  he  was  still  capable  of  cutting  it  himself, 
but  that  he  would  avail  himself  of  the  courtesy  of  his  opponent  to  send 
Chikudo  Maru  to  his  castle  of  Kongozan  to  apprise  Masatsura  of  his  father's 
death.  He  then  assembled  his  men,  and  ten  times  made  them  take  a  solemn 
oath  to  send  their  ghosts  unto  the  seventh  generation  of  their  descendants 
to  excite  their  hate  against  the  Ashikaga,  praying  himself  that  he  might 
have  seven  lives  to  lay  for  the  service  of  the  Emperor,'*  after  which  they  all 
committed  seppuku.  Masashige's  head  was  taken  to  Kioto  to  be  publicly 
exposed,  where  it  was  seen  by  his  widow  and  his  son  (1336). 

Masashige  is  generally  shown  in  full  armour,  with  a  fierce  expression 
on  his  face.  The  two  most  common  episodes  are  his  separation  from  his 
son  and  the  battle  of  Minatogawa,  when  he  is  depicted  beneath  his  standard 
seated  on  a  folding  seat  by  the  sea  coast,  the  big  drum  being  beaten  to 
assemble  his  followers. 

His  crest  is  a  chrysanthemum  flower  half  dipped  in  the  waves.  A 
curious  netsuke,  once  in  the  Gilbertson  collection,  shews  him  seated  on  a 
coil  of  rope  with  a  mariner's  compass  in  his  hand.  Many  popular  histories 
of  Masashige  have  been  published,  amongst  which  the  History  of  the  Three 
Kusunoki  and  the  Nanko  Seichu  Gwaden  (1815). 

*  Hirose,  in  1904,  composed  a  poem  embodying  the  same  wish. 





537.  KUSUNOKI  MASATSURA  $f  IE  ft  was  the  son  of  Kusunoki 
Masashige.  He  was  eleven  years  old  when  his  father  sent  him  back  home 
before  the  battle  of  Minatogawa.  After  seeing  the  severed  head  of  Masashige 
he  went  into  a  room  full  of  Buddhist  figures  in  their  castle  of  Kawachi  to 
commit  seppuku,  but  was  prevented  by  his  mother.  In  1348,  when  only 
twenty-three  years  old,  he  raised  an  army  against  Takauji,  and  with  a 
thousand  men  forming  the  garrison  of  the  castle  of  Chihaya,  he  defeated  the 
attack  of  thirteen  thousand  men  under  the  command  of  Hosokawa  AKIUJI. 
He  was  then  rewarded  by  Go  Murakami  with  the  title  of  Sacmun  no  Kami. 
In  Kyoto  he  attacked  Takauji,  who  ran  away,  his  wife  was  killed,  and  his 
brother  Tadayoshi  escaped  by  an  underground  passage.  In  1349,  Ko  no 
Moronao  and  Moroyasu  attacked  him  with  six  thousand  men,  he  went  to 
Yoshino,  and  the  Emperor  told  him  that  he  trusted  him  as  his  elbows  and 
thighs;  he  wept,  and  with  his  men  worshipped  at  the  tomb  of  Go  Daigo, 
upon  which  they  cut  their  names  with  their  swords,  and  with  an  arrow  he 
inscribed  upon  the  door  of  the  temple  the  poem: 


Kanete  kakugo  no* 
Azusa  yumi 

Naki  kazu  ni   iru 
Naozo  todomeru, 
which  is  still  on  the  door  now,  and  means: 

"  I  could  not  return,  I  presume,  so  I  will  keep  my  name  among  those 
who  are  dead  with  bows"  (allusion  to  his  having  written  it  with  an 

With  three  thousand  soldiers  only  he  met  the  enemy  on  the  road 
"between  rice  fields"  (naivaie),  at  the  battle  of  Shijo  Nawate.  He  was 
fatally  wounded,  and  committed  seppuku  with  his  brother  Masatoki. 

Once,  on  his  way  to  Yoshino  he  rescued  the  court  lady,  BEN  NO  NAIJI, 

6  Also  read  Kanete  omoye  ba. 


from  the  attacks  of  Moronao's  servants,  and  the  Emperor  suggested  that  she 
should  become  his  wife,   but  he  refused  the  gift,  replying: 

"Totemo  yo  ni 
i  Nagaro  bekumo 


Aranu   mi  no 

Kari  no  chigiri  wo 


•>  Ikade  musuban." 

-    \ 


can  I  promise  a  short  marriage  who  would  by  no  means  live  long  in 
this  world." 

538.  KUYA    SHONIN    |g  •&  ±   A-       Old    priest    who,    when    on    a 
pilgrimage,  suspended  from  his  waist  a  metal  gong  and  struck  it  every  time 
he  had  said  ten  prayers.      He  is  depicted  with  that  implement,   the  necessary 
hammer  in  the  right  hand,  a  staff  in  the  left,  and  a  sprig  of  bamboo  in  his 

539.  KUZUNOHA  U   0)   ||.     The  fox  wife  of  ABE  xo  YASUNA  (q.v.), 
depicted   nursing   her   child,   or   as   a   white   fox    giving   ABE   the   key  to  her 
disappearance  in  a  dream.      She  has  usually  a  writing  brush  in  her  mouth. 

540.  KWAKKIO.     See   KAKKIO. 

541.  KWANROKU   US  ]AV      The    Corean    priest,   KWAL-LEUK,   who,   in 
602,  brought  to  the  Court  of  the  Empress  Suiko  the  books  of  the   Calendar 
and    treatises    on    astrology   and   magic.      He   was   rebuked   by   the    Imperial 
Prince   Shotoku,   who  was  afraid   least  occult  practices  might  prove  fatal  to 

542.  KWANNON   H  "|f   (the    Chinese    KWANYIN,    Sanskrit    AVALOKITE- 
SEVARA).       This    Boddhisatva,    Deity    of    Mercy,    spiritual    son    of    AMIDA,    is 
represented  in  a  feminine  shape  because   in    China   its   worship   got   confused 
with    that    of    a    deified    daughter    of    a   semi-legendary    King   of   Chow,   of 
whom  it  was  said  that,  when  she  refused  to  marry  the  man  selected  by  her 
father   and   was  sentenced   to  death,   the  executioner's  sword   broke    on    her 
neck.     Kwannon  is  said  to  have  visited  Hades,  and  when  at  the  bottom  of 
the  last  circle  she  took  such  compassion  upon  the  damned  that  she  exclaimed, 



Amitofo!  and  a  rain  of  lotus  suddenly  fell,  the  foundations  of  Hades  were 
shaken,  and  the  damned  released,  after  which,  the  Regent  of  Hell  sent  her 
to  the  Lotus  Paradise  Island  of  Poo  Too  on  a  lotus  flower.  The  Butsu  dzo 
dzui  (II.,  p.  12)  gives  the  eight  varieties  of  Kwannon  as: 

Senslriit,  with  a  thousand  hands,  of  which  some  forty  are  shown,  with 
various  attributes,  gems,  lotus,  willow,  wheel,  begging  bowl,  shakujo, 
halbert,  etc. 

Bato,  the  horse-headed,  with  three  faces  and  a  miniature  horse  amongst 
her  hair,  with  eight  arms  grasping  the  sword,  axe,  wheel,  sceptre,  and  rope. 

Jiuichimen,  with  eleven  small  faces  upon  her  head,  probably  as  a  relic 
of  the  association  of  Avalokitesevara  with  Manjusri  (Monju)  and  Vajrapani; 
her  left  hand  holds  a  lotus  and  her  right  is  extended  downwards. 

Shokwanze-on,  the  Holy,  her  right  hand  blessing,  the  left  (lower  down) 
holding  a  lotus. 

Niorin,  the  Kwannon  with  the  wheel  of  the  law,  the  omnipotent,  with 
four  arms  only,  carrying  the  wheel,  a  lotus,  three  jewels,  and  the  last  one 
supporting  the  right  cheek.  At  her  temple  of  Kwan-non-ji,  in  Tsu,  an 
image  found  by  fishermen  in  709  is  enshrined,  and  festivals  called  Oni  Osaye 
are  held  on  the  first  days  of  March  to  ensure  the  prosperity  of  the  fishing 
craft.  See  Satow  and  Howes. 

Juntei.  Kwannon  with  nine  pairs  of  arms  and  a  tiara  of  pyramidal 
shape,  truncated  and  bejewelled. 

Fiiken,  with  eight  arms  and  a  similar  headgear,  she  carries  the  shakujo, 
lotus,  hosso,  and  rope. 

Gorin,  with  the  left  hand  horizontally  extended  on  a  level  with  the 
heart  and  the  right  one  carrying  upright  a  willow.  Besides  which,  there  are 
thirty-two  more  presentments  of  the  Goddess,  also  given  in  the  Butsu  dzo 
dzui,  amongst  which  Riugu  seated  on  a  dragon,  Anoku  on  a  rock  near  a 
waterfall,  Gyoran  standing  on  a  carp  are  the  most  popular  forms  of  this 

There  is  in  Nara  a  figure  of  Kwannon  called  Hito  Koto  Kwannon,  to 
which  it  is  unlawful  to  pray  more  than  once  because  she  Answers  only  one 
prayer  from  anyone. 



Thirty-three  places  are  particularly  sacred  to  Kwannon.  Kwannon  is 
considered  as  an  incarnation  of  the  last  Buddha  Shaka,  who  manifests  himself 
in  the  thirty-two  incarnations  to  propagate  the  understanding  of  his  doctrine 
amongst  human  beings,  and  as  such  his  name  signifies:  the  Master  whose 
gaze  is  lowered  upon  the  earth. 

An  image  of  Kwannon  was  once  found  in  the  Arakawa  (Sumida  Gawa) 
by  a  fisherman  named  HAMANARI,  who  caught  it  in  his  fishing  net,  and 
with  his  two  brothers,  Tomonari  and  Takenari,  he  enshrined  the  image  in 
a  small  straw  hut  at  AGASA,  from  which  originated  the  temple  of  ASAKUSA. 

The  image  is  now  called  ICHI  NO  GONGEN,  and  the  three  brothers  have 
been  deified  as  SAXSHA  GOXGEN. 

The  version,  however,  varies,  and  it  is  given  in  Satow  and  Howes'  as 
follows:  In  the  reign  of  Suiko  Tenno  there  lived  on  the  Golden  Hill,  north 
of  Tokyo,  where  the  Asakusa  temple  now  stands,  a  noble  named  HASHI  NO 
NAKATOMO.  Banished  from  court,  he  sank  to  such  depths  of  poverty  as  to 
become  a  fisherman,  in  which  occupation  he  was  helped  by  two  of  his  old 
retainers.  One  day  every  haul  of  the  net  brought  back  a  small  image  of 
Kwannon,  about  one  inch  and  eight-tenths  high,  no  matter  how  often 
they  threw  it  back  into  the  water.  Finally,  Nakatomo  carried  it  to  the 
top  of  the  hill  and  built  a  shrine  for  it. 

543.  KWANSHOJO  'If  JEI  5*-     Other  name  of  SUGAWARA  NO  MICHIZANE, 
better  known  under  his  posthumous  title  of  TENJIX  SAMA,  or  Temmangu. 

544.  KWANSHIX  Ifsji  jtt,  or  KWAKKAI  DAISHI;    also  DENTO  DAISHI.      A 
blind  priest  who  founded  the  Toshodaiji   temple  at  Nara. 

545.  KWANTAI  IT  ^.     One  of  the  sons  of  Benten,  also  called  SEKION; 
transformation    of    Fugen    Bosatsu    (Samantabhadra),   shown    with    a    girdle 
emblematic  of   magistrature. 

546.  KWANYU  P  33  (HI  *ffif)-  Celebrated  Chinese  general,  canonised 
as  an  immortal  in  1128  by  Kao  Tsung,  deified  as  God  of  War  under 
the  name  KWANTI  in  1594  by  Cheng  Tsung,  and  further,  in  1878,  raised 
to  the  same  level  as  Confucius  as  chief  object  of  national  worship,  the 



KWAXYIT    (.V.) 
KUME   NO  SEN.NIN    (ll'.L.R.)  KOMEI    (-V.) 

NATIVES   OK    K1KO    (./.) 

KUSUNOKI    MASASHIGK   (;/'./..«.)  KWANYU    (./.) 

KOBITO   p.) 


promotion  being  duly  recorded  in  the  Peking  Gazette  (Lyall,  Oriental  Studies, 
Vol.  2). 

Kwanyu  began  life  as  a  seller  of  bean  curd,  but  spent  his  spare  time 
in  study,  and  a  chance  meeting  with  Liu  PEI  (GENTOKU)  gave  him  the 
opportunity  of  his  life.  He  entered  into  an  oath  of  brotherhood  with  the 
latter  and  with  Chohi,  the  blue-eyed  red-haired  butcher,  in  a  peach  orchard 
belonging  to  Chohi.  He  then  became  a  general  (184),  and  followed  the 
fortunes  of  Gentoku  and  the  Han  dynasty.  T'sao  T'sao,  having  made 
prisoner  the  two  wives  of  Gentoku,  tried  to  incite  Kwanyu  to  sin  by  sending 
him  to  guard  the  two  ladies  at  night  in  their  room.  But  Kwanyu  vindicated 
his  loyalty  to  his  friend  by  staying  the  whole  night  standing  in  a  passage 
leading  to  the  apartment,  with  his  drawn  sword  in  one  hand  and  a  lantern 
in  the  other.  He  was  killed  in  battle  by  Sonken  (Sux  K'TAX)  in  219. 

Kwanyu  is  a  very  popular  though  ferocious  figure,  depicted  in  Chinese 
dress,  grasping  in  one  hand  his  long  black  beard  (to  which  he  owed  his 
nickname:  the  Lord  of  the  splendid  black  beard)  and  in  the  other  a  Chinese 
halberd,  or  spear.  Once,  T'sao  T'sao  gave  him  a  brocade  bag  in  which  to 
keep  his  beard,  and  Kwanyu  is  shown  receiving  it  on  the  end  of  his  halberd 
(Ehon  Tsithoshi).  Sometimes  he  is  accompanied  by  some  retainer  of  fierce 
aspect,  his  squire  Tcheou  Tsang  or  by  his  own  son,  Koan  Pin,  but  more 
often  shown  in  company  with  the  other  two  heroes  of  Han,  Chohi  and 
Gentoku  (q.v.).  He  is  also  depicted  guarding  the  wives  of  Gentoku  (some- 
times reading  while  his  enemies  watch  him,  hidden  behind  hangings),  or 
reading  a  message  from  T'sao  T'sao. 

547.  KYOCHI  |H   ^f,   of   Choan,   went  to  Mount    Ro  with  his  nephew 
TAIRO,   and    later   was   led   to   Mount   Gi   by  a  divinity  disguised  as  a  wood 
cutter.      He   built   an   altar   and   learnt    Taoism.      One   day   he   saw   a   fairy 
coat   drop   at   his  feet  from   the  sky,  and  as  soon  as  he  shouldered   it  clouds 
bore   him   aloft. 

548.  KYOSEIGAN  ff  ffi  ^-      A  sage  tying  needles  in   the  mane  of  a 
wild  horse.     He  bought  a  wild  horse  in  Choan  and  rode  it  to  the  abode  of 
the   female   Rishi,   TAI    ITSU-GENKUN    ^  —  }£  3a- 



The  latter  said:  "This  horse  is  a  dragon  under  my  care,  useless  to 
mankind;  let  it  loose  to  go  to  the  sea  of  Isui";  and  her  page  said:  "when 
the  horse  comes  back  some  needles  must  be  sent  me  from  a  place  named 
Baku,  where  they  are  kept  by  a  man  named  Denba." 

Kyoseigan  did  as  he  was  told,  and  tied  the  needles  to  the  horse's  mane, 
and  went  to  Isui.  When  the  horse  reached  the  water  it  was  at  once 
transformed  into  a  dragon  and  went  away. 

549.  KYOSENHEI   fp  ^  ¥   (offers  a  peach    to   a   page).      He   lived    in 
Mount    JOYO    the    whole    of    the    period    Kuun    of    the    reign    of    Eiso   ^  ^ 
of    To.       His    neighbour,    KYOMEIJO     iff-   t^J   %*,    came    to    live    in   the   same 
mountain   a   century    later,    in    the   twelfth   year   of   Kanto,  under  the  rule  of 
Tokuso.      This    latter    sage    had    a    hundred   and   one   female   attendants   to 
gather   wood,   and   once   one  of  them   met   Kyosenhei  seated  on  a  rock,   who 
told    her    that   he   was   the   ancestor   of   her   master    and    gave   her   a   peach. 
Kyosenhei   is  sometimes  depicted  as  a  woman. 

550.  KYOSHINKUN  jvj:  jit  ^.     The  Chinese  Hi)  SUN  ff-  jg  (Kyo  son), 
one    of    the    Taoist    patriarchs,    who   died   at    the   age   of   one    hundred    and 
thirty-six  years,  and  was  followed  to  Heaven  by  the  whole  of  his  household, 
including   his   dog   and   cock   (compare   RYUAN).      His   early   days  were  spent 
in  amusement,  but  once  he  shot  a  fawn  with  an  arrow,  and  the  sight  of  the 
doe    licking  her   dead  progeny   led  him    to   reform   and   to   enter   a   career   of 
study    and    religious    practices.      He    was   able    to   cure   diseases,    make   gold 
from   lead,  and  a  pine  tree  which   he   had  painted  in   a  house  protected  the 
inmates  against  fire  and  flood. 

551.  KYOYO    HI  fg   lived    in    the   time   of   Bu   of   Shyu.      He   had   six 
brothers,  and  they  all   learnt  magic,  built  a  hut,  and  became  fairies.      When 
he  ascended  to  Heaven  he  left  his  hut  on  the  mountain,   which   is   therefore 
called  the  Hut  Mountain,  ROZAN. 

552.  KYUSHOKI    Jr   J|l    ^   was   a    Chinese   sage   of   the   time    of    the 
Emperor  Taiso  of  Gen.      A  dead  tree   stood   in    the   Emperor's   gardens,   and 
the  sage  revived  it  by  running  round  and  whipping  the  trunk. 





553.  LAO  TSZE.     See  ROSHI. 

554.  LAUGHERS    (The    THREE)    of    Hsu    Hsi.      KOKEI   SANSHO 

Name  usually  given  to  a  Chinese  story,  frequently  illustrated  in  pictures, 
showing  two  old  men  taking  leave  of  a  third  one  at  the  end  of  a  bridge, 
the  three  laughing  heartily. 

There  are  two  versions  of  it.  One  says  that  an  old  philosopher  retired 
to  an  island  and  swore  never  to  leave  it.  Two  of  his  friends  used  to  visit 
him,  and  tried  every  time  to  make  him  break  his  vow,  but  in  vain.  Once, 
however,  that  they  had  whiled  away  the  time  with  a  more  copious  series  of 
libations,  the  two  beguiled  the  old  man  over  the  small  bridge  connecting 
his  island  with  the  rest  of  the  world,  and  then  the  three  made  fun  of  it. 

A  more  dignified  version  is  given  in  Taj i ma's  Relics.  In  the  time  of 
Hsiao  Wu  (373-396)  there  lived  a  Chinese  priest  named  Hui  YUAN,  ^  ^  ££ 
£ljj,  Kei  Yen  Hoshi,  who  had  a  thousand  pupils  in  the  temple  Tung  Lin 
Ssu,  on  the  mountain  Lu  Shan.  This  worthy  never  left  the  mountain  for 
thirty  years,  but  used  to  descend  to  Hu  Hsi,  halfway  down,  and  then  take 
leave  of  his  visitors.  Two  friendly  literati,  Tao  Yuan  Ming  (Toyemmei,  q.v.), 
and  Liu  Hsiu  Ching,  (Riku  shu  sei)  |§?  $£  ^,  often  visited  him,  and  one 
dav,  in  the  ardour  of  conversation,  he  walked  with  them  further  than  usual. 

J  * 

They  stopped  and   laughed   when    they    became    aware    of    it.      See   Wakan 
Meigwa  yen,  IV;   Ehon   Hokart,  II.,    12. 

555.  LI  PEH  (Li  TAI  PEH).     See  RIHAKU. 

556.  LITERATURE   (Gon  of).     See   MAO-CH'ANG. 

557.  LIU  PANG.     See  KAN  NO  Koso. 

558.  LIU  PEL     See  GENTOKU. 

559.  LOK-LI-SEN-SAI  (Kio  Li  SIEN  SHENG).     One  of  the  Four  Recluse 
Greyheads.     See  KAKWOKO. 

560.  LOST  CASH  (Story  of  the).     AWOTO  SAYEMON  FUJITSUNA  dropped 
once  at  night  ten  cash  in  the  waters  of  the  Nameri  Gawa,  and  sending  for 



men  and  torches  had  them  picked  up  from  the  bottom  of  the  brook,  spending 
fifty  cash  in  the  operation. 

Some  of  his  friends  chided  him  upon  this  apparently  unprofitable 
expenditure,  and  he  replied  that  any  way  the  ten  cash  would  have  been  lost 
if  he  had  not  spent-  fifty,  the  fifty  benefited  someone  else  besides  himself,  and 
therefore  none  of  the  total  expenditure  of  sixty  could  be  called  unprofitable. 
This  has  been  illustrated  by  Hokusai  in  the  Awoto  Fujitsuna-moryo-an  of 
Bakin  (1875  Yedo,  5  vols.). 

For  another  trait  of  Awoto  Sayemon  see  OTA  FUJITSUNA. 

561.  LOVE  (Goo  of).      See  AISEN  Mio  O. 

562.  LU  TUNG  PING.      Sennin.      See  RIOTOSHIN. 

563.  LU    WEN.      An    old    man    who    fell    asleep    while    watching    the 
Sennins  playing  at  Go  in  the  mountains,  and  woke  up  after  several  centuries. 

Compare  OSHITSU  (Wang  Chung)  and  the  Chinese  tale  of  YUAN  CHAO 
(Genkei)  and  his  friend  Liu  CH'EN  (Ryushin).  This  story  will  be  found  in 
extenso  in  Greey's  Golden  Lotus. 

564.  MAGATAMA   •&)    -fe.      Comma-shaped  stones   associated   with   the 
fabulous  history  of  Japan   in   the  times  of  Amaterasu   and  Susano   O.     They 
are    sometimes    made    to    serve   as   netsuke.      As    jewels    they    decorated    the 
weapons    of    the    Gods,    and    were    used    as    necklaces.       One     may    wonder 
whether   their   shape   and    use   were    derived    from    the    custom    followed    by 
hunters   of    wearing    the    claws    and    teeth   of    the    wild    animals    they    had 

565.  MAITREYA     |Jjg    fjlj     (Japanese,     MIROKU).        The    next    expected 
incarnation   of   BUDDHA,    depicted   sitting   in   the   Western   fashion   instead    of 
squatting  like  the  Buddha  Shaka.      See  HOTEL 

566.  MAKO  j$t  $j  (also  MAKU).      Female   Sennin  of  the  Taoists,  sister 
of  OYEN   (Wang  Yuan  or   Wang  fang-p'ing),   who   bad   been   made   by   Lao 
Tsze,  the  ruler  of  fifteen  thousand  Genii.     She  acted  as  his  handmaiden  and 
assistant.      She   is   represented  throwing  to  the  ground   grains   of   rice   which 
became    transformed    into    Cinnabar,    in    presence    of    her    brother's    disciple, 



Ts'ai  King  (Saikio),  minister  of  Sung  Hwei  Tsung.  She  is  said  to  have 
had  very  long  nails,  and  the  back  scraper  in  form  of  a  hand  is  called  in 
Japan  Mako  no  te  (hand  of  Mako). 

Hokusai's  Mangwa  shows  the  three  engaged  in  conversation. 

567.  MAMORI.     See  CHARMS. 

568.  MANDARA    3|  P£  $j|,    or    MANDALA.       Circle    or    assemblage    of 
divinities.      BUNKI  MANDARA.     See  CHUJO   HIME. 

569.  MANZAI    jUj    |||.       Word    of    congratulation ;     curtailed    form    of 
Senshiu  Manzai,  wish  of  ten  thousand  years,  used  about  the  New  Year.     The 
name  also  applies  to  the  dancers  or  mummers,  who  go  about  the  streets  in 
groups    of    two,    called    Mikawa    Manzai    (a    custom     introduced    under    the 
Tokugawa  dynasty) ;  when  three  or  more,  the  most  popular  masks  used  being 
the    lion's    (Shishi    mai),     they    are    called     DAI     KAGURA.        The     masks    of 
Hiottoko,  Uzuine,  and  O  Kina  are  also  used. 

Groups    of    dancers    form   a   very    common   theme    in    netsuke,   often   one 
Manzai   dancer  accompanied  by  a  Saizo  performer. 

570.  MAO   CH'ANG   ^   j|.      Chinese   God   of   Literature,   shown   as   a 
slender  figure  in  flowing  robes  standing  upon  a  monster's  head,  and  holding 
a  brush  in  his  extended  hand.     One  foot  touches  the  ground.      He   lived  in 
the  second  century  B.C.,  and  wrote  the  Book  of  Odes. 

571.  MARISHITEN  ^  ^Ij  ^  ^.      Deity  of  martial  aspect,   represented 
mounted   on   a   boar.      It   is  of  Brahmanic  origin,  being  a  transformation  of 
Marichi    Deva   Boddhisattva,   offspring  of  Brahma  and  Goddess  of   light.      It 
is    depicted    with    eight    arms,    carrying    respectively    the   sun,    the   moon,   a 
spear,   a   bow   and   arrow,   a   sword,   a  war  fan.      Marishiten  has  three  faces, 
and  is  the  patron  of  those  who  learn  to  trade.      The  Deity  resides  in  a  star 
of    the    big  Bear,  and  her   husband,    the    Deva  of  the   dipper   with   her   nine 
sons,  in  Sagittarius.     Marishiten  is  also  called  Queen  of  Heaven,  and  some- 
times receives  the  dragon  as  a  further  emblem. 

572.  MARRIAGE  (GOD  of).     GEKKAWO. 



573.  MASAKADO  $f  H  (HEISHIN  NO  ^  Q)}  was,  according  to  legend, 
a  warrior  who  rebelled  in  the  tenth  century  (Tenkei  no  Ran),  and  who  was 
enabled  by  magic  to  create  about  his  person  ghostly  retainers  identical  with 
himself  in  appearance  and  deportment  so  as  to  make  it  impossible  for  him 
to  be  detected.  TAWARA  TODA  (q.v.)  decided  to  kill  him,  and  getting 
amongst  this  crowd  whilst  they  were  asleep  he  felt  the  wrist  of  each  to  find 
a  pulse.  None  had  any  but  Masakado,  who  was  forthwith  despatched  to 
the  realm  of  shades,  when  the  whole  of  his  apparent  retainers  immediately 
disappeared.  The  historical  version  is,  however,  as  follows:  — 

Taira  no  Masakado  formed  a  court  at  Sashima,  in  Shimosa,  and  called 
himself  Heishin  No  (Taira  Prince)  in  open  revolt  against  the  Kioto  govern- 
ment of  the  Fujiwara  Shoguns,  pushing  his  cruelty  so  far  as  to  slay  his 
own  uncle,  Taira  no  Kunika,  who  had  refused  to  recognise  him.  The  latter 
was  avenged  by  his  son,  Taira  no  Sadamori,  who  led  the  Fujiwara  troops 
and  defeated  Masakado.  The  Story  of  Masakado's  rebellion  goes  on  to 
the  effect  that  Hidesato  (better  known  as  Tawara  Toda)  had  thought  to 
enlist  with  Masakado,  but  on  the  occasion  of  his  audience  the  latter,  who 
was  dining,  picked  up  some  rice  which  had  dropped  from  his  bowl  to  the 
mats,  and  Hidesato,  thinking  him  a  miser,  left  to  seek  service  with  the 
Fujiwara.  Masakado,  who  knew  his  skill  as  an  archer,  was  grieved,  and 
fearing  that  he  might  become  an  easy  victim  to  Hidesato's  arrows 
he  caused  several  (some  say  five)  of  his  retainers  to  be  dressed  exactly 
like  him,  arid  to  imitate  his  movements  on  the  battlefield  so  as  to 
baffle  Hidesato.  -The  stratagem  was  successful  until  Hidesato  had  killed 
three  pseudo-Masakados,  when  he  began  abusing  roundly  the  real  one 
in  such  a  way  that  he  had  to  reply,  and  thus  betraying  his  identity 
lost  his  life. 

M.  Bertin,  in  his  Guerres  du  Japan,  identifies  this  arrow  with  the  one 
wetted  with  saliva  which  killed  the  centipede  of  the  legend,  and  he  sees  in 
that  centipede,  Mukade,  a  figure  representing  the  army  of  the  rebels,  which 
went  seven  and  a  half  times  round  the  mountain  Mikami  Yama.  Of  the 
bag  of  rice  and  other  presents  the  explanation  is  simple:  they  represent  the 
lands  and  goods  given  to  Hidesato  by  the  grateful  Fujiwara.  Masakado's 



castle  (Sowa  no  furugosho)  was  for  a  long  time  believed  to  be  haunted  by  the 
ghosts  of  his  soldiers. 

574.  MASAKO    *jfc  -$-.      Daughter  of  Hojo  Tokimasa  by  his  first  wife. 
She  married  Yoritomo,  and  there  is  an  amusing  legend  to  the  effect  that   it 
was  by  mistake.     Yoritomo  was  afraid  of  the  jealousy  of  Masako's  stepmother, 
and   wrote   asking   as  a  wife  her  sister,  who  was  very  plain  of  face;    but  his 
retainer,     Morinaga,     destroyed     this     letter    and    wrote    another,    asking    for 
Masako's  hand.      Hojo   Tokimasa   was   determined  to  marry  his  daughter   to 
a  Taira,  and  wedded   Masako    to  Taira  no  Kanetada,  but  she  eloped  on  her 
wedding   day   with   Yoritomo.      In    a   dramatised   version    the  two  sisters  are 
made   to   dream   of   Yoritomo's    letter,    and    Masako    buys   the   dream   of   her 

Masako,  however,  remained  Hojo  to  the  core,  and  after  the  death  of 
Yoritomo,  although  she  retired  from  the  world  and  became  a  nun,  her 
influence,  combined  with  that  of  her  father's,  secured  for  the  Hojo  clan  the 
first  place  in  the  government  of  Japan. 

575.  MASASHIGE.     See  KUSUNOKI. 

576.  MA  SHE  WANG.     See  BASHIKO. 

577.  MASKS    were    greatly    used    for    No    dances    and   other   theatrical 
performances  to  cover  the  face   of   the  performer   and    represent    the   classical 
face   of  certain    individual,    hero,    deity,    devil,    ghost,    legendary   animal,   etc., 
as  the  case  might  be.      Small  masks  were  used  as  netsuke,  whether  alone  or 
in  groups,  the  masks  of  animals  having  often  a  moveable  jaw. 

War  masks  were  made  of  iron  and  lacquered  in  red  internally. 

Masks  appear  to  have  been  introduced  from  China  about  the  seventh 
and  eighth  centuries  A.D.,  perhaps  in  connection  with  Buddhism.  Deshayes 
mentions  some  old  masks  with  four  lozangular  eyes,':i;  such  as  were  used  on 
New  Year's  Eve  by  the  twenty  demon  expellers  of  that  period  within  the 
palace,  in  the  eighth  century,  but  the  oldest  forms  mentioned  in  the  Shuko 
Jisshu  and  the  Itsukushima  Znye  have  only  two  eyes.  Most  of  these  ancient 

''•'  The  Chinese  say  that  the  pupil  of  the  eye  becomes  square  in   people  who  reach  the  age  of  eight 
hundred  years 



masks,  dating  from  the  Xllth  and  Xlllth  century,  have  strong  hard  features 
and  remarkably  large  noses.  They  were  used  in  the  early  dances  of  military 
or  religious  character:  Sambaso  (VHIth  century),  Shirabiyoshi,  Sarugaku  (Xllth 
century),  Gigaku,  and  Dengaku,  which  preceeded  to  No  GAKU,  or  No  dance 
as  it  is  now  called.  But  few  of  these  old  masks  have  come  to  Europe:  they 
have  been  religiously  kept  in  temples,  like  the  Okame  of  the  Horyuji  temple 
(VHth  century,  Kokktva,  29),  although  a  large  number  of  No  masks,  perhaps 
not  the  best  pieces  but  nevertheless  beautiful  specimens  of  the  mask  maker's 
art,  found  their  way  to  the  Occidental  world  in  the  early  seventies.  Mr. 
Gonse  tells  us  that  they  were  sold  a  vil  prix,  and  only  a  few  collectors, 
chiefly  on  the  Continent,  with  true  insight,  secured  the  finest  specimen. 
There  does  not  appear  to  be  any  representative  collection  of  masks  in 
England.  Dry  goods  stores  for  a  long  time  made  a  feature  of  Japanese 
masks  for  decorative  purposes,  and  of  late  years,  the  genuine  pieces  being 
rare,  worthless  imitations  made  of  paper  pulp  and  plaster  have  become  a 
standard  trade  article. 

Too  many  see  in  masks  the  element  of  grotesque  only,  and  this  may 
account  for  the  small  number  of  mask  collectors.  But  even  those  who  do 
not  admire  the  full-sized  masks  can  hardly  fail  to  wax  enthusiastic  over  the 
smaller  mask  netsuke,  in  which  the  wood,  either  bare  or  lacquered,  has  been 
treated  by  the  artist  with  such  consummate  skill  as  to  impart  to  the  small 
mask  as  much  life,  energy  and  caractere  as  if  it  were  of  natural  size. 

In  small  netsuke  masks  groups  are  common,  often  representing  the 
various  figures  of  a  same  No  dance,  as  for  instance  in  Dojoji,  the  mask  of 
Kiyohime  as  a  young  girl,  coupled  with  the  witch  mask  of  Hannya. 

Netsuke  masks  are  sometimes  carved  out  of  a  material  called  Honen, 
with  pink  fleshy  tints,  varying  in  depth  with  the  thickness,  as  in  a  cameo. 
The  red  layer  has  a  substratum  of  creamy  colour,  and  this  material  was  said 
to  be  derived  from  the  skull  of  the  Howo  bird:  it  appears  to  be  from  the 
crane.  The  names  of  large  No  masks  are  generally  written  inside,  often  in 
red  and  in  Kana,  but  Japanese  dealers'  marks  are  apt  to  be  found  written  in 
a  similar  way. 

Few    comprehensive    illustrated    lists    of    masks    are    available;     Muller's 



exhaustive  essay  in  the  Toung  Pao  gives  a  hundred  and  three  names  and  a 
list  of  the  No  in  which  they  were  used,  but  only  twenty-three  figures.  It 
has  therefore  been  thought  advisable  to  devote  to  this  subject  a  fairly 
large  space,  and  to  give  a  list  based  upon  a  number  of  works,  indicated 
further  on  in  a  bibliographical  note,  in  the  hope  that  such  a  list  may  prove 
of  some  use  to  collectors. 

1.  AYAKASHI,  man's  mask  (illustrated  in  the   KOKK\VA). 

2.  MITAMA  AYAKASHI,  variant  of  i   (K). 

3.  AKOBU,   and  AKOBUJO  (W  and  T). 

4.  AKUBO,    wicked  priest  with  coarse  beard  (G). 

5.  AKUJO,   wicked  old  man   usually  bearded  (T). 

6.  HANAKOBU  AKUJO,  same  as  above,  with  wart  on  the  nose. 

7.  KOBU  AKUJO,  variant  of  5  (K  and  M). 

8.  MEIKA  AKUJO,  variant  of  5. 

9.  WASHIHANA  AKUJO,  variant  of  5,  with  "eagle"  nose  (HoK.  MANGWA). 

10.  AMA  ZA  KURO. 

11.  ASAKURA,  see  KOJO. 

12.  AYAKIRI,  Gigaku  mask  (S-J). 

13.  BATO,  Gigaku  mask  with  long  hair  and  big  nose  (S-J). 

14.  BESHIMI,  demon's  mask  (T,  W,  Sun,  HM). 

15.  CHOREI    BESHIMI,    variant    of    Beshimi,   chief   Oni    (Mu).      See    also 

1 6.  BOSATSU,  mask  of  a  Boddhisattva  (S-J). 

17.  BUAKU,  very  bad  but  plucky  old  man. 

18.  BUGAKU,  perhaps  a  variant  of  17  (HM). 

19.  CHIJI  NO  Jo,  old  man's  mask  (B-I,   M). 

20.  CHOJA,    Gigaku   mask   of    a  thin   smiling   man's    face  ,  with    hooked 

21.  CHUJO,  or  WAKA  OTOKO,  young  man,  an  officer  (Sun,  T,  M). 

22.  DAI  HECHI,  inscribed  ;/C^*2  L,  Dai  Hetsu  shi,  a  devil's  mask  (HM). 

23.  DAI  KASSHOKU,  smiling  female  mask  (K). 

24.  DAI  DOJI,  great  mask  of  DOJI  (young  man). 

25.  DEIGAN,  from  Dei,  mud  and  Gan,  eye,  woman  mask  (K,  T,  M). 



26.  EMMEI  KWANJA,  perhaps  Daikoku  (Muller,  Berlin  Museum  fur  Volker- 
kunde).     See  JOMEIKANJA. 

27.  FUDO,  God  of  waterfalls  (q.v.)  (M). 

28.  FUKAI,  also  FUKAMI,  SHAKUMI,  or  Zo,  young  woman  (Sun,  T,  Mu). 

29.  FUKUJIN,  lucky  man  (HM). 

30.  FUTEN,  wind  god  (q.v.)  (M). 

31.  FUKAKUSA  OTOKO,  man's  mask  with  anguished  face  (K). 

32.  GEDO,  demon's  or  heretic's  mask  (H,  M). 

33.  GENJORAKU,  Gigaku  mask  (S-J). 

34.  HAKUSHIKI,    "white    coloured"    (Sun),    identical    with    Okina    as    a 
Sambasso   mask.      It  is  of  the  same  shape  as  Kokushiki,  which,  however,  is 
all  black. 

35.  HANNYA,   mask  of  a  female  demon,  of  frequent  occurrence;   used  in 
the   No,    Adachigahara,   Dojoji   (Kiyohime)    Aoi    no    ue,    Momijigari,    in    the 
representations  of  Watanabe  no  Tsuna,   Omori   Hikohichi,   etc.   (Sun,   K,  M, 
T,  Mu). 

36.  HASHIHIME,  the  Bridge  maiden  (Sun,  K,  M). 

37.  HEIDA,  man's  mask  (Sun,  K,  M). 

38.  HEMI  Jo,  old  man's  mask,  very  similar  to  Sanko  (Sun). 

39.  HIOTTOKO,    man's    mask    with    the    mouth    brought   far   forward   in 
tubular  shape,  or  merely  pouting  lips,  sometimes  with  a  moustache,  perhaps 
derived   from   the  octopus.      Commonly   met   with  on   Manzai   dancers  as    a 
comic  mask  and  used  in  Kiogen  (HM). 

40.  HOKWANSANTE,  Gigaku  mask  (S-J). 

41.  IKAZUCHI,  other  name  of  the  Thunder  God  KAMINARI,  or  Raiden  (q.v.) 
(M,  Mu). 

42.  IKKAKU   SENNIN   (q.v.),   man's   mask  with  a  single  horn  on  the  fore- 
head.     Chief  personage  of  the  ATo  of  the  same  name  by  Motoyosu. 

43.  IMAWAKA,  man's  mask  (Sun). 

44.  JAGUCHI,  "Snake's  mouth"  (BMfV). 

45.  JIDO,  boy's  mask,  the  chief  performer  in  the  No  Kikujido  (Sun). 

46.  JISUNGAMI,  "Ten  feet  Kami"  female  mask  (BI,  M). 

47.  Jo,  generic  name  for  masks  of  old  men  (HM). 


BUAKU    (././;.) 
MAGOJIRO   (M.  r.) 

KIJO    (U.T.) 
SHOJO   (O.L.K.) 

SAMBASO    (./.) 

OX  I    (.-/.«.) 
hEIKKO   (./.«.) 

nr.ic.AX  (H.I.) 

BOSATSU    (»"././.'.) 
SOJOHO  (n:i..ii.) 
KAMIXAK1    (/(./.) 

RlUJIX's    ATTKX1IAXT    (ir.C..l.) 

RAKAX    (O.C.K.) 

KITKAI    (.-;./;.) 

ROCO   (./.«.) 


48.  JOMEI  KANJA,   mask  of  old  man  with  smiling   face   and   chin    beard 
apparently  identical  with  26  (BI,  M). 

49.  JIUROKU,   "sixteen"    man   with    restful    expression,   perhaps   Kikujido 
when  older. 

50.  KACHIKI,  "Hungry"  female  mask  (K). 

51.  KAGEKIYO  (q.v.),   mask   of  a  blind  old  man  hero  of  the  No  of  same 
name  (T). 

52.  KAMINARI,  see  IKAZUCHI,  Thunder  God  (M). 

53.  KANTAN  NO  OTOKO,  man  from  HANTAN  (Chih  lih,  China),  hero  of  a 
No  translated  in  Chamberlain's  Classical  Poetry  of  the  Japanese  (Sun). 

54.  KANYAZU,  frog  mask  used  in  the  No,  JIRAIYA. 

55.  KATSUJIKI,  man  mask,  a  Glutton  (T,  Mu). 

56.  Kuo,  female  demon's  mask,  smaller  than  HANNYA. 

57.  KIOKUMI,  female  mask  (M). 

58.  KITOKU,  Gigaku  mask  (S-J). 

59.  KITSUNE,  fox  mask  (H,  M). 

60.  KOBESHIMI,  small  HESHIMI,  demon's  mask,  sometimes  bearded  (T,  K). 

61.  KOJA,  "Fox-Snake"  (BMfV). 

62.  KOJI,  perhaps  identical  with  Katsujiki  (HM).    TOGAN  KOJI  ;  JINEN  KOJI. 

63.  KOJO,  "Small  old  man"  (T). 

64.  KOIGUCHI  KITOKU,  Gigaku  mask  (S-J). 

65.  KOKUJIKI,  the  Black  Sambasso  mask. 

66.  KOOMOTE,  small  female  mask  (HM,  Sun,  K,  T). 

67.  KONKWAI,  mask  of  fox  transformed  into  an  old  priest. 

68.  KOTOBIDE,  "Small  Tobide"  (Sun). 

69.  Ko  OUCHIJO,  see  OUCHIJO  (Sun). 

70.  KOZURA,  small  maiden  (M). 

71.  KUMASAKA,  see  KUMASAKA  CnoiiAN  the  robber  (Sun). 

72.  KUROHIGE,  black  bearded  man  (Sun). 

73.  KUROKAMI,  black  haired  man  (BMfV). 

74.  KWONIN,  Gigaku  masks  (S-J). 

75.  MAGOJIRO,  female  mask  (Mu,  K,  M). 

76.  MAIJO,  or  BUJO,  dancing  old  man  (K). 



77.  MAMBI,     "  perfect     eyebrows,"     conspicuous     by     their     absence    (\V, 

78.  MASU,  or  MASUGAMI,  girl's  mask  (K). 

79.  MOKO,  "furious  Tiger"  (BMfV). 

80.  NAKIMASU,  Weeping  girl  (K). 

Si.  NAMAXARI,  Demon's  mask  with  shorter  horns  than  Hannya,  used  in 
the  No  Shekkoseki  (sec  Tamamo  no  Maye),  and  depicted  on  the  Oni  caught 
by  Koremochi  (HM,  W,  Mu). 

82.  NANJA,   "Man  snake"  (BMfV). 

83.  NIAKUXAX,  identical  with  Chujo  (HM). 

84.  NIUDO,    same   as   Mitsume    Niudo,   three-eyed  goblin.      Niudo  means 
"retired    to   religious   life." 

85.  OBESHIMI,    "great    Heshimi,"    hornless    demon's    mask    with    mouth 
tightly  closed  (Sun,   T,   K). 

86.  OKA.ME,  see  UZUME  (M,  HM,  Gillot). 

87.  O    KINA,    Sambasso    mask   of   old    man,    with    tufts   of   hair   on   the 
forehead   and    at    corners   of   mouth,   very   similar   to   a   comic   Roman    mask 
illustrated   by   Floegels   (Munsterberg). 

88.  OMOXI   (BMfV). 

89.  ONI,  generic  name  for  demon  (HM). 

90.  OTOBIDE,  Great  TOBIDE,  devil's  mask  with  open  mouth,  black  beard, 
no  horns  (Sun,  HM,  Mu). 

91.  OTOKO  and  ONXA,  old  people,  man  and  woman,  Gigaku  masks. 

92.  RAIDEN,  see  Kaminari,  Ikazuchi  (M). 

93.  RASHOMON,  mask  of  devil,  the  oni   of  Rachomon,  see  Watanabe  no 
Tsuna  (Mu,  Gillot). 

94.  OUCHIJO,  old  man's  mask  (Sun). 

95.  RAN  Rio,  mask  of  the  Sea  King  Riujin,  also  called  Riu-O.     Gigaku 
mask   (S-J). 

96.  ROJO,  smiling  old  woman  (T). 

97.  Roso,  smiling  old  priest  (Gillot). 

98.  SAISORO,   Gigaku   mask  (S-J). 

99.  SAMBA,  or  SAMBASSO  (q.v.),  (HM,  Mu,  Shoken  Kisho),   see  the  masks 


KUROKAMI    («•/•) 

SHO-JO   (/l.f.) 

MASU  (B.I.) 

.MAMBI    (f.A..V.) 

RANKIU    (../.) 
CHICHI    NO  JO   (*./.) 

JISUNGAMI    (/.'./.) 
YACE   O.NNA   (('.,•/. .I/.) 

KACHOMON"    (O.C.R.) 

KOKUSHIKI    («./.) 

VACK   OTOKO    («./•) 

HASHIJIME   (C..-/.^/.) 

SHISIII    (/.'./•) 


DEVI  I.   (f..-l.M.) 

SHAKA    (I' 

1   ' 


of  Kokushiki  and  Hakushiki  and  Okina.     Also  as  a  comic  figure  with  tongue 
pulled  out. 

100.  SANKO,   or  SANKOJO,   mask    of    old    man    originated   by   the  carver 
Sankobo   (T,   K,   M). 

101.  SARU,    Monkey   (HM),    there    are    several    variants,    amongst    which 
SARU   BESHIMI   and   SARU   TOBIDE,   both   monkey   devils. 

102.  SARUTA,   Gigaku    mask   of   Saruta    Hiko   no   Mikoto   with    the   long 
nose,   easily   confused   with    the   Tengu   (S-J). 

103.  SEMIMARU,  man  mask  of  the  famous  flute  player  (q.v.). 

104.  SHAKA,  mask  of  the  Buddha  (S-J). 

105.  SHAKUMI,  female  mask,  see  FUKAI  (K). 

1 06.  SHI  KAMI,    man's   mask   frowning   (Sun). 

107.  SHINJA   (W,   T). 

108.  SHINSOTOKU,  Gigaku  mask  (S-J). 

109.  SHINTAI,  man's  mask  (K). 

no.     SHIOFUKI,  the  salt  wind,  the  mouth  extended  in  a  long  spout  (HM). 
in.     SHISHIGUCHI,  Lion's  mouth,  mentioned  in  the  Sun  (M). 

112.  SHIWAJO,  frowning  wrinkled  old  man  (Sun,  W,  T). 

113.  SHOJO  (q.v.),  sake  drinker  (Sun,  T,   K). 

114.  SHOJO,   old   man's   mask   with   bearded  face  and  painful  expression 
(K,  M). 

115.  SHUNKWAN,   mask   of  the  priest  Shunkwan,  hero  of  the  No  of  the 
same  name  (q.v.)  (M,  p.   211,   mention   in  Sun). 

116.  SUIKO,  Bugaku  mask  with   flat   ears,   pointed   eagle  nose,  coxcomb 
on  top  of  the  head  which  is  covered  with  tiger's  skin.      See  KAPPA. 

117.  SUMIYOSHI  OTOKO,  young  man  with  raised  eyebrows  (K). 

118.  TAKO,    or    HIOTTOKO,   or   IGO,   often   with   one  eye  open,   the  other 
closed,  and  with  the  classical  spout  in  place  of  mouth.      Comic  mask. 

1 19.  TENKO,   fox   mask  (HM). 

1 20.  TENGU  (q.v.),  the  old  Tengu  masks   have   the  Karasu   Tengu   type 
of   head,    the   Tengu    with    long    human    nose    is    also    met    with,   and   very 
similar  to  Saruto,   but   painted  red.      SOJOBO'S   mask   is  often   identical  with 
OTOBIDE,  but  to  which  is  added  a  wig  (B-I). 



121.  TOKOUKA,  old  man's  mask  with  a  broad  smile,  and  with  half-closed 
winking  eyes  (Gillot). 

122.  TORU   (BMfV,   see  Owada  Tateki,  vol.   4). 

123.  TSURIMANAKO,  slanting  eyed  man's  mask,  hornless  devil  (T,  Gillot). 

124.  DBA,   old   woman   (HM,   Sun,    M). 

125.  UOBIYOE  (BMfV). 

126.  UZUME,   see   OKAME. 

127.  WAKA  OXXA,  young  woman;    WAKA  OTOKO,  young  man  (Sun,  T). 

128.  WARAIJO,  laughing  old   man  identical  with   Sanko  Jo  (Sun). 

129.  YACE  OTOKO,  thin  man  (T,  Sun,  M,  Gillot). 

130.  YACE  OXXA,  thin  painful  woman's  face  (T,   Gillot). 

131.  YAKAN,  see  Kitsune,  fox  mask  (BMfV). 

132.  YAMA  NO  KAMI,  Lord  of  the  Mountain,  sometimes  three  eyed  (HM,  W). 

133.  YAMA  UBA  (q.v.),  female  mask,  sometimes  with  white  hair  painted 
on,  but  also  used  with  a  huge  wig  (K,  M,  T). 

134.  YASHA,   mask   of   a   Goddess,    with   a    laugh    verging   upon   ferocity 

135.  YORIMASA  (q.v.)  (K,  T,   Gillot). 

136.  YOSHISADA   NITTA   (q.v.),    teeth   biting  the  lower   lip,   an   arrow   cut 
across  the  forehead. 

137.  YOROHOSHI  (also  YO\VA  HOSHI),   infirm  priest  (Sun). 

138.  Zo,  or  Zo  OXXA,  see  FUKAI. 


T. — F.  W.  K.  MULLER,  Einiges  nebev  No  Masken,  T'oung  Pao,  March,  1897. 

This  essay  contains  a  list  of  No  dances  with  the  names  of  the  masks 
used,  and  gives  all  the  names  in  Japanese  characters,  with  an  index  under 

M. — Dr.  O.  MUNSTERBERG,  Japanische  Ktinstgeschichte,  Westermann,  1906 

G. — Catalogue  of  the  Gillot  Auction,  Paris,  Byng,   1904. 

BMfV. — Berlin   Museum   fur   Volkerkunde,    quoted   by   Muller. 

S. — The  Sun  ^  $%.  Vol.  i,  part  i  and  3  Tokyo  Hakubunkwan,  1895. 


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S-J. — The  SHUKOJISSHU  ^  ^j  ~f*  fj|,  parts  i,  3,  5  of  the  Gakki  section 
(musical  instruments,  inventories  of  the  treasures  of  various  temples)  gives 
some  seventy  masks,  of  which  thirty  are  named. 

T. — The  encyclopaedia,  Tokivai  Settsu  Hyakka  Tsu  (1835),  quoted  by 
Muller  (plate  reproduced  in  the  T'oung  Pao). 

K. — The  KOKKWA,  parts  28/31,  gives  thirty  named  masks,  with  names  of 
artists  and  a  short  note  on  the  development  of  the  art. 

HM.  —  HOKUSAI'S  MAXGWA,  vol.  2,  pages  9  and  10.  Thirty-two  masks 
named  in  kana. 

W. — Wakan  hon  Seki  sho  gen  shi  ko,  translated  by  Siebold,  1835,  quoted 
by  Muller. 

Gashosha,    Magazine   of   Japanese   art,    1898. 

Mu. — Dai  Nippon  Eitai  setsuyo  mnjinzo,  1849  (Encyclopaedia),  Nihon 
Bijitsu  Givaho,  1898. 

KONGO,    Bitei  Ippan   f|  %£  —  $£. 

OWADA  TATEKI,  work  on  the  No  dances,  in  8  vols.,  1892,  index  to  which 
is  given  by  Muller. 

Owada  Tateki,  popular  article  upon  the  No  in  the  FAR  EAST,  24/25, 

GOMSE,  L'Art  Japonais,  both  the  large  and  small  editions. 

Gonse,  an  Article  in  the  Monde  moderne,  Vol.   I.,    1898. 

L.MIGEOX,  Les  Chefs  d'oeuvre  de  1'Art  Japonais  (three  plates  of  masks  out 
of  a  hundred  Collotypes),  Paris,  1905,  D.  A.  Longuet. 

Ch.  de  KAY,  Magazine  of  Art,  October,   1898. 

BROCKHAUS,   Netsnke,    1905. 

E.    DESHAYES,   Conference,    Musee   Guimet,    1897. 

Catalogue   of   the   Tokyo   Museum. 

Itsnkushima   Zuye. 

Histoire  de  I' Art  Japonais  public  par  la  Commission  Imperiale,  Paris, 
1900  (privately  issued). 

.  Kamenfu,  "The  book   of   masks." 

Men  Mekiki  sho,  Expert  treatise  on   masks. 

Kamen  Oboyegaki,  also  a  treatise  on  the  subject. 



578.  MATAHEI  J£  ^  (DoMO  NO,  ^  f£  X  the  Stammerer),  founder  of 
the   Ukiyoe's  School,   was    a    pupil  of  the    celebrated    painter,   SHOGEN,   and 
jealous  of  his  co-pupil,  MITSUZUMI  TOSA,  to  whom  SHOGEN  had  granted  this 
name.      Despairing  of  ever  getting  on,  and   being   continuously  chided   upon 
his  stammering,  he  was  led  by  his  wife  to  paint  his  own  image  upon  a  stone 
slab,  part  of  a  garden  trough,   requesting   that  the  trough  might  be  used  as 
his  tomb.     So  much  concentrated  energy  did  he  put   into  his  work  that   the 
image   showed  through  the  stone,  and   Shogen,   perceiving   this,    granted   him 
the  privilege  of  using  the  family  name  of  TOSA.     This,  however,  is  legendary; 
Takenobu,  who  gives  the  story,  states  that  Shogen  died  long  before  Matahei's 
birth.     Like  most  celebrated  painters,  Matahei  is  credited  with  pictures  which 
became  alive:    a  devil  from  his  brush  caused  so  much  trouble  that  one  of  its 
horns  had  to  be  deleted   by  a  priest,  and  a  host  of  his  personages  once  rose 
from    the    paper,    much    to    his    astonishment.      The    latter    scene    lias    been 
pictured  by  Yoshimori.       Matahei    is   believed  to  have  lived  at  the  beginning 
of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  his  genuine  works  are  very  rare. 

579.  MATAXO   XO   GORO   J$  |f  ft  Jjfc    (KAGEHISA   f;  ffr).      Strong 
wrestler    depicted    throwing    a    stone    at    Sanada    Yoichi,   or   wrestling   with 
Kawazu    no   Saburo.      He  was  named  after  the  village  of  JNIatano. 

580.  MATSUO    KOTEI.      It    is   related   that    during  the  construction  of 
the    artificial    island    of    Tsukijima,    near   Kobe,    the   blocks   of  stone   of   the 
infrastructure  were  repeatedly  washed   away   by   the   waves.      Kiyomori    then 
consulted    the    necromancer    Abe    no    Yasuuji,    who   explained   that    the   site 
selected  for  the  island  was  above  the  lair  of   a    dragon,  who   required    to   be 
propitiated   before    the   undertaking    came   to   success.      Thirty    men    were   to 
be   buried    in    the   sea,    and    upon    their  bodies  pillars  were  to  be  set  bearing 
Buddhistic  inscriptions.      It  was,  therefore,   decided  to  take  the  victims  from 
travellers  to  Hiogo,  but  such  an   uproar  was  raised   by   the   people   that   the 
propitiating    ceremony   was   postponed.      Matsuo    Kotei,    then   a   young   man, 
volunteered  to  be  buried  alive  instead  of  the  thirty  others,  and  thanks  to  his 
sacrifice  the  building  was  completed  (1161).      Compare  GENSUKE  BASHIRA. 

581.  MATSUYAMA  NO  KAGAMI  |£  \1]  0)  $%.     The  mirror  of  Matsu- 



yama.  One  day  a  man  from  Echigo  was  called  to  the  capital,  and  as  the 
journey  was  then  a  very  long  one  he  parted  sorrowfully  from  his  wife  and 
his  little  daughter,  promising  that  if  he  returned  safe  from  Kyoto  he  would 
bring  them  some  uncommon  present  from  the  great  city  to  console  them. 
Several  months  elapsed,  and  at  last  the  father  returned  to  his  home, 
bringing  to  his  daughter  some  toys  and  to  his  wife  a  metal  mirror,  which 
excited  her  wonder,  for  never  had  such  a  thing  been  seen  before  in  their 
village.  Eight  or  nine  years  later  the  mother  began  to  ail,  and  in  a  few 
weeks  the  illness  became  so  grave  that  she  felt  the  approach  of  death,  and, 
calling  her  daughter  to  her  bedside,  gave  her  some  last  advice.  As  a 
parting  gift  to  her  child,  she  gave  her  the  mirror  and  told  her  that  if  ever 
she  felt  lonely  after  her  mother's  death  to  look  in  the  mirror  and  she  would 
behold  the  face  of  her  late  parent. 

After  a  year  of  mourning  the  widower  married  again,  and  his  new  wife 
soon  began  to  treat  unkindly  the  lonely  child.  The  daughter  consoled 
herself  by  watching  in  the  mirror  what  she  thought  to  be  the  spirit  of  her 
dead  mother,  and  her  frequent  retreats  to  her  own  room  seemed  suspicious 
to  the  stepmother,  who  accused  the  girl  to  her  father,  of  working  charms 
against  her.  The  father  one  day  lightly  stepped  into  her  room  whilst  she 
was  watching  the  mirror,  and  as  she  saw  his  face  reflected  in  the  polished 
metal  she  hid  the  mirror  in  her  sleeve.  Her  father  thought  that  her  con- 
fusion was  a  proof  of  some  guilt,  and  severely  questioned  her.  She  then 
related  to  him  how  she  was  comforting  herself  by  watching  the  face  of  her 
dead  mother,  and  when  her  stepmother  heard  of  it  she  realised  how  unjust 
she  had  been  and  mended  her  ways. 

582.  MEI   SO   GEN.      A    Chinese  sage,   depicted    with  a   large   hat  on 
his  back  and  a  large  jar  in  his  hands. 

583.  MIIDERA  (BELL  OF).      See  BENKEI. 

584.  MIKENJAKU   J|j    frU   X..      The  representations   of   this    legend    are 
characterised   by   the   presence   of   two   or   three  heads  boiling  in  a  cauldron. 
A  King  had  two  masses  of  iron  of  which   he   desired  a  sword   to   be   made. 
He  sent  them  to  a  smith,  who,  instead  of  making  one  sword,  made  two,  one 



male  the  other  female.  He  sent  one  to  the  King  but  buried  the  other, 
telling  his  wife  to  keep  the  hiding-place  secret  and  to  give  the  sword  to 
their  son,  MIKENJAKU,  when  of  age  if  he  died  before  that  time  himself.  He 
guessed  that  he  would  be  found  out,  and  in  fact,  the  King's  sword  being 
always  covered  with  moisture,  the  astrologers  said  that  it  was  weeping  for 
its  mate;  thereupon  the  smith  was  sent  for,  tortured,  and  killed.  His  wife 
flew  to  the  mountains  with  her  son,  and  remained  there  till  the  boy  reached 
manhood,  when  he  fetched  the  sword.  At  that  time  the  King  had  a  dream 
that  he  would  be  killed  by  a  man  whose  eyebrows  (Miken)  were  separated 
by  a  distance  a  foot  (Shakit)  wide.  His  confident,  HAKUCHU,  who  had  a 
grudge  against  him  having  heard  of  it,  took  it  as  a  token  that  Mikenjaku 
would  avenge  his  father.  He  repaired  to  the  mountains  to  tell  Mikenjaku 
this  tale,  and  the  boy,  deciding  to  trust  to  fate  and  his  inspiration,  bit  off 
the  point  of  his  sword,  and  after  requesting  Hakuchu  to  take  his  head  to  the 
King,  beheaded  himself.  When  the  latter  saw  the  head  he  was  so  terrified 
that  he  ordered  it  to  be  boiled  in  a  cauldron  for  twenty-one  days,  at  the 
end  of  that  period  the  appearance  of  the  head  had  not  changed,  and 
Hakuchu  told  tlie  King  that  the  head  wanted  to  talk  to  him.  The  King 
reluctantly  assented,  and  as  he  stood  over  the  cauldron  the  mouth  of 
Mikenjaku  opened,  and  the  point  of  the  sword  flew  out  and  cut  off  the 
King's  head;  Hakuchu  seized  it  and  threw  it  into  the  cauldron,  where  the 
two  heads  began  to  bite  each  other.  Thinking  that  the  King's  head  might 
overpower  that  of  Mikenjaku,  he  leaned  over  the  kettle  and  beheaded  himself 
so  that  his  own  head  might  insure  the  defeat  of  the  King's.  Hence  the 
representation  of  three  heads  in  a  cauldron.  See  MORINAGA. 


586.  MIKOSHI   $|J  JlL.      Sacred   car   without    wheels,   carried   upon    the 
shoulders  of  the   devotees   with   a   dummy   image   of   the   Deity   inside;    it    is 
followed  by  the   Yatai,   or   Dashi,   on   wheels.      This   custom,   which    prevails 
at  the  festivals,  originated  in  the  time  of  Go  Toba  (1108-1123). 

587.  MIKOSHI-NIUDO    £  j&  A  it-     Bald-headed  Bakemono  with  a 



lolling  tongue,   whose   favourite   amusement   consists   in    looking   over   screens 
and  frightening  people. 

588.  MIKUNI  KOJORO  H  M  >h  ~&  S|5-      Depicted  as  a  Joro  attacked 
by  a  monster.      This  is  an  episode  in   the  drama,   Shisanm   Monogatari.      The 
lord    of    Kyushu    had    a    violent    enemy    in    the    person    of   a   witch   named 
Shiranui,  who  tried  to  ruin  him  and  his  family.     With  her  magic  she  caused 
him  to  fall  in  love  with  Kojoro,  whom  he  redeemed  from  her  condition.     As 
she  went   to  meet  him  in  his  palace   the   witch   sent    a   monster   to   kill   her, 
and    then  personate  her.      In    this    guise    the    monster    became    the    favourite 
concubine  of  the  Kyushu  lord,  whose  death  it  caused  in  a  short  while. 

589.  MIMIDZUKA    If   j§|.      The   Ear   Monument   at    Kyoto,   erected   on 
the   spot    where   some   thirty  thousands  ears  were  buried  after  being  removed 
from  the  pickled  heads  of  the  Coreans  defeated  in  the  war  of  1592-98  by  the 
troops  of   Hideyoshi.      It  stands   in    the    gardens   of   the   temple   of   Daibutsu, 
near  the  Sanjiii  san    gendo   temple.      Its   shape   is   that   of   the    mystic   pillar 
used  for  stone  lanterns,  and  on  its  four  sides  are  the  Sanskrit  letters  standing 
for  Cha  (ether),  Ka  (wind),  A'a  (fire),   Wa  (water),  .4  (earth). 

590.  MINAMOTO  $jl      See  GENJI. 


592.  MING  HWANG.      See  GEXSO,  Chinese  Emperor. 

593.  MINOGAME  f|  |jf|.     The  tortoise  (Kame)  of  a  thousand  years,  one 
of  the  four  supernatural  animals  (Tiger,  Dragon,   Howo,  Tortoise)  of  Chinese 
mythology  (the  Kirin  takes  sometimes  the  place  of   the   tiger).      One   of   the 
tortoises  presents  some  of  the  features  of  the  dragon,  generally  the  head,  but 
the  most  common  presentment  of  the  sacred  animal  has  a  long  tail,  said  to 
grow  when    it   is   over   five   hundred   years   old,    and   the   origin   of   which    is 
probably  due  to  the  fact  that  tortoises  kept  in  ponds  become  covered  with  a 
parasitic  growth  of  vegetable  origin  the  resemblance  of  which   to  the  M/no, 
or  rain  coat  of  the  peasants,  was  too  irresistible  a  chance  of  punning  to  be 
left   unnoticed.      The   hairy   tortoise   is   often   shown   carrying   on   its   back   a 


MIKliN  JAKU   (A. 
DEER   AND   MAPLE   (.U.K.) 


MOSO   (M.T.) 

DEER   AND    MAPLE   (,^.) 

MOMOTARO   (./.) 
MOMOTARO   (M.r.) 


huge  rock,  with  the  three  or  more  jewels,  or  even  Mount  HORAI 
itself,  perhaps  as  a  modification  of  the  Chinese  custom  to  show  the 
tortoise  as  a  pedestal  for  inscribed  tablets,  in  itself  a  likely  treatment  of 
the  Hindoo  legend  which  places  the  world  on  the  back  of  an  elephant, 
standing  on  a  gigantic  tortoise.  The  feet  of  the  tortoise  were,  according 
to  the  Chinese,  used  to  consolidate  the  world  by  he  Empress  JOKWA 
(q.v.)  after  KUNG  KUNG  had  shattered  the  pillar  of  Heaven.  The  tortoise 
is  emblematic  of  longevity,  and  as  such  found  as  one  of  the  constant 
attributes  of  Fukurokujiu,  Jurojin,  and  of  the  various  legendary  patriachs, 
Sennins,  or  other  personages  who  were  endowed  with  particularly  long 
spans  of  earthly  existence.  See  EMBLEMS,  KOAN,  URASHIMA,  MONKEY. 

A  blind  minogame,  with  an  eye  instead  of  navel  — •  flj|  0)  fjfj,  dwells 
at  the  bottom  of  the  sea.  It  can  never  see  the  sun  but  once  every  three 
thousand  years,  when  it  rises  to  the  surface,  and  even  then  it  must  find 
on  the  waves  a  plank  with  a  hole  in  it,  place  its  eye  over  the  hole  and 
await  some  friendly  gust  of  wind  to  turn  upside  down  both  tortoise  and 
board.  This  Buddhist  parable  from  the  Hoke  Ryo  has  passed  into  a  proverb 
applied  to  unlikely  events.  The  story  is  given  in  Ehon  Hokan,  IV.,  23,  in 
which  are  also  found  the  story  of  the  monkey  and  the  tortoise,  and  of 
the  tortoise  and  the  two  cranes.  A  minogame  whose  pond  was  drying  up 
fast,  begged  two  cranes  to  take  her  to  some  other  lake,  and  they  tried 
to  do  so  by  means  of  a  reed,  which  both  cranes  held  in  their  bills,  and 
to  which  the  tortoise  hung  by  her  jaws ;  but  the  minogame  wished  to 
speak  whilst  in  mid  air,  and  it  dropped  to  the  ground  where  it  died, 
(//.,  22).  See  UMI  Bozu. 

The  terrapin  is  another  tortoise  which  has  its  place  among  proverbs. 
Tsuki  ni  Suppon  means:  "The  moon  is  not  the  only  round  thing,"  and  is 
often  illustrated.  One  sees  sometimes  a  drawing  of  one  or  two  tortoises 
dangling  from  a  string  above  the  parapet  of  a  bridge,  this  represents 
the  small  tortoises  sold  by  pedlars,  and  which  people  buy  to  liberate  in 
ponds.  This  custom  is  called  Hojoye,  or  setting  free  ;  and  the  tortoise-sellers 
adopt  as  a  mark  the  characters  ^  ijfj  Hanashi  Kame:  "tortoises  to  be  let 



594.  MIRRORS,    or    KAGAMI.       For    magic    mirrors    see    Chamberlain's 
Things  Japanese,  also  Ayrton  and  Perry's  Royal  Society  Paper. 



KAGAMI  BUTA,  netsuke,  the  face  of  which  is  a  disc  of  metal  fitted  in  a 
box-shaped  piece  of  wood,  lacquer,  or  ivory;  at  the  back  of  the  disc  is  a 
ring  or  hoop  to  receive  the  cord.  \Yhen  there  is  no  metal  disc  and  the 
netsnke  is  turned  to  a  circular  flat  shape,  in  one  or  two  pieces,  it  is  called 
Manju  (rice  cake). 

KAGAMI  ONXA  xo  TAMASHI,  proverb,  "A  mirror  is  the  soul  of  a  woman." 

KAGAMI  GA  KUMORU  To  TAMASIII  GA  KUMORU,  proverb,  "When  the 
mirror  is  dull  the  soul  is  unclean." 

Mirrors  used  to  be  given  by  women  as  offerings  to  temples  to  be  melted 
and  made  into  bells.  Hearn,  in  Kollo,  gives  a  legend  of  a  woman  who, 
after  giving  her  mirror  to  a  temple,  where  it  was  left  amongst  myriads  t»f 
others  thrown  in  a  heap  to  await  melting,  rued  her  deed,  and  wished  to 
have  the  mirror  back,  but  she  could  not  afford  to  buy  it  back  from  the  priest 
as  she  was  too  poor.  She  died  without  getting  it  and  when  the  heap  of 
mirrors  went  to  the  foundry  her  Kagami  resisted  the  fiercest  blast,  because 
metal,  the  gift  of  which  had  not  been  made  to  the  divinity  with  a  whole 
heart,  could  not  be  received  unto  the  bell. 

MIRROR  or  TSURAYUKI.  In  the  diary  Tosa  Nikki,  of  the  court  noble, 
Tsurayuki,  the  author  relates  how  one  day  his  ship  passed  Sumiyoshi  in  the 
Osaka  river,  and  a  sudden  gale  threatened  to  send  all  hands  to  the  bottom. 
To  appease  the  god,  Nnsa  (cut  paper)  was  thrown  into  the  waves;  but  the 
storm  increased,  and  the  captain  suggested  that  some  different  offering  was 
needed.  Tsurayuki  thought:  I  have  a  pair  of  eyes  but  I  have  only  one 
mirror,  therefore  will  I  give  the  God  my  mirror;  and  as  the  Kagami  touched 
the  water  the  waves  disappeared  and  the  sea  became  smooth. 

595.  MIROKU.     See  MAITREYA. 

596.  MIRUME.     See  HELL. 

597.  MITSUKUNI  ffi  [U.  MITO  NO  Ko   MON,    7jC  f*  ^  H>    or  MlTO  NO 



GIKU,  second  Daimio  of  Mito,  was  a  grandson  of  leyasu.  He  is  credited 
with  having  caused  the  base  of  the  Kaname  Ishi  (see  EARTHQUAKE  FISH)  to 
be  dug  up.  But  he  has  more  solid  claims  to  fame,  however.  He  caused 
the  Reigi  riu  Ten,  (a  work  of  over  five  hundred  volumes,  dealing  with 
Imperial  ceremonial),  to  be  published,  and  also  fostered  the  compilation 
of  the  Dai  Nihon  shi  (two  hundred  and  forty  volumes).  The  cost  of  these 
enterprises  was  such  that  he  yearly  devoted  30,000  koku  of  rice  to  their 

598.  MITSUME   ~EL  @  'h  tH"-      Three-eyed    goblin,   with  one  eye  in   the 
centre  of  the  forehead;  also  shown  amongst  Mythical  Foreigners  in  Hokusai's 
Mangwa,  under  the  name  MITSUME  Kozo.      It  may  be  of  interest  to  compare 
this     ghostly     creation     with     the     Tibetan     deity,     PALDEN     LHAMO,     which, 
according  to  Percival   Landon  (Lhassa),   the  Tibethan  found   re-incarnated  in 
the  late  Queen  VICTORIA.     This   infernal  divinity  is  a  female  with  eye  teeth 
four    inches   long,   painted    dark    blue,    with    three    eyes,    and    sitting    on    a 
chestnut   mule.      Her  scanty  garment  consists   in   a   girdle  made   of   the   skin 
of  a   recently   flayed   man ;    her   mule,    the   girth   and   cropper    of    which    are 
living   snakes,    tramples   under   foot   the    mangled   remains   of    human    bodies. 
The    female    devil    in   question    quenches   her   thirst    in    human    blood,   drunk 
out  of  a  skull.     Altogether,  a  creation   to  which   the  outward  appearance  of 
the  Japanese  goblin  is  highly  preferable. 

599.  MITSUNAKA  $f  ffl  (TADA  ^    B9   NO  MANJU),  whilst   hunting  on 
his  estate  of  Nose,  in  Setsu,  fell  asleep  under  a  tree.     He  dreamt  that  a  lady 
came  to  ask  his  help  against  a  huge  snake,  and  told  him  that  she  was  the 
daughter    of    the    King    of    the    dragons.       He    promised    to    give    her    his 
assistance,  and  as  a  token  of  her  gratitude  she  presented  him  with  a  perfect 
horse.     He  awoke  to  find  the  horse  standing  near  him,  awaiting  his  pleasure; 
he   then   spent   a   week   praying   at   the   shrine   of   Sumiyoshi,  and  killed   the 
snake  with  an  arrow  (Ehon  Shaho  Bukuro).      See  also  NAKAMITSU. 

Mitsunaka  was  the  son  of  Rokusonno  Tsunemoto.  His  own  son,  Genkei, 
objected  to  the  hunting  and  fishing  proclivities  of  his  father  on  religious 
grounds,  and  he  obtained  the  conversion  of  Mitsunaka.  One  day  Tada  no 



Manju  wanted  two  swords  made,  but  although  the  most  renowned  masters 
of  the  art  attempted  to  satisfy  him,  none  succeeded  but  a  craftsman  from 
Chikuzen  after  seven  days  of  continuous  prayer.  When  the  blades  were 
tested  upon  the  corpses  of  criminals  one  sword  cut  through  the  beard,  and 
was  called  Higekiri  maru,  "beard  cutting  sword";  the  other  cleft  the  knee, 
and  was  thereafter  known  as  Hisa  maru. 

Mitsunaka  is  sometimes  depicted  killing  or  catching  a  devil  in  a  wood. 
He  died  in  997,  at  the  age  of  eighty-six.  Raiko  (Yorimitsu,  q.v.)  was  his 
eldest  son.  See  NAKAMITSU. 

Goo.  MITSUNOBU  SHOGEN  TOSA.  Celebrated  painter.  See  MATAHEI 
and  also  the  story  of  MITSUMI  TOSA. 

601.  MITSU  TOMOYE  H  ^  E-     The  three-comma  figure.     See  under 
COCK.      This  emblem   is  said   to  represent   three  waves;    it   may,  however,  be 
derived   from    the    Iriscele,    or    three-legged    symbol,    which  Goblet  d'Alivella 
considers  to  be  a  solar  emblem,  like  the  Svastika. 

It  may  also  be  noted  that  a  combination  of  two,  or  three,  Magatama 
would  give  a  similar  figure  to  the  futatsutomoye  or  mitsutomoye  respectively. 
The  single-comma  figure  found  on  some  tsuba,  especially  amongst  old  pieces, 
in  which  it  appears  cut  through  the  metal,  might  indeed  be  only  an 
elongated  magatama.  Some  tomoye  figures  present  a  dot  in  the  "head" 
of  the  comma,  which  might  correspond  with  the  hole  of  the  magatama. 

The  mitsutomoye  is  the  favourite  form,  and  figures  largely  amongst 
crests  (man) ;  it  is  called  migi  mitsutomoye  when  the  commas  point  clockwise, 
and  hidari  mitsutomoye  when  they  point  to  the  left.  In  the  Korean  flag 
a  circle  divided  by  an  g-shaped  line  instead  of  diameter  in  two  equal  parts, 
coloured  red  and  blue  respectively,  resembles  the  double  tomoye,  but  it 
leaves  no  free  space  between  the  "commas"  as  in  the  Japanese  design. 

602.  MITSUZUMI  TOSA  ±  f£  -fa  jf .     Name  granted  by  SHOGEN  TOSA 
to   his   pupil  SHURINOSUKE.      After   the   painter  Shogen  Tosa   had   fallen   into 
disgrace   he   started   a   painting   school   near   Kyoto,   and   lived   the   life  of   a 
Ronin.     Once  his  garden  was  invaded  by  a  host  of  peasants  from  Omi,  who 
said  that  they  had  traced  to  his  house  a  tiger  which  had   done   considerable 



damage  in  their  district.  His  pupils  laughed,  but  not  so  the  master,  who 
followed  the  peasants  and  found  a  tiger  asleep  at  the  back  of  his  house  at 
the  foot  of  a  bamboo  hedge.  He  gave  it  as  his  opinion  that  it  was  a  copy 
of  a  well-known  picture  by  Ganki,  and  that  the  copyist  could  be  no  other 
than  Motonobu  KANO,  son  of  Yusei.  No  tracks  being  found,  the  peasants 
were  lost  in  admiration  of  the  insight  of  the  master.  His  pupil,  SHURINOSUKE, 
asked  to  be  allowed  to  paint  out  the  tiger,  and  if  he  completed  the  task 
satisfactorily  to  assume  the  family  name  of  TOSA.  His  request  was  granted, 
and  he  succeeded  in  blotting  out  every  feature  of  the  beast  so  that  nothing 
could  be  seen  but  the  bamboos,  much  to  the  delight  of  Shogen. 

603.  MIURA   NO   OSUKE    H   if   ^C   fifr-      Warrior   on    the  side  of  the 
Minamoto    clan    in    their    struggle   against    the   Taira.      He   was   eighty-nine 
years  old  when  he  was  besieged  in  his  fort  of  Kinugasa  by  Kaneko  lyetada 
and  Hatakemaya  Shigetada,  and  his  troops  were  despairing  in  consequence  of 
the    enormous    odds   against    them.      To    give   them   courage,   he   ordered   his 
own  horse  to  be  saddled,  and  without  any  weapons   led   a   sortie,   falling   a 
victim  to  the  arrows  of  the  besiegers.     As  a  long-lived  hero  he  is  occasionally 
found  associated  with  Urashima  Taro  and  the  other  centenarians  of  Japanese 
legend.     According  to  some  he  was   106  years  old  when  he  died.      He  left  a 
son,  Miuro  Arajiro  Yoshizumi,  famous  as  a  strong  man. 

604.  MIURA    KURANOSUKE    H  M  ft  fi  ±  $J    killed  the  Tamamo 
no  Maye  (q.v.). 

605.  MIYAMATO   MUSASHI  ^  ^  |£  g£   was   the  originator    of    the 
two-sword  style  of  fencing  (Nitoryu).      He  began  the  life  of  a  ronin  when  he 
was    fifteen    years   old,   and   killed   a   fencing-master,    whose    hundred   pupils, 
thinking  to  avenge  him,  challenged  Musashi,  and  met  him  with  a  shower  of 
stones  and  arrows,  but  without  succeeding  in  wounding   him.      Once,    while 
he  was  travelling  about  to  learn  fencing,  he  lost  his  road  in   the   mountains, 
and  met  a  grey-headed  and  dignified  old  man,  who  invited  him  to  his  house. 
On  the  way  Musashi   boasted  of  his  achievements,  and  the  old  man  laughed. 
Musashi    then,    heedless   of   the   age   of   his    companion,    drew   his   sword   and 
attacked   him,   but    the   old   man   parried   every   stroke   with   a   saucepan   lid. 



Musashi,  recognising  his  stupidity,  apologised,  and  stayed  with  the  old  man, 
who  was  no  other  than  the  celebrated  swordsman  KASAWARA  BOKUDEN,  who 
eventually  taught  him  the  finest  points  of  the  art.  See  Denning's  translation 
of  the  life  of  Musashi  (Japan  in  the  Days  of  Yore,  Vol.  IV.). 

Another  fencing- master,  Sasaki  Gwanryu,  having  killed  Musashi's  father, 
he  met  him  in  Kokura  in  a  small  island,  using  a  wooden  sword  against 
the  steel  blade  of  Gwanryu,  whom  he  killed.  Since  then  the  island  has 
been  called  Gwanryu  (Ehon  Wakan  Homare,  28).  Musashi  died  in  1645 
(Shoho  4),  at  the  age  of  sixty-four.  He  is  said  to  have  executed  remarkable 
paintings  of  Shoki  and  Daruma. 

606.  MIZARU.     See  APES. 

607.  MOGUSA   NO   GANSO   3£  0)  ji  M-      Hermit  of  the   province   of 
Goshiu,    who    wandered    in    the   forests   of   the    mountain    Ikubi    yama.      All 
moxas   are   called   in   Japan   Ibuki  yama   no   Mogusa. 

608.  MO   HAKUDO  ^  f &  if   (MAO   Po  TAG).      Four  recluse,  Liu   TAO 
and  MAO  Po  TAO,  lived  an  ascetic  life  for  forty  years,  and  one  day  compounded 
an  elixir  vita?,  of  which  Mo   Hakudo  and    Liu   Tao  Tung  drank,    and   died. 
Their  companions,  disgusted  at   the   result   of   the   experiment,   cast   the   stuff 
away,  but  found  soon  after  how   foolish    they   had   been   when   they   saw   at 
the  top  of  the  mountain   their   erstwhile   companions  mounted  on  white  deer 
and  followed  by  numerous  pilgrims. 

609.  MOJO  ^  ^C.      The  female  Sennin   MAO   Nu.      Youthful  female  of 
wild  aspect,  with  straight  thick   hair,   carrying   branches   of   pine   and   peach 
trees,  with  fruits  and  blossoms,   also   a   makimono   and   a   basket   containing 
some  loquats  (Japanese  medlars).     She  is  usually  clad  in  skins.     Two  Chinese 
travellers,  Juntai   and   Inshikyo,   who  met  her  waiting  upon  a  Sennin  in  the 
mountains   of   Su,  questioned   her,  and  she  said  that  she  had  been  a  palace 
maid  up  to  the  fall  of  the  Tsin  dynasty,  when  she  flew  to  Mount  Kain  and 
lived  on  a  diet  of  pine  needles,  becoming  so  light  that  she  was  able  to  soar 
aloft  like  a  bird.      She  is  also  called  Mogioku  Kio. 



610.  MOKI   JJJL  ^,   shown   polishing  a  sceptre.      He    was   a  hermit   of 
Seikwa,  to  whom  the  Emperor  SHUKO  gave  a  jewelled  sceptre,  and  he  carried 
it  with  him,  rubbing  it  on  his  sleeve  till  it  broke  from  wear.     He  lived  upon 
cinnamon  leaves  gathered  at  the  foot  of  the  Mount  Kwain. 

611.  MOKIN  5§;  ^,  of  Rakuyo,  taught  magic.      His  prosperity  enraged 
a  man  named  FUYU,  who  planned  to  murder  him,  but  the  wizard  transformed 
himself  into  a  whirlwind. 

612.  MOMIJI.      The    Maple,    the    leaf   of   which   changes   colour    in    the 
autumn,   from    green  to  red.      Picnics   to  view    the   maples   are   called   momiji 
gai'i  %L  id  $?>   an(J    this   name    is   also   given    to    the    legend    of    Taira    no 
Koremochi,  (q.v.)  upon  which  is  based  a  No  dance.     Warming  sake  on  maple 
leaves  has  been  for  ages  an  elegant  amusement ;    it   is  depicted   in   the  Shaho 
Bukuro.      This   subject    is   sometimes   seen    in   netsitkc,   and   usually   a   deer   is 
shown   with   the  sake   drinkers,   the  deer  and   maple  being  usually  associated 
as  emblems  of  autumn,  much  in  the  same  way  as  mushrooms   and   chestnuts 
symbolise   October.      Amongst   the   numerous  poems   inspired  by   the  sight  of 
purple    maple    leaves,    the   best   known    is   probably    that    of   NARIIIIRA   (q.v.). 
The  five-fingered  maple  is  called  Ko  no  te:   child's  hand. 

613.  MOMOTARO  $fc  ^C  I|$.      Little  Peachling.     A  favourite  fairy  tale, 
of  which  numerous  translations  have  been  published. 

One  day  the  wife  of  a  poor  woodcutter  went  to  the  river  hard  by  to 
wash  same  clothes.  As  she  was  preparing  to  return  home  she  perceived  a 
large  object  coming  along  the  water,  and  on  reaching  it  with  a  stick  found 
that  it  was  a  peach  larger  than  she  had  ever  seen  or  heard  of  before.  She 
took  it  home,  washed  it,  and  handed  it  to  her  husband  to  open.  As  the 
man  cut  it  a  boy  emerged  from  the  kernel,  whom  they  adopted  as  a  present 
from  the  Gods  to  comfort  them  in  their  old  age.  They  called  him  MOMOTARO, 
the  Elder  son  of  the  Peach,  and  he  grew  big  and  strong,  excelling  in  feats 
of  strength  beyond  most  boys  of  his  age.  Once  he  decided  to  leave  the 
elders  and  to  go  to  ONIGASHIMA,  the  Island  of  the  Devils,  to  seek  his  fortune. 
The  old  people  gave  him  some  dumplings  to  take  with  him,  and  sped  him 
on  his  road.  He  soon  met  a  dog  who  asked  for  a  dumpling  and  promised 



to  accompany  him;  then  a  monkey  and  a  pheasant  came  with  similar  requests, 
and  with  these  three  followers  he  reached  the  gate  of  the  Devil's  fortress. 
They  got  in  and  had  a  stiff  fight  with  the  demons,  the  animals  taking  part 
in  the  fray.  Finally,  they  reached  the  inner  fastness  of  the  place,  in  which 
the  chief  devil,  AKAXDOJI,  was  waiting  for  them  with  an  iron  war  club.  He 
was,  however,  thrown  down  by  MOMOTARO,  who  bound  him  with  ropes  and 
made  him  disclose  the  secret  of  his  treasures.  Then  Peachling  helped  him- 
self liberally  and,  followed  by  his  three  companions,  returned  to  the  home 
of  the  woodcutter,  becoming  thereafter  a  rich  and  honoured  member  of  the 

The  story  is  variously  represented  in  art,  often  with  great  detail,  but 
sometimes  only  indicated  by  an  open  peach  from  which  emerges  a  boy,  or 
humorously  a  monkey. 

As  a  strong  boy  Momotaro  is  often  depicted  in  company  with  the 
Golden  boy,  KINTARO  (q.v.). 

Lengthy  translations  will  be  found  in  the  work  of  T.  Ozaki,  in  Mitford's 
Tales  of  Old  Japan,  and  in  the  Kobunsha  fairy  tales  series. 

614.  MOXGAKU  SHOXIX  £  ^  ±  A.      See  ENDO  MORITO. 

615.  MONKEY  (Saru).     The  Three  Monkeys.     See  APES;  KOSHIN.     Satow 
calls  them  monkeys  of  the  three  countries  (India,  China,  Japan). 

MONKEY.     Day  of  the  Monkey.      See  KOSHIN. 

,,  Magical,    shown    on    a    cloud    or    blowing    his    hair    into    a 

hundred  and  eight  men.  See  SONGOKU,  attendant  of  Sanzo  Hoshi  in  the 
Chinese  romance,  Saiyuki. 

MONKEY.  Monkey  Showman  (Saru  Mawashi)  as  a  ruse  of  war.  See 

MONKEY  SERVANT.  Nickname  of  Taiko  Sama  (Hideyoshi),  who  was  very 

Monkeys  are  of  frequent  occurrence  in  Japanese  art;  long  armed  ones 
often  decorate  the  scabbards  of  short  swords,  while  the  red-faced  variety  is 
depicted  in  every  posture  in  the  whole  range  of  art,  from  netsuke  to  kakemono. 
It  is  one  of  the  signs  of  the  Zodiac,  and  as  such  associated  with  the  horse 



(q.v.).  A  monkey  is  also  shown  trying  to  catch  an  octopus  in  the  water, 
or  caught  by  an  octopus,  but  no  legend  appears  to  be  connected  with 
this  design.  Monkeys  trying  to  catch  the  reflection  of  the  moon  in  the 
water  are  also  a  common  subject. 

The  monkey  plays  a  role  in  legend  and  fairy  tales ;  he  is  the  companion 
of  Momotaro,  of  Sanzo  Hoshi,  and  the  chief  actor  in  a  few  tales,  amongst 
which  the  following : 

MONKEY  and  the  BOAR.  A  boar  once  heard  his  master  say  that  he 
would  kill  his  monkey,  which  was  of  no  use  and  only  frightened  his  young 
baby.  The  boar  talked  it  over  with  the  monkey,  and  arranged  to  steiil  the 
baby  so  that  the  monkey  could  run  after  him  and  return  the  infant  to  his 
father.  By  this  ruse  he  saved  his  life  and  earned  the  gratitude  of  the 
parent  (Ozaki). 

The  Feud  between  the  MONKEY  and  the  CRAB.  This  fairy  tale  is  called 
Saru  Kani  Kassen. 

A  monkey  once  met  a  crab,  and  noticing  that  the  latter  had  a  rice  cake 
which  he  was  taking  home,  deluded  him  into  exchanging  this  delicacy  for  a 
dry  persimmon  seed.  The  crab  accepted,  and  planted  the  seed,  which  soon 
grew  into  a  fine  tree.  The  monkey  espied  the  tree  when  the  persimmons 
were  just  getting  ripe,  and  one  clay,  as  he  was  going  to  help  himself,  he 
found  the  crab  waiting  under  the  tree,  who  asked  him  to  let  him  have  some 
of  the  fruit  as  he  could  not  climb  up  to  it.  O  Saru,  instead  of  doing  so, 
eat  the  ripest  fruit,  and,  when  the  crab  expostulated,  bombarded  him  with 
unripe  persimmons  with  such  force  that  he  almost  killed  the  crab.  The 
family  of  the  latter  got  roused,  and  getting  together  an  army  of  crabs, 
declared  war  on  the  simian  race.  They  were,  however,  unable  to  cope 
with  the  hosts  of  the  enemy,  and  had  to  resort  to  ruse  against  their  crafty 
opponents;  a  mortar  and  its  pestle,  a  bee,  and  an  egg  (some  say  a  chestnut) 
foregathered  with  the  crabs  and  decided  to  bring  O  Saru  to  his  doom. 
First,  peace  was  concluded  with  the  monkeys,  and  after  a  little  time 
had  elapsed  without  trouble  the  offender  was  humbly  invited  to  visit  the 
son  of  the  wounded  crab  to  renew  their  broken  friendship.  The  monkey 
came,  and  was  given  the  place  of  honour  near  the  fire,  which  he  found  very 



low.  He  then  began  to  stir  the  ashes,  and  the  egg  (or  the  chestnut),  which 
was  laid  amongst  the  ashes,  exploded,  severely  burning  him.  He  rushed 
to  the  kitchen  to  wash  his  burns,  when  the  bee,  which  was  hard  by,  waiting 
her  opportunity,  stung  his  face.  He  thought  then  that  he  had  better  return 
home,  but  on  the  doorstep  he  tripped  on  some  seaweed,  and  as  he  fell  the 
mortar  and  pestle  dropped  upon  him  from  a  shelf  above,  so  bruising  him 
that  the  crabs  had  no  trouble  in  achieving  their  work  of  revenge. 

The  MONKEY  and  the  JELLY  FISH.  RIUJIN,  Dragon  King  of  the  sea 
sick  unto  death,  lay  helpless  among  his  lieges,  and  the  Octopus,  his  doctor, 
despaired  of  his  life  unless  lie  could  get  the  liver  of  a  live  monkey.  He 
suggested  sending  to  the  earth  KURAGE,  the  jelly  fish,  who  was  then  able 
to  walk  on  four  legs  and  whose  body  was  protected  by  a  hard  shell.  The 
Kurage  started  on  his  mission,  and  succeeded  in  decoying  a  monkey  to  go 
with  him  to  visit  Riujin.  But  the  monkey,  being  of  an  inquisitive  turn  of 
mind,  soon  wormed  the  secret  out  of  the  fish,  and  then,  feigning  great 
sorrow,  wished  to  return  to  the  land.  "Willingly  would  I  oblige  you,  but 
as  a  matter  of  fact  we  monkeys  have  five  livers,  and  the  weight  of  them  is 
rather  wearisome,  so  that  1  have  left  mine  hanging  in  a  tree;  you  should 
have  told  me  your  wishes  before  starting."  The  Kurage  was  credulous,  and 
returned ;  the  monkey,  once  on  the  shore,  jeered  at  him,  and  he  then  under- 
stood his  mistake.  Neither  prayers  nor  bluster  could  avail  him,  and  he  had 
to  return  to  the  palace  of  Riujin  disappointed  and  sad,  though  little  expecting 
the  fate  he  had  in  store.  And  now  jelly  fishes  have  neither  legs  nor  shell 
because  Riujin  sentenced  this  one  to  be  beaten  to  a  jelly,  and  all  the  bones 
taken  from  its  body. 

The  Ehon  Hokan  gives  a  somewhat  different  version :  Otohime,  daughter 
of  Riujin,  was  sick  and  wished  for  a  monkey's  liver;  the  Kame  (tortoise) 
was  sent  across  the  sea  to  find  one  monkey,  which  she  deluded  into 
riding  on  her  back  to  the  Riugu.  On  the  way  they  met  the  Kurage 
weeping,  and  O  Saru  asked  why  the  jelly  fish  was  grieving  when  the 
Kurage  told  him  the  truth.  The  monkey  affected  to  be  deeply  sorry, 
because  he  had  left  his  liver  at  home,  but  he  would  ask  Riujin  to  let 
him  go  back  and  get  it.  This  request  once  granted,  he  took  good  care 



not  to  come  back,  and  after  a  while,  Riujin  heard  the  whole  story,  when 
he  ordered  that  Kurage's  bones  be  extracted  from  his  body.  This  story 
is  called :  Saru  Kame  no  Noru  $jj£  ^  j^- 

Perceval  Landon,  in  his  work  on  Lhassa,  (Vol.  2,  p.  368  and  seq.),  gives 
a  Tibetan  tale  which  has  some  points  of  similarity  with  the  above,  and 
may  be  of  interest  for  comparison : 

Lizards  in  olden  times  lived  in  the  water.  The  wife  of  a  lizard  had 
some  fancy  for  some  fruits  growing  on  shore,  and  by  nagging  her  consort 
she  induced  him  to  attempt  to  bring  her  some.  The  lizard,  however,  could 
not  climb  trees,  so  he  sought  the  good  offices  of  a  passing  monkey,  who  not 
only  gave  him  the  fruit  he  desired  but  took  him  to  his  home  in  a  neigh- 
bouring cave,  where  they  became  fast  friends.  The  female  lizard,  wondering 
at  the  long  absence  of  her  mate,  sent  a  young  one  to  inquire  after  him.  The 
youngster  reported  the  true  state  of  affairs  to  his  mother,  who  became  very 
wroth,  and  sent  him  back  with  a  cunning  message  that  she  was  dying,  and 
could  only  recover  by  eating  the  heart  of  a  monkey.  The  lizard  then  invited 
his  unsuspecting  friend  to  visit  his  watery  home,  and  on  the  way  told  him 
the  reason  of  his  invitation.  "Oh,"  said  the  monkey,  "it's  not  one  but  two 
hearts  you  want;  let  us  go  back  and  find  another  monkey."  The  lizard 
then  put  back  to  land,  when  the  monkey  gave  him  the  slip  with  a  few 
parting  words  of  an  appropriate  nature.  The  lizard  decided  to  kill  the 
monkey  if  he  could,  and  to  that  end  he  went  to  the  cave  to  await  his 
return.  The  monkey  suspected  that  some  treachery  was  afoot,  and  stopping 
in  front  of  the  hole,  shouted  "O,  great  cave!!"  twice,  and  getting  no  answer, 
he  said  aloud,  "Strange  that  there  is  no  echo  to-night,  there  must  be  some- 
one in  the  cave."  The  lizard  then  imitated  him,  and  thus  gave  himself 
away.  He  was  roundly  reviled  by  the  monkey,  and  flew  away  .  .  .  but 
the  story  does  not  say  whether  he  went  home. 

616.     MOON  ^J.     Man  in  the  Moon.     See  GEKKAWO,  God  of  Marriage. 
„  Hare  in  the  Moon.      See  HARE. 

„  Frog  in  the  Moon.     See  CHAN  CHU. 

There    is   no  end  of  Moon  lore,  transmitted    from    India   by    the    Chinese, 



with  many  additions  and  modifications,  so  that  the  Japanese  moon,  TSUKI, 
enjoys  the  same  legends  as  the  Chinese  moon  YUEH.  The  old  man  YUEH 
LAO,  who  told  WEI  Ku  that  he  bound  together  the  feet  of  lovers  with  red 
silk,  becomes  GEKKAWO.  The  hare  SAKCHI,  who  threw  himself  in  the  fire 
to  save  starving  people,  and  was  thrown  into  the  moon  by  Indra,  is 
also  there,  and  with  him  the  Moon  shares  the  representation  of  the  YIN 
(Yoni),  or  female  principle.  The  Chinese  KWEI  tree  (cassia)  is  the  Japanese 
KATSURA.  It  grows  on  the  moon  till  its  leaves  become  blood  red  in  the 
autumn,  and  its  foliage,  of  which  the  YiJ  SIEX  -fc  fll]  (Gioku  sen)  immortals 
have  eaten,  confers  not  only  immortality  but  renders  the  body  of  the  eater 
entirely  transparent.  Eight  of  these  trees  grow  in  the  moon,  and  the  old 
man,  Wu  KANG,  will  hew  down  their  ever-growing  boughs  till  the  end  of 
the  worlds  in  expiration  of  a  sentence.  The  moon  divinity  is  a  female  one, 
called  Joga. 

SUSAXO  O  xo  MIKOTO,  the  legendary  hero  of  early  Japan,  the  brother  of 
AMATERASU,  has  also  become  a  Moon  God. 

The  Cicadae  and  the  Grasshoppers  are  consecrated  to  the  moon,  and  the 
frog  is^  also  related  to  moon  lore  as  set  forth  in  the  story  of  CHAXCHU  (q.v.). 

Poems  are  composed  to  the  moon  with  accompaniment  of  sake  drinking 
on  the  fifteenth  day  of  the  eighth  and  the  thirteenth  of  the  ninth  months. 
.The  Harvest  Moon  is  also  called  Rean  Moon,  and  offerings  of  dumplings, 
flowers  and  beans  are  made  to  it,  the  houses  are  also  decorated  at  the 
time  with  clover  (Lespedeza)  and  with  Eulalia  grass. 

The  collection  of  colour  prints,  Tsuki  Hiyakushi,  published  in  1886, 
contains  one  hundred  episodes  which  occur  by  moonlight  in  stories  or 
theatrical  plays. 

617.  MOONCHILD,  and  the  BAMBOO  CUTTER.  This  fairy  story,  the 
earliest  Japanese  romance,  is  the  Taketori  (no  Okina  no)  Monogatari,  and  it 
has  been  translated  and  published  with  illustrations  and  an  essay  on  the 
Japanese  grammar,  besides  a  transliteration  by  F.  V.  Dickins.  Other  transla- 
tions have  been  published  by  T.  Ozaki  and  by  F.  Turettini  (in  Italian). 

The  story  has  been  published  in  six  volumes,  with  an  exhaustive 



commentary  about  1830  by  Tanaka  Daishiu;  it  is  but  rarely  found  illus- 
trated in  popular  prints,  and  only  one  netsuke  representing  it — a  modern, 
indifferent  piece,  the  identification  of  which  was  open  to  doubt — has  yet 
been  seen  by  the  author,  notwithstanding  a  diligent  search  amongst  many 
thousands  of  specimens. 

An  old  man  who  was  a  bamboo  cutter,  or  more  properly  a  maker 
of  split  bamboo  baskets  (Taketori),  by  profession,  once  found  in  the  node  of 
a  bamboo  he  was  felling  a  small  baby  girl,  whose  body  emitted  a 
wonderful  light,  and  took  her  home  to  his  wife.  The  name  giver  of  the 
district  was  called,  and  she  gave  her  the  name  TERUKO*  (Ray  of  the 
Moon).  She  grew  up,  and  the  fame  of  her  beauty  soon  spread  all  over 
the  land.  Five  Samurais  of  high  rank  came  and  simultaneously  claimed  her 
hand,  but  she  would  give  no  decision  before  they  had  achieved  several  tasks, 
for  the  completion  of  which  she  granted  them  three  years.  They  were  to 
bring  her  respectively  the  stone  bowl  of  Sakyamuni ;  a  branch  from  the 
tree  of  Mount  Horai,  which  has  silver  roots,  a  gold  trunk,  and  fruits  of 
precious  jewels;  the  five-coloured  stone  which  adorns  the  head  of  the  blue 
dragon;  the  swallow  with  a  shell  in  his  stomach,  and  the  skin  of  the  rat 
of  Morokoshi  which  lives  in  the  fire.  But  such  ordeals  were  more  than 
knights  had  ever  faced,  and  all  the  five  suitors  thought  to  obtain  substitutes 
from  China  for  the  inaccessible  objects  of  Teruko's  requests.  The  first  to 
come,  Ishizukuri,  brought  a  bowl,  dearly  bought  from  a  temple,  but  which 
gave  no  radiance  in  the  night.  Iso,  the  man  to  whom  the  finding  of  the 
swallow  had  been  assigned,  gave  up  the  task;  the  third,  Abe  no  Miushi, 
brought  a  rat  skin,  alas,  only  to  see  it  burn  in  the  light  of  a  candle. 
The  knight,  Ohotomo,  who  was  to  hunt  the  blue  dragon  sent  an  expedition 
to  China,  and  after  a  year,  hearing  no  news,  set  forth  himself,  but  got 
wrecked,  and  on  being  rescued  in  some  Chinese  town  found  his  retainers 
feasting  after  giving  up  the  search,  and  he  followed  their  example.  There 
remained  but  one,  Prince  Kuramochi,  and  he  finally  came  bearing  travel- 
stained  garments  and  carrying  a  branch  of  gold  and  precious  stones,  which 
he  had  caused  to  be  made  during  the  three  years  by  clever  Chinese  jewellers. 

B  F.  V.  Dickins,  Japanese  Texts,  1906,  says  N'ayotake  no  Kaguyahime. 



Teruko  looked  but  once  at  it,  and  complaining  that  the  flowers  had  no 
scent,  and  therefore  were  not  from  Horai  San,  was  going  to  dismiss  her  suitor 
when  a  tumult  was  heard  in  the  forecourt.  Ayabe  no  Uchimaro,  the  head 
goldsmith,  and  his  Chinese  jewellers  had  followed  the  knight,  claiming  the 
payment  of  their  labours.  As  he  could  not  meet  this  claim,  Teruko  paid  the 
jewellers  and  sent  the  Prince  away.  By  then  the  Emperor  had  heard  of  this 
marvellous  girl,  and  came  to  press  his  own  suit.  She  declined  his  attentions, 
and  explained  that  she  was  constrained  to  do  so  because  she  was  one  of  the 
daughters  of  the  moon  who,  having  refused  to  execute  an  order  of  her 
mother,  JOGA,  had  been  sent  for  twenty  years  on  the  earth,  and  that  soon 
she  would  have  to  return  to  the  moon.  She  then  gave  to  the  old  bamboo- 
cutter  a  phial  of  the  elixir  of  life  and  a  poem  to  be  given  to  the  Emperor. 
Then  seventy  of  her  sisters  appeared  coming  from  Heaven  to  fetch  her  from 
the  corner  in  which  Taketori  had  attempted  to  hide  her  behind  a  screen, 
and  they  took  her  back  to  the  moon. 

Taketori  and  his  wife  then  only  wished  to  die.  The  old  man  gave  to 
the  Emperor  the  elixir,  the  Fuji  no  Ksuri,  and  the  poem,  but  the  Emperor 
caused  the  latter  to  be  burnt  on  the  summit  of  Mount  Fuji,  into  the  bowels 
of  which  lie  threw  the  elixir,  and  since  then  Fuji  has  smoked. 

TERUKO  is  generally  called  KAGUYA  HIME 

618.  MORINAGA  §fl  Q.  Son  of  Go  DAIGO  Tenno,  under  whose  reign 
he  was  shogun,  and  who  was  accused  by  Ashikaga  TAKAUJI  of  plotting 
against  his  own  father,  on  the  evidence  of  a  stolen  letter  referring  to  some 
military  arrangements.  The  weak  Emperor  allowed  his  son  to  be  thrown 
into  captivity  in  a  cave  in  the  Nikaido  mountain  at  Kamakura,  where,  in 
1345,  Ashikaga  Tadayoshi,  who  had  just  been  defeated  by  Hojo  Tokiyuki, 
and  was  afraid  least  the  latter  might  deliver  Morinaga,  caused  him  to  be 
murdered  by  a  retainer  named  Fuchibe  Yoshihiro.  Yoshihiro  attacked  him 
from  behind,  and  although  exhausted  by  his  long  captivity  Morinaga  bit  off 
the  point  of  the  sword  of  his  would-be  murderer,  who  achieved  him  with 
his  kotsuka.  Fuchibe,  remembering  the  story  of  Mikenjaku,  threw  the  head 
away  in  a  thicket  instead  of  taking  it  to  Takauji. 



THREE  OLD   MEN    (MS.r.) 

MIRROR  OF   HELL  (w.L.B.) 

KWANYU    (ff.s.T.) 

MOMOTARO   (C.//.A-.) 
MANZAI    <K.) 

MOSO  (H'.L.e.) 

LOST   CASH    (tt.S.T.) 
MOON   AND  TERRAPIN    (^/.) 
MIURA   NO   OSUKE  (tf.S.r.) 


619.  MORITSUNA.     See  SASAKI. 

620.  MOSO  ]£  jij-,  or  KOBU  Q  jj£.      The  Chinese  paragon  of  filial  virtue, 
MENG  TSUXG,   who  lived  in  the  third  century  A.D.      In   the   depth   of   winter 
his  mother  expressed  a  violent  desire  to  eat  stewed  bamboo  shoots.     Weeping 
over  his  misfortune  that  such  a  delicacy  could  not  be  got  so  early  in  the  year, 
he  thought  to  make  at  least  an  attempt,  and  repaired  to  the  nearest  bamboo 
grove   to   dig   out   the   snow   and    look   for   the   unexpected;    but    he   was   as 
much    staggered    as    delighted    when    the    ground    he    had    uncovered   burst 
under   his   very   feet,    disclosing    fresh    grown    shoots    of    unequalled    beauty. 
This    story     is    frequently     found     illustrated.       The     bamboo     shoot     alone, 
emblematic   of   the   story,    takes   often    the   place   of  a    more   elaborate   repre- 
sentation,   particularly    in     netsuke.      Another   allusion    is   a   node   of   bamboo 
with  Moso's   hat   and  straw  coat. 

621.  Ml'FUKU  3!l£  JHc-     Mythical  human   beings  who  have  no  belly,  and 
who  "cannot  laugh  because  they  have  no  sides  to  hold.''      See  FOREIGNERS. 

622.  MUH    WANG.      See   Boxu-O.      Fifth    King   of   the    Chow    dynasty 
of   China. 

623.  MU   JIMA.      Hairy   Mermaid. 

624.  MUKEIKOKU    f!H  ^p   |lj.      Foreign  country,   the  people  of  which, 
according    to    the    Todo    Kummo   Zue,    live    in   holes   dug   in    the   earth,    and, 
although   they   have   no   stomach  at  all,   manage  to  exist  on  a  diet  of  earth 
only;  when  they  die,  they  are  buried,  but  very  soon  after  come  back  to  life. 
In  another  country,  the  SAMBAXKOKU   -^  §|  Hj,  the  natives  live  on  stone. 

625.  MUKO  ^  -fc.      The   Chinese  sage,  Wu  KWANG,  who  lived   in   the 
period    of   KA.      His   ears   were   seven   inches   long,   and   he   lived   on   garlic. 
After  the  King  Ketsu  (Kie)  was  destroyed   by   the   King   of   To   (Tang),    the 
latter  offered  the  throne  to  Muko,  who  refused,  and  went  to  the  river  Ryosui 
carrying   a   big   stone   in    his    dress,    and    drowned    himself.      He    reappeared 
four    hundred    years    later,    in    the   reign   of  Wu   Ti.      According    to.  a   note 
of    doubtful    accuracy    he    is   shown   carried   on    the   minogame  of   PENG   LAI 



SHAN  (Mount  HORAI),  one  of  the  three  fortunate  islands  of  Chinese  legend, 
like  Koan  and  Roko,  from  whom  it  appears  impossible  to  differentiate  him 
in  carvings. 

A  similar  mode  of  suicide  was  adopted  towards  300  B.C.  by  K'ii  Yuan 
j^  Jjf?  Kutsugen  (or  K'ii  P'ing  Jg5  ^P"),  privy  councillor  of  Hwai,  Prince  of 
T'su,  by  whom  he  had  been  disgraced  through  the  calumnies  of  a  rival. 
After  composing  a  poem,  the  unlucky  minister  drowned  himself,  with  a 
stone  in  the  bosom  of  his  dress,  in  the  river  Milo.  Mayers  (C.R.M.,  326) 
tells  us  that  the  anniversary  of  this  event  is  still  commemorated  on  the  fifth 
day  of  the  fifth  month  by  the  people  of  Southern  China. 

626.  MURAI    ffi  ffi.      Warrior    shown   without   his  armour   or   helmet, 
but    simply    clad   in   his   kimono    and    hakama,   with   one  long   sword   in   his 
girdle,    defending    himself    single-handed    with    his    bow  against    a   surprise 
attack  (illustrated  in  Brinckmann's,  Vol  7.).® 

627.  MURASAKI  SHIKIBU  ^  ^  nR-      Celebrated  poetess  of  the  tenth 
century  (died   992),   author,   amongst    other   works,   of   the    Genji   A'lonogatari, 
which   she   composed   to   amuse    the    Empress    Jioto   no   nin,    wife    of    Ichigo 
Tenno.      The  Kogetsusho  edition  of  this  work  forms  fifty-four  volumes.      She 
is   called    by    a    French    writer    (G.    Bousquet)    I'ennuyetise    Scudery    Japonaise, 
though  Mr.  Aston's  verdict  is  different.     She  was  also  nicknamed  Nihongi  no 
Tsubone  by  Mido  Kampaku    Michinaga,   because  she  imitated  the  idea  of  the 
Nihongi  in  her  Genji   Monogatari. 

Her  name,  Murasaki,  means  violet,  and,  according  to  the  dramatised 
version  of  her  story,  she  was  the  daughter  of  Fujiwara  Toyonari,  one  of  the 
ministers.  She  lost  her  mother  when  she  was  but  ten  years  old,  and  her 
father  having  married  again,  his  second  wife,  named  Terute,  who  gave  him 
a  son,  hated  Murasaki,  and  tried  to  get  rid  of  her  by  foul  means.  Although 
still  very  young,  Murasaki  had  achieved  considerable  fame  as  a  singer,  and 
when  twelve  years  old  she  was  invited  to  the  cherry-blossom  festival  in 
the  palace  grounds,  and  there  requested  to  sing  before  the  Empress.  Her 
performance  was  so  satisfactory  that  she  was  loaded  with  presents,  whilst 

*  The  Japanese  legend  attached  to  the  print  reads :    "  Udaijin  being  very  angry  shot  with  bow  and  arrow 
Murai  and  Kimura."     This  may  refer  to  Nobunaga. 



her  stepmother,  who  had  been  unable  to  accompany  her  songs,  was  put  to 
shame,  and  resolved  to  avenge  herself.  She  waited  for  a  day  that  the  girl 
was  singing  to  her  young  brother,  and  offered  her  some  sake  which  had  been 
drugged;  but  she  mixed  the  cups,  and  killed  her  own  boy  instead.  Later, 
a  flood  of  the  river  Tatsuta  ravaged  the  gardens  of  the  Emperor's  palace, 
much  to  the  dismay  of  his  consort.  He  bethought  himself  of  the  power  of 
verses  over  the  elements,  and  then  commanded  Murasaki  to  come  and  check 
the  flow  of  the  waters,  which  she  succeeded  in  doing  by  the  recital  of  her 
poems,  earning  the  title  of  HIME  ;  hence  her  name  of  Murasaki  Hime. 

Her  father  was  sent  on  an  embassy  to  China,  and  his  absence  gave 
Terute  another  opportunity  of  exercising  her  relentless  hatred  against  the 
poetess.  She  ordered  one  of  her  retainers,  Katoda,  to  kill  Murasaki  on  the 
plea  that  she  had  lowered  herself  to  the  level  of  a  Joro,  but  Katoda,  who 
knew  the  vile  nature  of  Terute,  took  Murasaki  to  his  wife  amongst  the 
mountains,  where  she  grew  under  her  care,  to  be  found  after  many  years 
by  her  grieving  father  one  day  when  he  was  hunting. 

Murasaki  Shikibu  is  usually  represented  amongst  the  thirty-six  poets, 
or  composing  her  verses  whilst  looking  towards  lake  Biwa  from  the  terrace 
of  the  temple  of  Ishiyama. 

Murasaki  married  Nobutaka,  and  their  daughter  wrote  the  novel, 
Sagoromo  (narrow  sleeves)  (Aston). 

628.     MUSUBI  NO  KAMI  j£  ft  I*.      See  GEKKAWO. 

629.  NAGATOSHI  j|  ^  £  jffl  (XA\VA).  One  of  the  supporters  of  Go 
Daigo  Tenno,  to  whom  he  gave  refuge  in  his  castle  of  Funanoye.  In  1333, 
in  token  of  gratitude,  the  Emperor  gave  him  the  provinces  of  Inaba  and 
Oki.  Nagatoshi  attempted,  with  Nitta  Yoshisada  and  Masashige,  to  defeat 
the  rebel  Takauji,  but  their  efforts  were  in  vain.  In  1336,  when  Takauji 
took  Kyoto  and  compelled  Go  Daigo  to  flee,  Nagatoshi  returned  with  three 
hundred  horsemen  to  give  a  parting  look  at  his  own  palace,  he  reached  it 
after  seventeen  fights,  only  thirty-one  of  his  followers  remaining  after  the 
fray.  He  then  sat  in  his  courtyard,  addressed  the  buildings,  and  helped  his 



retainers  to  set  fire  to  the  yashiki,  returning  afterwards  to  the  Hiyeizan.     He 
died  during  the  same  year. 

630.  NAGARA    KANJO.      Flowing   invocation;    a   custom    peculiar    to 
the  province  of  Echizen,  described  by  Griffis.     When  a  woman  dies  in  child- 
birth  her   death-name   and    invocation   are    written    by    the    priests    upon    a 
square  cloth,  which  is  placed  above  a  stream,  the  four  corners  being  attached 
to  four  upright  sticks.      A    sotoba    is    planted    near    it,    and    a    wooden    dipper 
placed    in    the    pocket    formed    by    the  cloth.      Each   passer-by    is   expected    to 
pour  a  dipper  full  of  water  into   the   cloth,    and   when    the    latter   rots   from 
sheer   wear   the   soul   of   the   woman    is    redeemed   from    the   unknown   sin    in 
expiation  of  which  she  had  died. 

631.  NAKAMITSU  f'|i  -fa.     Episode  easily  confused  with  the  KANSHUSAI 
(q.v.),  and,  like  it,  forming  the  subject  of  a  drama. 

MITSUXAKA  (q.v.),  lord  of  Tada,  in  Settsu,  had  sent  his  son  Buio  to  the 
monks  of  Hiyeizan  to  study.  Once,  desirous  to  see  what  progress  the  boy 
had  made,  he  sent  Nakamitsu  to  fetch  him.  On  their  return  he  found  Bijio 
hopelessly  ignorant,  and  was  about  to  kill  him,  but  left  it  to  Nakamitsu  to 
behead  the  boy.  Nakamitsu's  son,  KOJU,  implored  his  father  to  kill  him 
instead  of  the  young  lord,  and  after  a  struggle  of  generosity  between  the 
two  youths,  Bijio  escaped  to  the  Hiyeizan  and  Koju  died  at  his  own  father's 
hands.  The  Abbot  of  Hiyeizan  reconciled  Bijio  to  his  father  on  the  score 
of  the  loyalty  he  had  inspired  to  his  retainer. 

632.  NAKAKUNI  fty  [ȣ|.     Noble  of  the  court  of  Go  SIIIRAKAWA,  usually 
shown  on  horseback  playing  the  flute  outside  a  house  of  the  village  of  Saga, 
near   Arashi   Yama,   in  which  he  discovered,  through  the  sounds  of  her   koto, 
the  exiled  musician,  the  KOGO  NO  TSUBONE  (q.v.). 

633.  NAKAMARO.     See  ABE  NO  NAKAMARO. 

634.  NAKASENA    SONJA    #5  flp  J^  #ft  ^  #•      One   of   the  Arhats, 
shown  with  a  begging  bowl,  from  which  ascends  a  fountain  of  water. 

635.  NAKATSUKASA    rji   Jfa.      One    of    the    thirty-six   poets;    a   lady, 
whose  most  celebrated  verse  is : 



Uguisu  no 

Koe  nakariseba  ^ 


Yuki  kienu 


Yamazato  ikade  $  \ 


Haru  wo  shiramaji, 


"If  there  was  not   the  song  of  the  Uguisu,  how  should  they  know  that   it  is  \ 
spring,  in  the  mountains  where  the  snow  remains  late  on  the  ground." 


637.  NANA  KOMACHI.      See  KOMACHI. 

638.  NANA  KUSA  -fc  Ifl.      The  seven  green  herbs  which  were  chopped 
up  by  a  man  in  ceremonial  costume  and  cooked  on   the  seventh  day  of   the 
first  month   as   a   charm   against   diseases.      This   custom   remained   in  vigour 
for  a  considerable  number  of  years,    and    the   herbs  were  called  ^  0)  -fc  jfl 
Hani  no  Nana  Knsa,  or  seven  herbs  of  Spring,  to  distinguish  them  from  the 
Aki  ^  no  nana  Kusa,  or  seven  herbs  of  Autumn,  selected  for  their  flower,  but 
not    partaken    of    as   food :     the    lespedeza   (Hagi),    Eulalia   (obana   or   sitzuki), 
Pueraria  (Kuzu),  wild  carnation  (nadeshiko),  patrinia  (ominaeshi),   Eupatorium 
(fuji-bakama),  and  the  asagao,  or  morning  glory,  generic  name  of  the  countless 
varieties  of  the  convolvulus  family,  dear  to  the  heart  of  early  risers  amongst 
chajin.     A  short  poem  consisting  mainly  of  these  names  is  quoted  by  Professor 
B.    H.    Chamberlain    in    his    Things    Japanese,   and   attributed   to   an    eighth 
century  poet,  Yamanoe  no  Okura. 

639.  NANGYO   KOSHU   $f  ^  £•  fl£.      Chinese  female  sage.      During 
the   troubled   times   which   followed    the  usurpation  of  OMO  (nephew  of  HAN 
YUAN  Ti,  died   1144  A.D.),  she   retired   from   court   upon    the   mountain    KWA, 
and  cultivated  virtue  in  a  hut  she  had  built.     After  a  year  of  seclusion  she 
ascended  to  heaven  on  a  cloud,  leaving  on  top  of  the  mountain  her  red  shoes, 
which  were  petrified.     Her  servant  followed  her  nearly  to  the  top,   but  was 
lost    in    the   darkness,   and   only   found   Nangyo's   shoes   as   an    indication   of 
her  fate. 

640.  NANZEN    p£j   ^.      Two   temples   on   the  opposite  sides  of  a  road 



disputed  as  to  the  possession  of  a  cat,  which  roamed  freely  from  one  to  the 
other,  sublimely  unconscious  of  the  differences  of  creed  between  the  aggrieved 
monks.  The  priest  Nanzen,  summoned  to  judge  of  this  momentous  affair, 
borrowed  a  sword  and,  seizing  the  cat,  prepared  to  act  like  Solomon  with 
the  stolen  child.  But  the  monks  were  obstinate,  and  neither  giving  way, 
they  each  received  one  half  of  the  unfortunate  puss  (Ehon  Hokan). 

641.  NARA.     Pillar.     In   the   Daibutsu  temple  at  Nara  there  is  a  huge 
column   behind   one   of  the  Nw,  in  which  is  cut  a  square  hole  large  enough 
to  admit  of  a  man  passing  through.      This  is  a  subject  frequently  met  with 
in    netsuke,    pilgrims   passing   through   the   hole   while   others   try   to   encircle 
the   pillar   with    their    arms,   wondering   how   big   the   pillar   is.      As    a    rule 
the    netsuke    bear    the    inscription :     Nara    Daibutsu    do    Bashira    ^    J^    ^ 
1i$»  ^  14-     A  similar  column  exists  in  the  Tempozan  Temple.     It  is  depicted 
in  GOGAKKU'S  Tempozan  Shokei  ichiran  (1838). 

642.  NARIHIRA   ^  Jj|  H  ^p-   (ARIWARA   NO).      One  of  the   Rokkasen, 
grandson   of   the   Emperor   Saga.      He    lived   from   825   to   880,   and   is   often 
pictured  as  a  man  of  great  beauty,  amongst  the  other  poets,  or  in  company 
with   Ono   no   KOMACHI.      He   is   usually   shown   riding   through   Suzuga,    on 
the   road   to   Azuma,    the   last   day   of   the   fifth   month,   after   his   exile   from 
Court  owing  to  some   intrigue   with   the   Empress,   engaged   in   composing   a 
poem    on    the    appearance   of   snow-bedecked   Fujiyama,   which   he   compares 
with  the  spotted  coat  of  a  young  fawn. 

In  other  occasions  sometimes  depicted,  he  contemplates  a  field  of  iris  in 
bloom,  or  composes  his  famous  poem  on  the  Tatsuta  gawa,  covered  with  the 
red  leaves  of  autumnal  maples: 

4  Chi  hayaburu 


Kami  yo  mo  kikanu 

Tatsuta  gawa 

Kara  kurenai  ni 
-  Mizu  kukuru  towa, 

"Praised  be  the  Gods!  Even  in  the  Golden  Age  no  water  ever  became  like 
Corean  purple,  not  even  the  water  of  the  Tatsuta  gawa."  As  an  allusion, 



water  strewn  with  maple  leaves  is  of  frequent  occurrence  in  art.  Narihira, 
on  horseback,  is  seen  on  the  banks  of  the  Ide  no  Tamegawa,  river  in 

643.  NASU   NO   YOICHI   fj  £j(  J^  iff,  MUXETAKA.     Archer  whose  clan 
took  the  fan  as  their  crest,  in  allusion    to   his   performance   at    the   battle   of 
Yashima,  in   1185. 

When  the  Taira  were  driven  from  Kioto  by  the  Minamoto  in  1182,  the 
Empress  Nn  NO  AMA  flew  with  the  child,  Emperor  ANTOKU,  to  the  shrine 
of  ITSUKUMISHA,  where  thirty  pink  fans,  bearing  the  design  of  the  sun  disc 
(Hi  no  maru),  were  kept.  The  head  priest  gave  one  to  Antoku,  saying  that 
it  contained  in  the  red  disc  the  Kami  of  the  dead  Emperor  TAKAKURA  (1169- 
1180),  and  would  cause  arrows  to  recoil  upon  the  enemy.  The  fan  was 
accordingly  attached  to  a  mast  of  the  Taira  ship,  on  which  a  court  lady  is 
always  depicted,  and  a  challenge  sent  to  Minamoto  no  Yoshitsune,  which 
was  accepted  by  one  of  his  archers,  Nasu  no  Yoichi,  who  on  horseback  rode 
in  the  waves  and  with  a  well-directed  arrow  broke  the  rivet  which  held 
the  leaves  together,  and  thus  shattered  the  fan. 

644.  NEISEKI  ^  Jg>.      The   Chinese   NINO  T'si,  who  found  philosophy 
afforded    him    but   a   scanty   living   and   went   about    driving   a   cart,    like   a 
peasant,   singing   verses    reviling   the    government,   and    beating    time    on    the 
horns   of   his   ox    with   his   stick.       He   was   overheard    by    the    Duke    HWAN, 
who   sent    the   philosopher  Kwan  Chung,   to  invite  hime  to  take  service  with 
him.      The    wagoner    accepted,    though    his    cryptic    reply    is    said    to    have 
puzzled  Chung  (see  Mayers,  517-932),  and  in  time  he  became  a  minister.     So 
great   was   his  ability  that  he  was  entrusted   with  a  difficult  embassy  to  the 
hostile  Duke  of  Sung  with  satisfactory  results. 

645.  NEWT,  as  a  love  charm.     See  CHARMS. 

646.  NEW   YEAR   FESTIVAL.       The    New    Year   decorations   are   em- 
blematic.    The  main  part  is  the  left-handed  straw  rope,  Shimenawa  (q.v.),  so 
wound  because  the  left  is  the  pure  or  fortunate  side,  and  from  which  depend 
groups    of    straw    pendants    with    tufts    in    the    sequence    three,    five,    seven, 



recurring,  and  alternating  with  paper  gohei.  The  shimenawa  is  attached  to 
two  Kadomatsu  (see  SAIGYO  and  IKKIU)  made  of  bamboo  and  pine.  •  Attached 
to  the  rope  are  also  fern  leaves  (Moromoki  or  Urajird),  bitter  oranges 
(Daidai],  charcoal  (sumi),  leaves  of  the  Yuzuri,  and  a  cray-fish.  The  whole 
combination  is  called  Shime  Kazan. 

Offerings  are  made  to  the  household  gods  on  a  small  table  named  Sambo. 
They  consist  of  rice  cake  (Moc/ii),  bitter  oranges,  or  dried  persimmons, 
(Kus/ii  gaki),  dried  chestnuts  (Kachiguri),  pine  seeds  (Kaya  no  tane),  black  peas 
(Kuro  mame),  Iwashi,  sardine,  some  herring  roe  (Kazunoko],  a  cray-fish,  a  Tai 
fish,  some  dried  cuttle-fish  (Surmne),  Mocliibana,  or  flowers  made  of  rice  and 
straw,  a  daikon,  some  turnips,  a  string  of  cash,  several  edible  seaweeds  such 
as  Kobu,  because  of  the  pun  on  Yorokobn,  to  rejoice.  The  offerings 
vary  somewhat  with  the  localities,  and  their  meaning  will  be  found 
under  EMBLEMS.  For  illustrations  see  The  Sun  ^  |y|,  Vol.  /.,  part  1, 
pages  151-152;  also  Fusoku  Gtva/io  and  Nikon  Fuzokushi.  See  also  MANZAI, 

During  the  month  of  January  many  festivals  are  held,  the  descriptions  of 
which  are  common.  Amongst  others,  that  held  on  the  first  day  of  the  rabbit 
is  interesting  because  of  the  combination  of  emblems  which  it  embodies. 
People  go  to  the  temple  of  Temmangu,  and  bring  back  branches  of  willow, 
which  are  sold  in  the  gardens  loaded  with  lucky  symbols:  Daikoku's  hammer, 
Okame's  masks,  gilt  paper  money,  toys  and  small  presents,  and  especially 
sticky  cakes,  called  Maidama,  intended  to  represent  cocoons. 

Games  are  freely  indulged  in,  one  of  those  peculiar  to  the  month  being 
the  Fukii  biki,  or  "luck  pulling,"  in  which  the  head  of  the  household  grasps 
a  bundle  of  gaily  coloured  ribbons  in  his  hands,  the  other  persons  present 
pulling  the  ends  of  the  tapes  to  find  whether  they  shall  be  lucky  during  the  year. 

647.  NICHIREN  H  3$-  Celebrated  founder  of  the  Buddhist  sect 
which  bears  his  name.  Born  in  1222,  in  Kominata,  in  Awa,  near  Tokyo, 
his  name  means  Sun  lotus,  because  his  mother  dreamt  that  the  sun 
entered  her  body  when  she  conceived  him.  He  received  by  revelation  a 
complete  knowledge  of  the  Buddhistic  mysteries — modern  historians  say 



that  he  followed  the  Shingon  sect  and  studied  the  Jodo  doctrines — and 
sought  to  replace  the  ordinary  mantra  Namu  Amida  Butsn  by  Namu  mio 
ho  ren  ge  kio  (Sanskrit:  Mamah  Saddharma  pundhavika  Sutra)  "Glory  to 
the  salvation-giving  book  of  the  law,"  which  is  the  initial  sentence  of  the 
principal  book  of  his  sect,  the  Hokke-shu,  founded  under  the  reign  of 
Gofukakusa  Tenno.  He  also  wrote  a  book  Ankoku  Ron  (book  to  tranquilise 
the  country),  which  contained  the  prediction  of  a  Mongol  invasion  and 
was  so  full  of  attacks  against  the  other  sects  that  Hojo  Tokiyori  was 
obliged,  at  the  prayers  of  the  others,  to  exile  him  to  Ito,  in  Idzu,  for 
thirty  years,  in  1261.  He  escaped  in  1264,  only  to  renew  his  attacks 
with  increased  virulence.  The  help  of  the  Kamakura  Shogun  was  then 
again  sought  by  Nichiren's  enemies,  and  he  decided  to  have  the  monk  be- 
headed. He  sent  him  to  the  beach  of  Koshigoye  to  be  executed. 
Whilst  awaiting  the  fatal  stroke,  the  legend  tells  us  that  Nichiren 
composedly  recited  his  beads  and  his  invocation  to  Buddha,  the  sword 
broke  in  twain  as  it  touched  his  neck,  and  at  the  same  instant  a  flash 
of  lightning  struck  Hojo's  place  at  Kamakura.  A  beam  of  heavenly 
light  illuminated  the  place  of  execution,  and  the  officer  entrusted  with  the 
deed  sent  to  Hojo  a  messenger  to  beg  for  reprieve.  Hojo,  on  his  side, 
had  sent  a  horseman  with  a  pardon,  and  the  two  met  at  a  small  river, 
since  then  called  Yukiai  (place  of  meeting).  Nichiren  was  again  exiled, 
but  this  time  to  Sado.  In  1273  he  came  back  to  Kamakura,  then 
to  Mount  Minobu  in  Kai,  where  after  his  death  in  Ikegami,  part  of 
his  ashes  was  returned. 

According  to  legend,  a  beautiful  women  once  came  to  Mount  Minobu 
whilst  Nichiren  was  praying.  The  saint  ordered  her  to  resume  her  natural 
state,  and  after  explaining  that  she  ruled  eight  points  of  the  compass 
whilst  seated  on  the  eighth  one  in  the  mountains  of  the  west,  she  drank 
some  water  and  took  the  appearance  of  a  huge  snake,  some  twenty  feet 
long,  with  iron  teeth  and  golden  scales.  The  name  of  Shichi  men 
Daimyojin  has  been  given  to  that  snake  through  a  confusion  in  the  meaning 
of  Shichi  men,  and  it  is  identified  with  Siva  (Srimahadeva).  See  the  Nichiren 
Shonin  Ichidai  dzue. 



Our  colour  illustration  shows  Nichiren  on  a  pilgrimage  in  the  mountains 
of  Tsukuhara,  in  Sesshiu.  It  is  taken  from  the  rare  set  of  prints  named 
M  M.  |£P  —"  ftl  B&  [Il>  Koso  Go  Ichi  Dai  Ki  Rioku  Zue. 

648.  NI-JU-HACHI-SHIKU  H  +  A  ft-     The  twenty-eight  followers  of 
the  Goddess  of   Mercy  :    KWAXXOX,    meaning   the   twenty-eight   constellations, 
or   Stellar   Mansions,  of  the   Sinico- Japanese   astronomy. 

649.  NI   JIU   SHI   KO  H  +  0  ^    See   the   Twenty-four   Paragons   of 
Filial   Piety 

650.  NIKKI  DANJO  t  7K  5?  JE.  Jeader  of  the   rebellion   of  the  castle 
of   Sendai,   could    transform    himself    into    a    rat.       Once    he    tried    to    steal 
from   his   master's   room   a   precious   book,    and    was    nearly    caught    in    the 
act    by    Matsumai    Tetsunosuke,    but    he    transformed    himself    on    the   spot, 
and   the   other   saw   nothing   but   a   huge   rat   scampering   out   of    the    room. 
A   popular    play    called    Sendaihagi,    has    been    written    on   this   subject,    in 
which   the   names  of   the   personages   have   been   borrowed   from  former  ages, 
as   was   usual   with   playwrights   under   the   Tokugawa    dynasty. 

651.  NTNGYO.  A   H(-     Sort   of   mermaids,    inhabitants    of    the    Taiyan 
island  waters,    who    are    represented    with   a    human    bust    attached    to    the 
body   of   a   fish,    and    listening    in    shells   to    the   secrets    of    the    sea.      The 
shell   is    usually    a    haliotis.       The    mermaid    proper    is    usually    represented 
with    forelegs.      There    was    a    curious    specimen    in    the    Dresser    collection 
(sold    1905),   consisting   of   the   dried   body  of   a  fish  the  head  of   which   had 
been   replaced   by   a   carved   head   and   forelegs   with   claws. 

Sometimes   the   Ningyo   holds  a   Tamo. 

Other  creatures,  generally  females,  with  a  scanty  covering  perhaps  of 
seaweed  around  the  loins,  but  with  legs  and  no  tail,  and  carrying  a 
scythe-shaped  knife  in  the  right  hand,  are  often  met  with  as  netsuke,  the 
left  hand  carrying  to  the  ear  a  shell ;  they  are  Awabi  divers. 

But  one  type  of  old  netsuke,  very  often  rudely  carved  out  of  deer 
horn,  with  large  protruding  abdomen  is  said  to  represent  the  Empress 
Jingo  Kogo,  who  retarded  her  accouchement  during  the  Korean  war. 



652.  NINNAJI  -{H  i$]  ^p  temple  of  KIOTO.    See  SUKUMAMO.    The  story 
of  the   kettle  dance  is   given   in   full  in  the  book  Tsurezuregusa,  written  by 
the   priest   Kenko   (died    1350). 

653.  NIRAMI   KURABE.      See   GAMES. 

654.  NITTA  NO  SHIRO   fc  H  0  I|$  J&  &,    popularly    called    NITAN 
No  SHIRO   (TADATSUNE),  shown  killing  a   boar,   upon   which   he   sprang  as  it 
passed   near   him   in   a   hunt   near    Fuji,    and    he    plunged    his    short    sword 
in   the   brute's   neck   as   he   ran.      This  performance   is  sometimes  erroneously 
attributed   to   Nitta  Yoshisada   who   lived   much  later. 

It  is  during  the  same  hunting  party  of  Yoritomo  that  the  Soga  revenge 
took  place. 

NITAN  NO  SHIRO  was  sent  by  the  Emperor  to  try  and  kill  the  monsters 
of  Fujiyama,  which  noboby  dared  visit  on  their  account.  He  entered  a 
cave  and  there  saw  a  Goddess,  who  congratulated  him  upon  his  courage 
At  the  present  day  there  is  a  statue  of  Kwannon  in  the  cave. 

655.  NITTA  YOSHIOKI  ff  H  ^  M,  son  of  Nitta  Yoshisada.     At  the 
end  of  the  three   years'    war,    in    1338,    he   was    the   only   legitimist   chieftain 
left    to    light    the    rebels,    who   still   continued   the   struggle   after    the   death 
of    their    leader,    Ashikaga    Takauji.        His    enemy,    Hatakayema    Kunikiyo, 
engaged   two  traitors,  Takezawa   and   Edo   Narihiro,    to   despatch   him ;   they 
led    him    to    believe    that    he    could    safely   cross    the    Kawasaki    river,    but 
scuttled  the  boat  before  starting.      Seeing   himself   lost,   Yoshioks   committed 
seppuku   in    the   boat ;    his   retainer,    Ichiikawa,    swam   across   with   his   sword 
between   his   teeth.      See  YOSHIOKI. 

656.  NITTA    YOSHISADA    ff    ffl    H   M-       Distinguished     Minamoto 
warrior   who,   after  serving   under   Hojo   government,   until    whilst    besieging 
Kusunoki  Masashige's  fortress  on  the  Kongosan  he  was  approached  by  Prince 
Morinaga    and    became    a   follower   and   defender   of   Go    Daigo   Tenno,   and 
then   attacked  the   Hojo   family   at   Kamakura   in    1333. 

Later,  during  the  war  against  Takauji,  he  saw  once  through  the 
palings  of  a  garden  a  lady,  Koto  no  Naishi,  busy  playing  the  koto,  and 


at    once   fell   in   love,   but  contented  himself  with  composing   the    following 

poem  :— 
&  Waga  sode  no 

Namida  ni  yadoru 
Kage  to  dani 
,'  V  Shirade  kumoi  no 

1  *;  \  Tsuki  ya  sumuran, 

i  "  The    tears   wet    my   sleeve ;    the   shadow   of    the   moon   (Koto   no   naishi) 

will   remain   above   the   clouds,    unconscious   of   having   caused   them." 

He  married  her  the  following  year  and  had  two  sons :  Yoshioki  and 
and  Yoshimune. 

On  the  twentieth  of  the  fifth  month  in  1333,  he  was  besieging 
Kamakura,  but  found  the  sea  too  boisterous  to  cross  over  to  the  town, 
and  he  threw  his  sword  into  the  waves  to  propitiate  the  divinities  of 
the  deep,  an  episode  often  represented  in  art.  At  the  ebb  tide  he  entered 
the  town.  Takatoki  was  killed,  the  shogun  Morikuni  Shinno  became  a 
monk,  and  Kamakura  was  burnt  down,  after  which  Go  Daigo  returned  to  Kioto. 
The  uncle  of  his  wife,  Andozaemon  Shoshu,  was  a  retainer  of  Takatoki, 
and  after  the  fall  of  Kamakura,  Nitta's  wife  wrote  to  him  that  if  he 
would  submit  to  Yoshisada  the  latter  would  pardon  him.  Shoshu,  however, 
would  not  accede  to  her  entreaties  and  abjure  the  Hojo  cause  when  his 
leader  was  defeated.  He  heard  that  Takatoki  had  burnt  his  castle  and  fled 
to  the  mountains,  and  he  was  so  disgusted  at  this  conduct  that  he  went 
to  Kamakura,  with  a  hundred  of  his  men,  to  weep  upon  the  smouldering 
ruins,  and  wrapping  around  his  sword  the  letter  of  Koto  no  Naishi,  he 
committed  seppuku. 

At  Tenriu  Gawa,  in  Totomi,  the  bridge  broke  —  or  was  purposely 
destroyed  to  prevent  Yoshisada's  retreat  from  Kamakura-  -and  Nitta's  horse 
fell  in  the  river,  with  his  groom.  A  strong  soldier,  Kiuriu  Sayemon, 
jumped  into  the  water,  and  legend  says  that  he  threw  the  horse  and 
groom  back  on  to  the  bank.  Nitta  is  sometimes  shown  on  horseback  on 
the  beams  of  the  wrecked  bridge,  although  some  commentators  say  that  a 
bridge  of  boats  had  been  used. 


OKAME   (M.I;.) 



NINGYO  (H-.L.K.) 
NIXGYO  (a.e.) 


NYO   (ll.S.T.) 


Nitta  Yoshisada's  campaigns  are  closely  linked  with  those  of  Kusunoki 
Masashige  (q.v.).  Alternatively,  he  defeated  the  leader  of  the  Ashikaga 
rebels  Takauji,  at  Miidera  and  at  Kioto,  and  was  himself  defeated  at 
Takenoshita  and  at  Minato  Gawa,  where  the  odds  were  entirely  against 
him.  Finally  he  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Fujisliima,  in  Kchizen,  by 
an  arrow  in  the  head.0  His  head  depicted  with  a  cut  on  the  forehead, 
was  taken  to  Kioto  to  be  exhibited  publicly.  His  wife  who,  with  his  son, 
had  gone  to  Kioto  to  meet  him,  saw  this  ghastly  trophy,  and  forthwith 
entered  the  convent  of  Nishiyama.  His  sons  followed  in  his  footsteps,  but 
only  to  meet  with  the  same  fate  at  the  hands  of  his  enemies. 

In  the  Hachiman  Dai  Bosalsn  the  Koto  no  Naishi  is  seen  fumigating 
Nitta's  helmet  with  incense  before  the  battle,  meaning  that  he  would  fight 
to  the  death.  Another  familiar  illustration  shows  him  on  foot,  after  his 
horse  had  been  killed  at  the  battle  of  Motome  zuka,  cutting  the  arrows  of 
the  enemy  "which  poured  upon  him  like  rain  in  a  storm,"  with  his  two 
swords,  Oni  kiri  and  Oni  rnaru. 

657.  NO    GAK1"    fit  |§|.       Dances.      See    special     literature.       Amongst 
Japanese  works  on    the   subject   are  One   hundred   and   ten  No    Dances,   with 
musical   notation,  published   in   the   form   of   twenty-two  volumes   (mentioned 
in   Aston's   Japanese    literature)   and   a   work    in    eight    volumes    by    Owada 
Tateki,    (The    Yokyoku   Tsukai,   published    1892). 

658.  NOBUTSURA  'fff  £|   (CHOBEI  xo  :o  &  Q  ^  HASEBE).      Hasebe 
Nobutsura   was   a   retainer  of  Prince    Mochihito   who,    hoping    to    be    helped 
by  Yoritomo  and  Kiso  Yoshinaka,  started   a   revolt   against    Kiyomori.      The 
monks    of   Kumano,    hearing    of   it,   denounced   Mochihito   to   Kiyomori,   and 
he   had   to   seek   safety    in    flight,    accompanied    by    Nobutsura,    both    being 
disguised    in    women's    dresses.       Nobutsura,    however,    came    back    to    the 
castle  and  killed  a  score  of  Kiyomori's  men,  but    his  sword  broke  in  twain, 
and    he    was    captured    and    taken    to   the   Shikken.       He   refused   to   betray 
the    hiding    place    of    Mochihito,    and    his    firm    countenance    so    impressed 
Kiyomori    that   he   granted   him   his    life. 

5  The  official  History  of  the  Empire  of  Japan   (World's  Fair  Commission,   1893)  says,   p.   219,  that  Nitta 
Yoshisada  committed  suicide  after  the  fall  of  the  castle  of  Tsuruga. 



659.  NOMI  NO  SUKUNE  if  JE  It  M      Patron  of  the  wrestlers,  since, 
by  command  of  the  Emperor  SUININ,   he  killed   the  boastful  KEHAYA   (q.v.). 

660.  NORIKIYO  ft  $|  t*  fff  (SATO  HIOYE).     See  SAIGIO   HOSHI. 

661.  NORITSUNE    ^p   $fc   $$    (Noxo    NO    KAMI).      One    of    the    Taira 
warriors.      In   the   final  fight   with   the  Minamoto,   at    the  battle  of   Dan  no 
Ura,    he   tried   to   kill   Yoshitsune,   who,   however,    evaded    him    by    jumping 
over    eight    boats    and    falling    into    the    ninth    (Has-So    Tobi).       Noritsune 
tried   to  jump    after    him,    but    he    was    impeded    in    his    attempt    by    two 
wrestlers   of   enormous   size,    and   a   strong    man    named    lyemura,   whom    he 
kicked   down.      Taking   the   wrestlers   under   his   arms,   he   jumped    into    the 
sea   with   them,   all   three   being   drowned. 

662.  NUKE  KUBI  $£  "|{f.      Goblin  with  a   head   that   leaves    the    body 
at   night   and   wanders   about. 

663.  NUMBERS.      The   Japanese   appear  to  be  very  fond  of  classifying 
things,     individuals,    animals,     etc.,     into    numerical     classes,     and     although 
perhaps  this  custom  is  not  developed  to  such  an  extent  as  with  the  Chinese, 
yet    the    list    of   their    numerical    categories   could    be    extended    to    quite    a 
respectable    length.      Among   the   best    known    which  find  their   place   in   art 
may  be  mentioned  :— 

The  Thousand  cranes  (Semba   Tsuru). 

The  Thousand  horses  and  armour  collected  by  Hidehira,  of  Oshu,  by 
violent  means  and  the  Thousand  bows  and  quivers  collected  by  Matsura 

The  Thousand  armed  and  the  Eleven-faced  Kwannons. 

The  Thousand  carps,  monkeys  (sembiki  saru),  horses,  boars,  characters. 

The  Thousand  gourds  of  Hideyoshi,  Sennari  byotan. 

The  One  hundred-and-eight  Chinese  heroes  of  the  novel,  Sm  ko  den  (Shui 
hsii  ch'uan). 

Various  "Hundred  Poems."  Hiaku  nin  Isshiu  and  the  corresponding 

The  Hundred  monkeys;   horses,   etc. 



The  Hundred  ways  of  writing  Jiu   f|L 

The  Fifty-three  stations  of  the  Tokaido  road. 

The  Thirty-six  poets,  and  the  more  select  group  of  the  Rokkasen,  or 
Six  poets. 

The  Twenty-four  Chinese  Paragons  of  filial  piety,  the  list  of  which 
varies,  but  is  usually  preferred  to  the  home-bred  list  of  Japanese  paragons. 

The  Five  hundred  Rakans  and  the  Eighteen  Arhats,  Sixteen  of  which 
are  the  usual  collection. 

The  Eight  worthies  of  the  wine  cup,  In  chu  no  Hassen.  See  Mayers' 
2nd  part,  252,  and  the  Eight  Sennins  of  the  Chinese  Taoists. 

The  Seven  sennins  of  Brahmanic  lore. 

The  Seven  retainers  of  Hideyoshi  (with  spears)  at  Shizugatake. 

The  Seven  Komachi  (Nana  Komachi). 

The  Seven  Chinese  worthies  of  the  Bamboo  grove  (Chikurin  no  shichi  Ken). 

The  Seven  Evils,  and  Seven  Good  fortunes,  although  not  usually  met 
with  in  art  may  be  quoted  from  the  Ar/o  0  Kid  sittra,  they  are  respec- 
tively, Earthquake,  flood,  fire,  sales,  onis,  war,  robbery,  sickness;  and  Honour, 
long  life,  plenty  of  servants,  carriages,  grain  and  money,  silk  robes,  fine 

The  Six  Tamagawa  rivers  (Roku  Tamagawa). 

The  Five  chief  festivals.  Go  Sekku,  namely :  Nanakusa ;  Hina  Matsuri 
or  Jomi  no  Sekku,  the  feast  of  the  dolls  (March  3rd) ;  Tango  no  Sekku, 
boys'  festival  (May  jth) ;  Tanabata ;  Choyo  no  Seku  (September  gth). 
Illustrations  of  five  different  festivals  grouped  together  are  sometimes" 
found,  especially  on  metal  work. 

The  Four  sleepers. 

The  Seven  Gods  in   the  Takarabune  (Shichi  fuku  jin). 

The  Seven  herbs  of  the  New  Year's  week  festival  (Nana   Kusa). 

The  Five  Buddhas  of  wisdom,  and  other  numerical  categories  of  the 
Buddhistic  faith,  for  which  see  the  Butsu  zo  zui. 

The  Four  supernatural  animals:  Tiger  (or  Kirin),  Tortoise,  Dragon,  and 
Howo,  or  Phoenix. 

The  Four  Deva  Kings  (Shi  Tenno). 



Many  lists  of  "Shi  Tenno,"  the  Four  retainers  of  famous  generals.  See 
RAIKO;  see  also  Chamberlain's  Things  Japanese. 

The  Four  beautiful  plants:  Pine,  Bamboo,  Chrysanthemum,  and  Flower- 
ing Plum. 

The  Three  heroes  of  the  later  Han  dynasty:  Chohi,  Gentoku,  Kwanyu 
(San  Ketsii). 

The  Three  heroes  of  Han:    Chorio,  Kanshin,  and  Chimpei. 

The  Three  Sake  tasters:    Shaka,  Koshi,  and  Roshi. 

The  Three  finest  views  of  Japan:  Matsushima,  Ama  no  Hashidate,  and 

The  Three  Mystic  Apes. 

The  Three  old  men  (Sanko):  Urashima,  Takenouchi,  and  Miura  no 

The  Three  long-lived  genii  (Saw////):    Seiobo,  Jurojin,  and  Tobosaku. 

664.  NUYE   ^|.      See  YORIMASA.      There  is  a  novel   upon   this   fantastic 
animal,  called  Kokuji  Nuye  Monogatari  (1807). 

665.  NIOI   NO  JIU   $|1  ^  0)  Precious  jewel,   by  whose   means  all 
wishes  are  accomplished. 

666.  NYO    H    3L    also    -\TI°    K°N    Go,    the    two    great   Golden   Kings. 
Devas   placed   on    either  side  of  temple  doors;    temple  guardians  of  more  or 
less    repulsive    appearance,    the    duty    of    which    is    to    guard    the    Ni   o    mon 
(gate)   of  the   temple,   and  prevent    devils   from    getting   near.      They   are   the 
representation   of   Indra   and    Brahma. 

They  are  also  called  Nio  SAM  A,  or  the  red  and  green  Devas,  from  which 
the  transition  to  the  red  and  green  devils  has  been  an  easy  step.  AKA  Oxi, 
the  red  devil,  has  an  open  mouth,  as  representing  the  Yo,  or  male  principle 
of  Chinese  philosophy;  and  Awo  ONI,  the  green  devil,  has  compressed  lips, 
and  represents  the  Yin,  or  female  principle.  They  are  also  considered  as 
emblematic  of  strength.  The  word  Nyorai  is  equivalent  to  the  Sanskrit 
Tathagatq,  and  as  such  is  the  greatest  epithet,  applied  to  a  Buddha.  Under 
that  name  are  designed  the  five  Buddhas  of  contemplation  and  wisdom 
(Goshi  nyorai) :  Ashuku,  Dainichi,  Shaka,  Taho,  and  Yakushi  Nyorai. 




(Matt  Garlmtt  collection) 


One  of  the  curious  customs  connected  with  the  Nio,  consists  in  spitting 
chewed  paper  at  the  NYO  by  way  of  prayer  to  be  blessed  with  greater 
strength.  In  some  places  the  same  custom  is  followed  towards  the  images 
of  Binzuru. 

667.  O  BAKE  GOTO.      See  GAMES. 

668.  ODA  NOBUNAGA*  $$    0    jf   Jt      Son   of   Nobuhide,    whom   he 
succeeded,  and   descendant   of  Taira    no   Shigemori ;   he  married   the  daughter 
of  Saito  Hidetatsu  when  he  was  twenty.      It  is  said  that  when  Saito  visited 
him  he  found  him  and  his  soldiers  with    rude   arms   and    ill-shaped   armour, 
but  when  Nobunaga  visited  him  he  took  care  to  go  in  fine  armour,  and  Saito 
sighed  upon   the  probable  fate  of  his  own  province,  which  he  guessed   would 
soon   become    the   property   of   Nobunaga    (this,    in   fact,   happened    under   his 
son,    Yoshitatsu).      He    ended   the   Okehazama    war   by   destroying   Imagawa 
Yoshimoto,    then    Lord    of    Suruga,    Totomi,    and    Mikawa    in     1560.       The 
Emperor  Ogimachi  ordered  him   to  restore  peace  in  the  Empire,    then   fallen 
into   anarchy,    and    in    1564  he  subjugated  Mino,   took  Gifu   as   his   residence, 
and   attacked    Omi.      As   there   were    many    difficulties    in    attacking    Sasaki 
Shotei,    he    attached     to    himself     by     family     ties     Takeda     Shingen,     Asai 
Nagamasa,  Tokugawa   leyasu,   and   other   warriors   whom   he   thought   might 
otherwise   side   against   him.      In    1568   he  was  able  to  defeat  Sasaki  Shotei, 
who  ran  away  from  Omi  and  left  the  road  free  for  the  Sh5gun  Yoshiaki  to 
return  from  Echizen   to  Kyoto,   where   he   was   received   by   Nobunaga.      The 
latter  afterwards  attacked   Settsu   and   Kawachi,   and   was   rewarded  by   the 
Emperor    with    the    title    of    Danjochu.      In     1569    the   Shogun's   palace   was 
invaded    by    Miyoshi     and     Matsunaga,     but     they     were     driven     away     by 
Nobunaga,  who  then  constructed  new  palaces  for  the   Emperor  and  Shogun 
Yoshiaki,   whom   he   placed   under   the   guard  of   Hideyoshi,   and  was    again 

The  Yamabushis  of  Enryakuji  (Hieisan)  had  become  boisterous,  and 
Nobunaga  decided  to  abate  their  influence,  but  as  they  were  supported  by 

9  The  spelling  ODA  is  followed  by  most  western  writers,  and  has  accordingly  been  adopted  here,  but 
the  proper  Japanese  reading  is  OTA. 



neighbouring  Daimios  they  were  too  strong  for  him.  He  then  bethought 
himself  of  using  the  Christian  devotees,  and  built  a  temple,  "Nambanji,"  for 
three  Portuguese  Jesuits  in  Kyoto  (the  Catholic  faith  had  been  brought  to 
Japan  in  1547,  and  had  extended  in  Kyushu  and  Chugoku  with  rapidity). 
In  1571  Takeda  Shingen  and  the  monks  thought  of  attacking  Nobunaga, 
but  he  forestalled  them,  and  burnt  to  the  ground  their  three  thousand 

Shingen,  envious  of  Nobunaga,  slandered  him  to  the  Shogun,  who 
foolishly  agreed  to  destroy  Nobunaga.  The  latter  invaded  the  palace,  and 
Yoshiaki  apologised;  but  later  Nobunaga  attacked  and  captured  Yoshiaki, 
who  would  have  been  executed,  but  begged  for  his  life,  and  was  instead 
exiled  to  the  castle  of  "VYakae,  in  Wakasa. 

This  marked  the  fall  of  Ashikaga  Shogunate.  In  1575  Nobunaga 
destroyed  Takeda  Katsuyori,  successor  of  Shingen,  and  was  promoted  to 
the  title  of  GON  DAINAGOX.  He  also  destroyed  Asai  Nagamasa  and  Asakura 
Yoshikage  in  the  north,  Miyoshi  and  Matsunaga  in  Kawachi  (1574). 

In  1576  he  was  promoted  to  the  Real  Second  Rank;  in  1577  he  defeated 
the  revolt  of  the  Buddhist  priests  of  the  Ikko  sect  in  Settsu.  He  stayed  in 
1582  at  the  temple  Honnoji,  in  Kyoto,  where  he  was  attacked  at  night  by 
his  own  retainer,  Akechi  Mitsuhide,  with  a  great  body  of  men.  He  could 
not  resist  with  the  few  guards  at  his  disposal,  and  was  stabbed  by  the  spear 
of  an  Akechi  soldier  named  Amano  Genzaemon. 

He  was  then  forty-nine  years  old;  his  irritable  disposition  and  severe 
discipline  had  estranged  him  from  many  of  his  men,  and  thus  indirectly 
caused  his  murder  after  he  had  conquered  twenty  provinces.  The  Emperor 
conferred  upon  him  the  title  of  Prime  Minister  and  the  second  order  of  the 
first  rank  after  his  death. 

During  his  life  Nobunaga  was  nicknamed  Baka  dono  (Lord  Fool)  by 
his  enemies.  It  is  said  of  Akechi  that  his  hatred  of  Nobunaga  arose  one 
day  when  the  latter,  in  a  merry  mood,  caught  Akechi's  head  under  his 
arm  and,  striking  it  gently  with  his  fan,  told  him  he  would  make  a  drum 
of  it. 

Shiganosuke,  brother  of  Akechi  Mitsuhide,  was  a  retainer  of  Hideyoshi. 



When  the  latter  attacked  Akechi,  unable  to  fight  his  brother  and  yet  not 
wishing  to  turn  traitor  to  Taiko  Sama,  he  swam  on  horseback  across  Lake 
Biwa,  killed  his  wife  and  children,  and  after  setting  fire  to  his  palace 
committed  harakiri. 

669.  OEN    -F.  $!§.      Chinese   who   lived  in  the   western   mountains,  and 
his   lamp   was   marvellously   filled    every   day.      He  had  a  tame   tiger   and   a 
tame  leopard  serving  him   in   his  cave,   and    two    blue   phoenix    always   came 
to  herald  his  visitors. 

670.  O   ETStJ   SHO.     A   Chinese  sage  depicted    writing  a   poem   whilst 
he  holds  a  duck  under  his  arm. 

671.  OGEI    3E   15li-       Semi  in    figured     in     Hokusai's    Mang-wa;     was    a 
disciple  of  Lao  Tse  (Roshi),  who  learnt  the  doctrine  of  Taoism  in  the  periods 
of   Fukiji    and   Shinno.      He    was   also   seen    in    Gojo   and   Shun,   and    finally 
went  to  heaven  on   a  cloud. 

672.  OGISHI    3E  ^  *£•       1  ne    Chinese    caligraphist,    Wang    Hi    Che, 
usually   depicted    writing   on    a    rock.      He   lived   from    320   to    379   A.D.,   and 
originated    the    Kaisho    (Shinsho)    style   of    writing    now    generally    adopted. 
One   of   his    sons,    Wang    Hien,    followed    in    his    steps,    and    is    perhaps    the 
youthful    attendant    usually   shown   holding   the    master's   inkstand. 

673.  OGURI  HANGWAX  /J>  ^  £lj  *g  (KANEUJI).     Son  of  a  rebellious 
vassal   of  Ashikaga,   after   whose   ruin    he    had    to    live    in    hiding.       He    is 
celebrated  for  his  horsemanship,   and   accordingly  often  shown  on  horseback 
on   a   Go   table. 

OGURI  HANGWAN  had  a  vicious  stepmother  who  compelled  him  to  flee 
from  home.  Later  on  she  sent  him  some  drugged  wine,  which  he  unsus- 
pectedly  drank,  the  result  being  that  he  wasted  away  and  became  a  cripple. 
A  priest  made  him  a  small  car,  upon  which  he  travelled  for  several  years, 
pulled  by  compassionate  people.  He  met  Terute  Hime,  who,  with  the  help 
of  a  prayer  to  the  God  of  Hakone,  healed  him,  and  the  romance  of  their 
adventurous  life  is  set  at  length  in  the  Oguri  Monogatari. 

In   company   with   Hosokawa    Hasafusa,   he  hunted   down  and  destroyed 



the  pirate  Kazama  Hachiro,  and  he  is  often  depicted  mounted  on  his  horse, 
Onikage,  and  watching  from  the  top  of  a  cliff  the  doings  of  the  pirate. 

Lafcadio  Hearn,  in  his  paper  on  Daikoku  mai  (trans.  Asiatic  Society 
Japan  XXII/3/309),  says  that  Oguri's  birth  was  the  result  of  prayer  and 
a  miracle.  Terute  was  also  of  miraculous  birth,  and  her  father,  Choja 
Yokohama,  incensed  at  her  marrying  Oguri  against  his  wish,  poisoned  the 
bridegroom  and  ordered  his  own  daughter  to  be  drowned.  She  was, 
however,  rescued  by  a  fisherman  named  Murakimi  Dayu,  of  Nawoye,  whose 
jealous  wife  sold  Terute  to  a  kidnapper.  The  unhappy  girl  was  thus  sold 
seventy-five  times,  until  she  was  bought  by  Yorudzuya  Chobei,  a  Joroya 
keeper.  She  refused  to  become  a  Joro,  and  preferred  to  do  the  hardest 
menial  toil,  keeping  chaste  until  she  was  rescued  by  Oguri. 

Once  in  Sagami  some  highwaymen  plotted  to  rob  him,  but  Terute 
heard  of  the  plot  and  warned  him;  he  then  escaped  on  the  horse  of  one 
of  the  robbers. 

A  lengthy  synopsis  of  Oguri's  story  will  be  found  in  Braun's  Japanischer 
Stigen  und  Marchen.  See  Moronobu's  book,  Shimpan  Oguri  Hangwan. 

A  remarkably  similar  legend  is  that  of  HATSUHANA.  She  was  the  wife 
of  Inuma  Katsugoro,  better  known  under  the  nickname  Hizari  (lame) 
Katsugoro.  The  father  of  this  Samurai  had  been  killed  by  some  enemy, 
and  Inuma,  bent  on  dutiful  revenge,  became  a  ronin,  and  travelled  all  over 
the  country  to  find  the  murderer.  He  met  with  an  accident  and  hurt  his 
leg  in  such  a  way  that  he  could  not  walk  any  more.  Hatsuhana  then  drew 
him,  in  a  little  carriage,  up  to  the  temple  of  Hakone  Gongen,  in  the 
mountains,  where  she  prayed  under  a  waterfall  for  her  husband's  recovery. 
The  Divinity  granted  her  earnest  prayer,  but  the  poor  woman  forfeited  her  life. 
Shortly  afterwards,  Katsugoro's  enemies  passed  near  the  waterfall,  when  he 
killed  them  all,  and  the  ghost  of  his  wife  appeared  rising  out  of  the  waters. 

674.  OHO  3£  1§E  (in  a  flying  chariot  and  with  a  halo)  was  a  man  of 
Han-Yo  who  learnt  Taoism  on  Mount  Kwa,  and  whom  the  Gods  favoured 
with  a  feathery  chariot,  with  which  he  visited  every  fairy  land  and 
investigated  the  heavens. 



675.  O  HI  SAN.     August  fire  lady;   another  name  of  AMATERASU. 

676.  OJIN  TENNO  J§  jjJj>  ^C  JH     See  HACHIMAX. 

677.  OKADA   |J6J    |!J.      A  Ronin  living  in  Akita  who  was   inordinately 
fond   of  shooting   birds   with  a  gun,  although   his   two  daughters,  who  were 
good  Buddhists,  beseeched  him  repeatedly  not  to  wantonly  destroy  life.     One 
day  he  was  asked  by  one  of  his  neighbours  to  shoot   t\vo  storks,  and  agreed 
to  do  so.      His  daughters  thereupon  decided  to  dress  in   white,  and  to  go  in 
the  moonless  night  upon   the  beach  which  the  storks  were  wont  to  frequent, 
so  that   if  their   father   killed   either   of   them    he   might    repent   and   get   out 
of  his  evil  ways. 

The  ronin  unfortunately  shot  them  both,  and  when  he  went  to  collect 
his  spoils  found  that  he  had  killed  his  own  daughters.  Full  of  grief,  he 
erected  himself  their  funeral  pyre,  and  burnt  their  bodies;  then  he  shaved 
his  head  and  went  to  the  woods  as  a  hermit. 

678.  OKAME   |SO  g  (}:  fr   &).     See  UZU.ME. 

679.  O   KATSU    $3  Jj$p.      The    unfortunate   heroine  of  a   ghastly  story, 
given  by  Lafcadio  Hearn  in  Kotto. 

Near  the  waterfall  of  Yurei  Daki,  in  Kurosaka,  there  was  a  shrine 
erected  to  Taki  Daimiojin,  to  which  was  attached  a  money-box.  The  place 
was  far  famed  as  a  rendez-vous  for  ghosts  and  goblins,  and  no  one  would 
venture  near  it  after  nightfall;  but  one  night,  as  the  result  of  idle  talk, 
followed  by  a  wager,  O  Katsu  decided  to  go  to  the  waterfall,  and  as  a 
proof  thereof  she  consented  to  bring  back  the  money-box  of  the  god.  She 
went,  and  found  the  road  rough  and  dismal ;  as  she  grabbed  the  money- 
box she  heard  a  voice  in  the  waterfall  call  her  twice,  but  she  heeded  it  not, 
and  went  her  way  faster  than  she  had  come.  Her  friends  congratulated  her 
on  her  pluck,  when  one  remarked  that  her  back  seemed  wet,  and  lo,  it 
was  blood,  running  from  the  wee  bundle  in  which  she  had  carried  her  little 
son,  strapped  on  her  back,  all  the  way.  On  unwrapping  the  baby  it  was 
then  found  that  his  head  had  been  torn  off.  .  .  . 

680.  O  KIKU.     See  GHOSTS  (Bakemono). 



681.     O  KINA.     Mask  of  an  old  man,  with  tufts  of  hair  on  the  cheeks 
and  forehead.     See  SAMBASSO  dances  and  MASKS. 

682.  O   KIO   IK  l|l  (MARUYAMA    UH   Uj).     A  painter  who   lived   in   the 
eighteenth  century;    once  he  painted  a  boar,   which   he   thought  was  asleep; 
someone   passing   along   the    following   day   saw   the   drawing   and   wondered 
at  the  accuracy  with   which  the  painter   had   limned   a   dead  boar,   much  to 
the  astonishment  of  O  KIO,  who  protested,  but  went  to  the  place  where  he 
had  seen  the  animal,  and  found  that  it  was  really  dead. 

683.  OKUZAWA   SENSABURO   J&  if  fill  H  11$.      Great  robber;    often 
shown  standing,  tightly  bound  with  a  rope,  but  still  in  a  defiant  posture. 

684.  OKYO  3E  ^      Sennin.      See  OSHIKIO. 

685.  OMI    HAKKEI   jf£  IL  A  il-      The   eight   beautiful  views  of  Lake 
BIWA  :— 

The  autumn  moon,  seen  from  ISHIYAMA  ^3  Ul  ^C  ^j 
The  evening  glow  in  SETA  §$-  0  *?  M 
The  evening  bell  of  MIIDERA   —  \  ffi  Bffi.  £a 
The  evening  snow  on  HIRAYAMA  Jifc,  J^  ^  § 
The  night  rain  in  KARASAKI  ||f  ll^  ^  M 
The  boats  sailing  from  YABASE  ^  $|  §§ 
The  bright  sky,  with  the  breeze  of  AWAZU  !H  ^£  Hf!  M 
The  wild  geese  alighting  at  KATADA  §^  ffl  ^  M 

These  views  are  commonly  found  on  inro,  and  sometimes  in  the  form  of 
small  panels  on  tsuba. 

This  Hakkei  is  an  imitation  of  Shosho  no  Hakkei  $*  i.  |^  ^8  ^1  A  ;!S. 
a  Chinese  category  which,  like  the  Omi  Hakkei,  is  given  and  illustrated  in 
the  Yedo  Osetsuyo.  There  is  a  Kanazawa  Hakkei  near  Yokohama. 


687.  ONI   jU,.      Generic  name  for  devils,    the    representation    of    which 
in  art  is  quite  a  common   feature.      ONIS  have  claws,   a  square  head   with 
two   horns,   sharp   teeth,   and   malignant   eyes   surmounted   by   big   eyebrows; 




occasionally  they  wear  trousers  of  tiger's  skin.  On  the  first  of  January  they 
are  expelled  from  houses  with  the  invocation  Oni  vaa  Soto,  Fukii  wa  uchi: 
Devils  avaunt!  Luck  enter!  by  the  Caster-out  of  devils,  the  Yaku  Harai,  or 
Toshi  Otoke,  whose  weapons  are  a  shakiidjo  and  a  box  of  dried,  roasted 
black  peas  (Kuro  mame),  which,  after  use,  were  thrown  away  with  a  paper 
previously  rubbed  on  the  body  to  get  rid  of  ill-luck.  This  ceremony  is  called 
the  Oni  Yarai  or  Tsuina,  and  is  frequently  illustrated,  either  in  its  full 
details,  a  personage  throwing  the  peas  and  onis  retreating,  or  more  often 
hiding  under,  or  in,  any  well,  box,  hat,  basket,  etc.,  that  may  come  handy, 
or  even  behind  the  chief  figure.  A  common  form  of  netsuke  shows  a  box 
out  of  which  protrudes  the  back  of  an  oni,  which,  in  trying  to  cram  itself 
into  the  box,  nearly  bursts  it,  and  on  the  top  a  few  peas  or  beans  give 
the  finishing  touch.  In  olden  times  an  imposing  ceremonial  was  followed, 
peach-wood  bows  and  reed  arrows  being  used  in  the  Imperial  palace  against 
a  man  disguised  as  an  oni. 

The  caster-out  is  often  Shoki  (q.v.),  the  general  demon-queller,  but 
sometimes,  in  humorous  groups,  Okame  and  even  the  Gods  of  luck,  Fukuro- 
kujiu  or  Jurojin,  are  depicted  performing  this  function.  The  oni  in  that  case 
usually  hides  behind,  or  even  plays  with,  a  strap  at  catching  Fukurokujiu's 

Onis  occasionally  march  at  night  in  bands  of  a  hundred,  and  this  is 
called  the  Hiakki  no  Yako.  They  form  processions  in  imitation  of  religious 
ceremonies;  sometimes  even  become  converted  to  better  ways  and  enter 
monkhood,  with  their  horns  sawn  off,  and  then  carry  the  bell  and  umbrella 
of  the  true  monks.  Priests  are  shown  sawing  off  the  horns  of  demons,  and  the 
latter's  services  are  then  enlisted  as  temple  guardians  to  beat  the  gong,  etc. 

Onis  as  begging  monks  are  depicted  with  the  Nenchicho,  or  register  of 
death,  of  Buddhist  parishioners,  kept  in  the  temples  to  remind  the  relatives 
of  the  dead  of  the  commemorative  festivals  held  on  the  jrd,  yth,  ijth, 
25th,  and  5oth  anniversary  of  the  decease. 

According  to  Shaka's  teaching,  even  devils  can  be  reclaimed  in  such  a 
manner  by  working  for  temples,  or  as  servants  to  holy  men  (Hakuhaku, 
En-no  Shokaku). 



Amongst  plays  in  which  oni  take  a  prominent  place  are  the  ATo  of 
Adachigahara,  Momijigari  (see  KOREMOCHI),  Aoi  no  Uye  (based  on  the  Genji 
Monogatari),  Benkei  at  sea,  the  Kazane,  the  Yotsuya  Kwaidan  (Oyiwa 
Shrine  at  Tokyo),  the  Banshiu  Sara-yashiki  (based  on  the  story  of  O  Kiku: 
see  GHOSTS),  D5joji. 

The  ordinary  temple  guardians  are  often  called  the  red  and  the  green 
devils.  See  NYORAI. 

We  also  find  oni  dressed  as  court  ladies,  in  allusion  to  the  jealous 
palace  maid  who  voluntarily  became  a  devil  in  the  reign  of  Saga  (820);  as 
master  and  servant,  looking  at  themselves  in  mirrors,  fighting  with  crabs, 
or  with  the  celebrated  Asahina  SABURO  bending  the  bow  of  Tametomo,  or 
with  MOMOTARO  ;  striking  from  the  gate  of  Rashomon  the  helmet  of  WATANABE, 
or  recovering  the  arm  which  the  latter  had  taken  from  one  of  them;  disguised 
in  the  shape  of  a  huge  spider  (see  RAIKO  and  WATANABE),  exchanging  places 
with  Shoki,  or  dancing  with  Shoki's  mask,  riding  on  the  back  of  Omori 
HIKOHICHI,  tickling  the  head  of  a  Chinese  official  deep  in  meditation, 
officiating  as  servant  to  some  sage  like  Hakuhaku,  and  in  some  Kiogen 

BUNSHOSEI,  the  flying  demon,  emblematic  of  the  dissemination  of  written 
thought,  is  represented  with  a  writing-box  in  one  hand  and  in  the  other 
a  brush;  he  is  mounted  upon  a  fish  with  the  head  of  a  dragon  and  fins 
transformed  into  wings,  somewhat  like  the  stylised  dolphins  of  Nagoya  castle. 
See  also  RYUTOKI  and  TENTOKI  in  Tajima's  Relics  of  Japanese  Art,  Vol.  3. 
The  horse-headed  (MA  MIEN)  and  the  Bull-headed  (MO  MIEN)  oni  are  amongst 
the  chief  officials  of  Hades. 

The  SHI  TENNO  are  usually  represented  standing  upon  onis. 

by  Tigers,  see  Yii  LIU. 

688.  ONIGASHIMA  fa  y  &.     The  Island  of  the  Devils.     See  MOMO- 

689.  ONIWAKA  fa  3§.     Young  demon.     See  BENKEI. 



690.  ONO  NO  KOMACHI.     See  KOMACHI. 

691.  ONO   NO   TOFU    /h  If  it  Jit      Celebrated   caligraphist,   born   in 
894,   and   minister  of  the  Emperors  Shujaku  and  Murakami.      He   is   usually 
represented   in    the    costume   of   a   noble    and    accompanied   by   a   frog,   from 
which  he  learnt  the  virtue  of  perseverance. 

He  had  tried  seven  times  in  succession  to  get  to  a  higher  post,  but 
without  success,  and  was  just  going  to  leave  the  palace  in  despair  when 
he  noticed  a  little  green  frog  trying  to  reach  a  leaf  on'  the  sloping  branches 
of  a  weeping  willow.  The  animal  tried  seven  times  without  reaching  the 
branch,  but  at  the  eighth  leap  was  more  fortunate.  Ono  no  Tofu  thought 
he  had  been  favoured  by  the  Gods  with  an  object-lesson,  and  took  courage. 
His  perseverance  was  at  last  rewarded,  and  he  rose  to  the  highest  rank.  He 
died  circa  964,  when  he  was  seventy  years  old.  He  is  depicted  on  Hana 
garnta,  and  on  the  cover  of  children's  school  books,  with  the  frog  in  one 
corner.  A  commoner  version  has  it  that  he  could  not  master  caligraphy 
whilst  a  youth,  and  was  despairing  when  he  beheld  the  frog,  and  took  its 
performance  as  an  object-lesson. 

692.  OOKA   ^  pSj.      ECHIZEX   NO   KAMI   ;t$  ^tj  '-if   TADASUKE   was  civil 
governor   of   Yedo   under    YOSIIIMUNE    shogun.       It    is    as    a    judge    of    great 
acumen   and    impartiality    that    he    has    become    famous.       The    Oka    Sa'dan 
is   a   collection   of   some   forty-three   of   his   celebrated   cases,   some   of    which 
have   been   abstracted    in    Aston's    Japanese    Literature,    amongst    which    the 
following  :— 

A  man  had  a  golden  pipe,  which  was  stolen,  and  the  detective  force 
of  the  period  failed  to  locate  the  thief,  though  a  certain  man  was 
strongly  suspected.  OKA  watched  the  suspect  and  noticed  that  he  was 
unable  to  prepare  rapidly  the  pellets  of  tobacco  of  the  proper  size  to  fill 
his  pipe.  He  then  made  the  man  confess  his  guilt. 

A  vegetable  pickler  hoarded  his  gold  in  a  tub  of  Daikon;  once  it 
was  stolen,  and  Oka  convicted  the  thief  by  smelling  his  arms. 

A  baby  girl  was  claimed  by  two  women.  Oka  commanded  them  to 
pull  her  by  the  arms,  as  if  to  tear  her  away  from  one  another.  One  of 



the   women   gave   way   when    the    baby    cried,    and    Oka    decided    that    she 
was   the   true   mother. 

A  man  suspected  his  wife  of  adultery,  and  accused  a  youth  of  being 
her  lover.  Oka  ordered  him  to  bring  his  cat  to  the  court  on  the  hearing 
of  the  case.  The  cat  let  free  in  the  room  took  no  notice  of  any  one 
except  the  man  and  his  wife,  until  the  suspected  lover  came  in,  when  it 
went  and  rubbed  itself  against  him.  Further  when  the  man  was  questioned 
by  the  judge,  the  cat  nestled  himself  on  his  dress,  and  gave  him  away 
although  he  strenuously  denied  his  guilt. 

693.  ORO  3l  ^.      Sennin ;   dwelt   in  a  village  and  yearned  for  Taoist 
science.      One   day   while   he   was   threshing   wheat   n  sage   came   and    made 
him   drunk   with   wine.      The    wine    vessel    suddenly    broke,    and    the    wine 
formed   a   cloud    upon    which    his    house    was    carried    to    the    sky.      Those 
below     could     hear     him    threshing    long     afterwards,     and    he    is    depicted 
at  work,  or  cleaning  rice. 

694.  OSHIKIO  3E   T'   Hf-      The    Sennin    WANG    TSZE    KIAO,    properly 
named    SHIN,    usually    shown    in    the    sky    on    the    back    of    a   Crane,    and 
playing  a  wind  instrument,   the  Sho ;   sometimes  depicted  on  an  Ox,  playing 
the   flute.      He   was   the   son    of    King  REI  (Chow  Ling  Wang),  of  the  Chow 
dynasty   (570   B.C.)   and   was   fond    of    playing   the   Slid   to    the    tune    of    the 
phoenix.       He   was   taken    by    the    fairy,    FUKYUKO,    to    the    summit    of    the 
Mount   Su,   and   after   thirty   years   he   met    a    man    named    HAKUYO,    whom 
he   ordered   to   inform   his   family   that   on    the   seventh    day    of    the    seventh 
month    he    would    appear    to    them    on    the    summit    of    Mount   Ko,   where 
they   found   him   on   the   appointed    day,    riding    a    white    crane.       See    also 

He  is  identified  with  OKYO  (WANG  KIAO  3E  Hlf),  a  Chinese  governor 
under  the  Chow  dynasty.  This  worthy  came  to  court  on  the  first  day 
of  each  month  without  any  horse  or  chariot,  to  the  astonishment  of  the 
Emperor,  who  resolved  to  find  out  whether  he  had  any  magic  means  of 
travel.  To  that  effect,  the  governor  was  summoned  unexpectedly  to  Court, 
and  he  appeared  at  once ;  a  day  later  the  experiment  was  repeated,  and 



Kulo  collection) 


watchers  saw  two  ducks  fly  from  the  west  just  before  he  arrived.  On 
the  third  they  saw  only  one  gander,  and  caught  it  in  a  net,  but  Okyo 
escaped,  and  the  bird  was  transformed  into  an  old  shoe.  Accordingly 
Okyo  is  shown  with  one  or  two  ducks.  A  composition  of  Chinese  courtiers 
trying  to  secure  a  big  bird  may  be  an  illustration  of  this  legend.  It 
must  be  noted  that  in  some  books  Okyo  and  Oshikio  are  described 

695.  OSHIKURA  |f    L    <     £>•     See   GAMES. 

696.  OSHICHI    fc   -fc    (YAOYA).       The    daughter    of    a    vegetable-seller 
of   Kanda,    in   Yedo,    whose   father's   house   having   been  burnt  sought   refuge 
in    the    temple   of   Kichijoji.      She    then   fell    in    love  with   Kidriza,  son   of   a 
samurai,    who    was    studying    in    that    temple.      When    the  merchants  house 
was   rebuilt,   he    took    his   daughter    back    with    him,    and    about    the    same 
time    the   elder   brother   of   Kichi/.a   died,    so    that    his    father    sent    also    for 
him,  but   he  had  to   carry    the   boy   away   against   the   priest's   consent. 

Yaoya,  pining  away  without  news  of  her  lover,  thought  that  the  best 
way  to  return  to  the  temple,  where  she  expected  to  meet  Kichiza,  was 
to  set  fire  to  her  father's  new  place,  and  did  so.  She  was  caught  red- 
handed  and  taken  to  prison ;  her  judges  tried  to  save  her  from  death  by 
passing  her  as  under  thirteen  years  of  age,  but  an  offering  which  she  had 
left  in  the  temple,  and  upon  which  she  had  herself  written  her  age  as 
sixteen  years  and  a  half,  prevented  them  from  saving  her,  and  she  was 
burnt  alive. 

697.  OSHITSU  3l  *i{-      The    Chinese    WANG    CHIH,    the    original    RIP 
VAN   WINKLE.      Having   wandered   in    the    K'u    CHOW    mountains,    he    went 
into   a   grotto,   where  some   old   men   were  playing  Go.      He   laid   down  his 
axe  and  bundle  of  firewood,   and  sat   down   to   watch   them.      One    of   the 
old   men   gave  him   a  date  stone   to  chew,   and  after  doing  so,  Oshitsu  fell 
asleep,  becoming  entirely  oblivious  of  all  earthly  wants  of  drink  and  food, 
and   losing   all    notion    of    time.       After    some    time    the    players    told    him 
that  he  had   been   there  a   long  while,   and  he   woke  up  from   his  state  of 
abstraction,  only  to  find  his  axe  rusted   away,   the   haft   of   it   decayed,  and 



hear  that  he  had  been  watching  for  several  centuries.  Several  similar 
stories  are  met  with  in  Chinese  lore,  amongst  them  that  of  Yuan  Chao 
and  his  friend  Liu  Ch'en,  and  the  story  of  Lu  Wen. 

698.  OSHIXJI  5E  M  IS-      After   the  King  of  Korea  had    been    beaten 
by   Sadehiko   at   the   end   of   the   reign   of   Kimmei   Tenno,   he   had    to    send 
tribute    to    the    Emperor   of    Japan.       Once,    in    572,    he    sent    a    memorial 
written   on   a   crow's    wing,    which    none    of    the    Emperor's    courtiers    were 
able   to   decipher;    but   Oshinji   transferred  the  writing  upon   a   piece  of   silk 
after   holding   the   wing   over   the   steam   of   a   boiling   kettle,   and    his    skill 
won   him   a   place   at   Court.     The   Nihongi    give   his   name    as    O    SHIN    Ni 
(Ehon   Kojidan), 

699.  OSHO  3l  lH  (Osiioirsu).     The  Sennin  WANG  CHU,  depicted  seated, 
watching     an     umbrella    descending    from    heaven    with    a    scroll    attached 
(Mangwa,   Vol.   3),   or   seated   on   an    umbrella    (Shoshi  gwa   den}.      OSHO  was 
the    disciple    of    the    great    fairy,    CuoYO-Sosm,    later,    he    retired    alone    to 
Mount   TESA.      As    Choyo   was    travelling    in    Ryusen,    her    umbrella    served 
her   to   send  a   letter  to  Osho,   by  throwing  it  through   the  sky  the  distance 
of   some   two   hundred    Chinese    Li,   between    Ryusen   and   Sasen. 

700.  OSHO  -ff.  jjj^,    or   KIUSIIO.      The    Chinese   Paragon   of   filial   virtue, 
WAXG  SIANG,    whose  stepmother   desired  to  eat  some  raw  fish  in   the  middle 
of   winter.       He   went   and   laid   himself   upon    the   ice   of   a   pond,    until    he 
felt   the   frozen  surface  giving  way,  and  caught   two  carps  for  the  old  lady. 

701.  O  SHO  KUN   3i  Hg  ^.       The    celebrated    Chinese    lady,    Wang 
CHAO   KUN.      She    was  of  peerless   beauty,   and   her  fame  reached    the    ears 
of     the    Emperor    Yuan-ti,    who    sent    his    minister,    Mao-yen-sho,    to    fetch 
her.      But  the  minister  wanted  to  make  some  money  out  of  the  transaction, 
and  as  the  parents  were  poor,  and  would  not  pay  him,   he   made  a  picture 
of  the   girl   of  such  ugliness  that  the  Emperor  forgot  her  very  name.      One 
day,   however,   he  found  her,   and   the   minister  had   to   flee  to  save  himself 
from   death.      He  went   to   the  court  of   the   Khan   of    Hiung-nu,    who,    on 
seeing  the  true  picture  of  the  girl  decided   to   invade  China,   and   consented 



to   retreat   only   when   the    lady   was    handed    over    to    him.       But    the    girl 
threw   herself   into   the   Amur,    rather   than   cross   the   boundary. 

Another  version,  perhaps  more  accurate,  is  to  the  effect  that  O  Sho 
Kun  was  in  the  harem  of  the  Emperor  when  the  latter  ordered  pictures  to 
be  made  of  all  the  women  of  his  seraglio,  so  as  to  select  one  to  be  sent 
to  Hiung  nu.  She  was  the  only  one  to  refuse  a  bribe  to  the  court  painter, 
and  as  a  consequence  of  the  ugly  picture  he  made  of  her  she  was  selected 
by  the  Emperor.  He  found,  however,  when  it  was  too  late,  that  she  was 
the  most  beautiful  woman  of  his  harem,  and  in  his  wrath  ordered  the  death 
of  Mao-yen-sho,  who  flew  to  the  court  of  Hiung  nu.  This  forms  a  very 
common  subject  in  Chinese  poetry  and  art. 

702.  OSUI  3E  :f|,    or   IGEX,    depicted   before    a    tomb,    whilst    a    storm 
rages  above,  was  the  Chinese  \\'AXG   NGAI,  one   of   the    twenty-four  paragons 
of   filial    virtue.       His    mother   had  been    much  afraid  of  thunder  during   her 
life,   and   in    time   of  storm   he   would   go   and   stand    by   her   tomb,  saying : 
"Fear   not    mother,    your   son    is   near." 

703.  OTA  DOKWAN  ^C  ffl  M  ?1-      Founder    of    the    castle    of    Yedo 
(present   Japanese    Imperial  Palace),    who    is    often    represented    in    the    rain 
talking    to    a    girl   at    the  door  of   a   cottage,    in   allusion    to    the    following 

Ota  Dokwan,  on  a  rainy  day,  was  getting  drenched  when  he  espied 
an  inn,  and  although  the  house  was  of  poor  appearance  at  once  sped 
there,  and  requested  the  loan  of  a  rain  coat  (Mz'no),  but  instead  the  maid 
brought  him,  on  a  fan,  a  flower  of  the  Yamabuki  (Kerria  Japonica).  Ota 
Dokwan  got  very  angry,  but  he  was  reminded  shortly  afterwards  that  her 
meaning  was  expressed  by  the  poetry:— 

Nanaye  ya  ye 

Hana   wa  sake  domo  * 

Yamabuki   no 

Mino   hitotsu   da   ni 
Nakizo   kana   shiki. 


"Although  having  many  petals  the  Yamabuki,*  to  our  deep  regret,  has 
no  seed." 

The  irrepressible  pun  is  on  the  word  Mino,  which  means  equally  well 
a  seed  or  a  grass  rain  coat  such  as  worn  by  the  Japanese  peasants.  A 
good  illustration  of  this  episode  is  given  in  Hokkoun's  Mangwa. 

Ota  Dokwan  was  killed  in  1486  by  Uesugi  Sadamasu,  his  master.  His 
name  was  Mochisuke,  and  Dokwan,  meaning  priest,  was  added  to  his  first 
name  after  he  had  become  a  monk.  From  him  the  temple  of  Hachiman, 
in  Fukagawa  Tokio,  holds  an  image  of  the  God  of  War,  said  to  have  been 
carved  by  Temmangu. 

704.  OTAFUKU     }:    ^    H,     or     OTAFUKU  -  MEN.        The     popular,     if 
irreverent,  name  of  Uzume.      It  means  "big  breasts,"  and  is  usually  applied 
jokingly    to    vulgar,    bulky    women.       Pictures    of    Otafuku    are    carried   by 
people,  on  bamboo  rakes,  on   the  festival  of  the  Tori  no  Machi  at  the  three 
shrines   called   0   Tori  jinja  during  the  days  of  the  Cock,   Tori  no  hi,  of  the 
eleventh    month,   now    November,    when    everybody    buys    Kitmade   (rakes),    of 
more  or  less  ornamental  design,  and  bring  back  Shintoist  emblems  to  attract 
good    luck   for  the  following  year  (Tokyo  custom).      On  those  days  the  back 
gate  of  the  Yoshiwara  (near  by)  is  thrown  open. 

705.  OTAIFU  ££   "n    $p,  standing  by  the  sea-shore  drinking  wine,  the 
air-castle  usually  depicted  in  the  clouds.      He  is  one  of  the  Chinese  worthies 
who,  according  to  the  Taoist  books,  had  some  ability  to  divine  fortune,   and 
also   a   great   taste   for    drinking.      The  presentment  of    this   personage    must 
not   be   confused   with   that  of  Urashima. 

706.  OTAKE   DAINICHI    NYORAI    *:  ft  ^C  H  #11  ^    lived   in  Yedo 
in   the  period   Kwanyei   (1624-1643),   when    she    was    the  servant   of  a   man 
named  Sakuma.     She  was  a  very  religious  woman  of  great  Buddhistic  virtue, 
and    gave    all    she  had   to   the  poor.      She  took  hardly  any   food,   and   the 
little  she  consented  to  eat  was  gathered  b)'  means  of  a  hempen  sack  placed 
before  the  inlet  of  a  drain. 

s  The  Yamabuki  is  the  Yellow  rose,  Kerria  Japunica. 
2  79 

NABE   KABl'Kl    (If.s.r.)  OTA    IJOKWAN    (.V.)  PILGRIMAGE   TO   ZEXKUJI    (ir.L.K.)  OSHOKUN 

OTOHIME    (t;.H.L.)  ODA    NOB11NAGA   (C.F.P.)  ONO    NO   TOl'U    (A.) 

OSII1KIO   (It'.L.B.)  NANZEN    (P.M.S.)  OSIIITSU    (,!.) 



She  has  been  reverenced  ever  since  her  death,  and  as  a  proof  of  the 
story  a  piece  of  the  drain  is  said  to  have  been  preserved  at  the  temple 

707.  OTO   TACHIBANA    HIME    #}  f£  jff.      Wife    of    Yamato    Dake, 
who,    to    appease    the    Sea    God,    had    her    mats    thrown    into   the   sea   and 
jumped   on   them,   thus   according   to   a    fanciful   version,    taking   her   revenge 
upon   her   husband,   who   some   time   earlier   had   told    her    that    a    woman's 
place   was   on   the   mats,   not   following  her   lord   to  the  wars.      The   episode 
took  place  between  Kazuma  and  Sagami. 

The  Gods,  who  had  been  offended  by  a  jeering  remark  of  Yamato  Dake, 
were  appeased  by  the  sacrifice  of  his  wife,  and  when  the  warrior  returned 
and  contemplated  the  sea  from  the  top  of  the  Tsui  Toge,  he  exclaimed,  in 
recollection  of  his  wife's  devotion,  Azuma  iva  ya  (O !  my  wife),  from  which 
came  the  name  of  Azuma,  given  to  the  eastern  coast  provinces  of  Japan. 
It  is  usual  to  call  her  Tachibana  Hime;  the  addition  of  Oto  means 

708.  OWO    IKO    ^   ^    50. •      Strong   woman    who,    having    a    grudge 
against   a   neighbour,   carried   a   huge  rock  and  threw  it   into   the  middle   of 
the    channel    by    which    his   rice   fields   were   irrigated,   so    as    to   divert    the 
water   from   them. 

One  day  the  wrestler,  SAEKI,  of  Echizen,  going  to  Kyoto  for  some  great 
wrestling  at  the  court  match,  saw  her  at  the  stone  bridge  of  Takasliima, 
and  slipped  his  arm  under  her  own.  She  squeezed  him  so  hard  that  he 
could  not  move,  and  she  carried  him  in  that  manner  up  to  her  house.  As 
food,  she  gave  him  balls  of  cooked  rice  which  she  had  pressed  so  hard  that 
at  .first  he  could  not  bite  them.  After  a  week  of  such  treatment  he  was 
stronger  than  ever,  and  won  the  wrestling  match  easily  (Ehon  Fuji  bakama, 
1823,  Vol.  /.). 

709.  OYEYAMA.     See  the   SHUTENDOJI. 

710.  P'AN   FEI  y$  $2-     Concubine  of  TUXG  HWEN  How,  of  Ts'i,  and 
most   celebrated   as   a   dancer.      Her    Imperial    lover   made   a   poem    in  which 



he  said  that  "golden  lilies  grew  in  her  footsteps,"  and  in  allusion  to  this 
sentence  pictures  represent  her  treading  amongst  lilies.  She'  is  said  to  have 
introduced,  or  at  least  developed,  the  custom  of  binding  the  feet  of  women, 
and  even  unto  this  day  the  feet  of  Chinese  women  are  called  "golden  lilies." 
She  composed  the  dances  of  the  Dawn,  of  the  Twilight,  of  the  Waves,  of 
the  Cherry  Blossoms,  and  of  the  Chrysanthemums.  She  killed  herself  in  the 
Sword  dance  with  such  grace  that  the  spectators  thought  her  agony  was  a 
new  variation  she  had  introduced  into  that  dance.  She  was  given  the 
name  of  FEI  Jix,  the  swallow  that  flies  away. 

711.  PANS  ON  THE  HEAD  |®  ^.      Figures  are  sometimes  met  with 
representing  women  going  to  a   temple  with  some  iron  pans  on   their  heads. 
The   explanation   of  this  strange  headgear  is  to  be  found  in  a  custom   once 
prevalent    at    the    temple   of   Tsu   Kuma,    in   Omi,    where   adulterous   women 
were  not  admitted  to  worship  unless  they  carried  on  their  heads  a  number 
of   iron   pans   equal   to   that   of   their    secret    lovers.      The   figures   are   called 
Nabe  Kabitri. 

There  is,  however,  a  prettier  story,  but  it  applies  to  a  maiden  with  a 
single  wooden  bowl  over  her  head,  and  forms  the  fairy  tale  Hachi  Katsugi. 
An  old  couple  in  Yamato  had  a  daughter  whose  beauty  was  so  great  that 
they  were  afraid  lest  it  might  cause  her  downfall.  As  the  mother  was 
dying  she  sent  the  girl  to  fetch  a  deep  wooden  bowl  in  the  garden,  and 
set  it  upon  her  head,  partly  covering  her  face,  and  enjoining  her  to  thus 
keep  it  for  ever.  The  girl  was  called  Hachibime.  She  was  sent  to  the 
steward  of  the  neighbouring  estate,  who  remarked  upon  her  activity  to 
the  overseer;  the  son  of  the  latter  saw  the  girl  at  work,  fell  in  love  with 
her,  although  only  the  lower  part  of  her  face  was  visible,  and  finally  married 
her.  On  the  wedding  day  the  wooden  bowl  accidently  dropped  from  her 
head  and  broke,  when  it  was  found  that  it  had  a  double  bottom,  the  space 
between  the  two  walls  being  filled  with  gems.  This  subject  is  illustrated, 
amongst  other  tales,  in  the  Ukiyo  Gwafu,  Vol.  3, 

712.  PARAGONS  OF   FILIAL   PIETY   H  -f-  0  3ji  (Ni   Jiu   SHI    Ko). 
The    Paragons   of   Chinese   lore   number   twenty-four,   and   they   are   depicted 


i.  *$& 


\K3lE      a 




^^  "iff/i?^ 





y/-^M^J  !| 


in  many  works,  amongst  which  the  Musei  no  shi  of  Hogen  Shimboku,  the 
Ni  jiu  shi  ko  of  Giokuzan,  the  Mangwa  of  Hokusai  and  his  Ni  Jin  Shi 
Ko  Zuye  (1822),  in  the  following  order: 

1.  TAISHUN   (Shun). 

2.  Moso  or  KOBU  (Meng  Tsung). 

3.  KAN  NO  BUTI  (Wenti). 

4.  TEIKAN  (Ting  Lan). 

5.  Bixsox  or  Sin  KEN  (Min  Sun). 

6.  SOSAN  or  SHIO  (Tseng  vShen). 

7.  OSHO  or  Kirsiio  (Wang  Siang). 

8.  RORAISIII  (Lao   Lai  Tsze). 

9.  Kiosm  (Kiang  Sin1)  and   his  wife  Cuosni  (Shang  She). 

10.  SAISHI   (Sui   She). 

11.  YOKO   (Vang   Iliang). 

12.  TOYKI  (Tung  Yung). 

i].  KOKO  (Bunkio,   Hwang   Hiang). 

14.  KAKKIO  (Kwoh   Ku). 

15.  Sniujrsno  (Chu  Show  Ch'ang). 

1 6.  EXSHI   (Yen  Tsze). 

17.  S.vurx  (Ts'ai   Chun). 

18.  YUKIXRO  (Kien   Low). 

19.  RIKUZOKT  or  Cmsiio  (Luh  Su). 

20.  The    trio,    DKXSIIIX,    DKNKKI,    DF.XKO   (T'ion    Chen,    T'ien    King,    and 
T'ien  Kwang). 

21-22.     The  two  brothers,  CIIOKO  (Chang  Mia)  and  CIIOREI  (Chang  Li). 

23.  GOMO  (\\u  Meng). 

24.  KOTEIKEX  or  SANKOKT  (Hwang  T'ing  Kien). 

Sometimes  the  following  replace  numbers  21  and  22  respectively:  CIIIUYU 
(Chung  Yeo);  KOIIAKU  (Kiang  Keh). 

There  are  also  Twenty- four  Japanese  paragons  of  filial  virtue,  but  they 
are  very  rarely  alluded  to. 

713.     POETS   ^  ffi  ftlj.      Although   there  are  several .  lists  of  Thirty-six 



famous  poets,  Sanjiu  Rokkasen,  which  slightly  differ  from  one  another,  the 
number  is  usually  restricted  to  six,  under  the  title  ROKKASEN,  and  their  pre- 
sentment is  frequently  met  with  in  art,  sometimes  humorously  treated. 
The  six  are:  Sojo  Henjo,  Ariwara  no  Narihira,  Bunya  no  Yasuhide,  Kisen 
Hoshi,  Ono  no  Komachi,  and  Otomo  no  Kuronushi. 

In  some  other  lists  are  introduced  the  names  of  Abe  no  Nakamaro, 
Hitomaru,  Akabito,  and  Tsurayuki. 

The  lists  of  the  Hundred  poets  vary  considerably,  there  are  a  number 
of  Hiakku  nin  isshiit,  one  set  of  which  has  been  translated  by  F.  A*. 
Dickins ;  there  are  two  different  sets  by  Shunsho,  in  the  form  of  colour 
illustrations  ;  one  of  the  thirty-six  (1789),  one  of  the  Hundred  in  one 
volume  (1775),  besides  a  number  of  other  similar  works.  However, 
outside  books,  it  is  rare  to  find  representations  of  more  than  the  six 
poets  grouped  together. 

714.  POETRY.     The  three  Gods  of  poetry  are  AKABITO,  HITOMARU,  and 
SOTORI  HIMK    (Shaho  Bukitro  I). 

715.  POETRY,  GAME  of.     See  KIOKUSUI  NO  EN;    GAMES. 

716.  PROVERBS.     See  the  works  of  Chamberlain,   Hearn,   Steenackers. 
From   the  latter  are  excerpted  the  following  proverbs,  which  are  occasionally 
illustrated :- 

HAXA  \VA  SAKURA  xi  HITO  \VA  BUSHI:  As  the  cherry  flower  is  the  flower 
par  excellence,  so  the  Samurai  is  the  man  par  excellence. 

Allusion  to  the  poem  called  "The  Flower  at  the  Inn"  (Ryoshuku  no 
hana),  composed  by  Satsuma  no  Kami  TADANORI  (q.v.)  during  the  war 
against  the  Minamoto,  the  day  before  he  was  killed  by  Okabe  no  Tadazumi, 
at  Ichinotani.  Tired,  he  could  find  no  place  to  sleep  but  under  the  shadow 
of  a  cherry  tree  in  flower,  and  on  waking  he  wrote  that  poem. 

SENDO  OKU  SHITE  FUNE  YAMA  E  NOBORU  :  The  boatmen  are  so  many 
that  the  boat  is  hoisted  on  the  mountains  (too  many  cooks  spoil  the  broth). 

USHI  NI  HIKARETE  ZfiNKOJi  MAiRi :  Forced  pilgrimage  to  Zenkoji, 
following  an  ox. 

An  old  woman  of  very  irreligious  habits  lived  on  the  road  from  Tokio 


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to  Zenkoji.  Once  she  put  some  clothes  to  dry,  and  an  ox  passing  by 
entangled  its  horns  in  a  long  piece  of  cotton :  maddened,  it  ran  away, 
and  the  old  woman's  shrieks  only  goaded  him  to  run  further  and  faster. 
She  thus  followed  him  right  up  to  the  door  of  the  temple  of  Zenkoji,  many 
miles  away,  and  thereafter  became  very  bigoted. 

SAN  NIN  YOREBA  MONJU  NO  CHIE:  If  three  men  associate  they  have 
between  themselves  the  intelligence  of  Monju  Bosatsu.  This  proverb  is  often 
applied  to  the  three  dancers  so  frequently  met  with  in  netsuke,  the  drummer, 
flutist,  and  mask  dancer. 

OMO  NEN  \VA  I\VA  OMO  Tosu:  Perseverance  and  strong  will  pierce  even 
rocks.  An  illustration  is  found  in  the  classic  story  of  the  vendetta  of  the 
Soga  brothers. 

NEKO  NO  SHIRI  SAIZUCHI:  "Using  a  hammer  on  the  buttocks  of  a  cat," 
is  applied  to  the  use  of  an  inappropriate  instrument  for  any  kind  of  work. 
This  gives  the  artist  an  opportunity  to  show  Daikoku  striking  with  his 
hammer  a  cat,  perched  on  his  bales  probably  in  wait  for  the  God's  rats. 

MESHI  NO  UYE  NO  HAI  :  Flies  on  cooked  rice,  though  not  an  art  subject, 
is  the  characteristic  expression  for  hangers-on  whom  one  cannot  shake  off, 
like  flies  in  cheap  cookshops. 

KOI  NI  Jo  Gi  NO  HEDATE  NASHI  :  In  love  there  are  no  distances.  As, 
for  instance,  the  story  of  the  priest,  CHIGO  NO  SHONIN,  who  fell  in  love  with 
the  wife  of  the  courtier,  KIOGIOKU,  and,  entering  the  palace  as  a  priest, 
paid  his  homage  to  the  lady,  who  showed  herself  to  him  through  a  blind. 

Many  proverbs  will  be  found  in  The  Mikado  s  Empire  (Griffis),  and  tersely 
illustrated  under  the  name  Kioga  (comic)  in  common  works,  such  as  Kansai 
Givafu,  or  in  the  book  Ehon  Tatoye  no  Fushi  (3  vols.  1789)  illustrated  by 

717.  PUTAI   NO  SHAN.     See   HOTEL 

718.  RAGYO.      This  word,  meaning  "naked  form,"  was  bestowed  upon 
a"priest  of  the  prehistoric  period,  Indian  by  birth,  and  who  was  brought  to 
Kumano   by   six   other   priests   in  a  boat,  in   which  his  companions  returned 
without  landing.     His  only  garment  was  a  priest's  scarf  (kesa),  and  he  spent 



his  days  in  the  waterfall  which  was  to  be  used  later  by  Mongaku  Shonin 
Seven  centuries  he  remained  thus  occupied,  at  the  end  of  which  a  carvec 
image  rose  before  him  in  the  pool,  and  he  built  it  a  shrine.  In  th< 
seventh  century,  after  the  introduction  of  Buddhism  to  Japan,  a  man  namec 
Shobutsu  saw  Ragyo  in  a  dream,  and  on  his  indications  exhumed  tin 
image,  which  was  then  found  to  be  Kwannon,  and  the  temple  of  Nach 
was  built  to  receive  it. 

719.     RAIDEN   f[f  1H,   or   KAMINARI   SAMA. 

The  Thunder  God,  usually  depicted  as  a  creature  of  red  colour  with  th< 
face  of  a  demon,  with  two  claws  on  each  foot,  and  carrying  on  its  back  ; 
drum  or  a  wheel  of  drums.  He  is  often  represented  in  company  wit! 
FUJIN,  or  with  his  own  son,  and  the  treatment  is  generally  humorous.  Th 
drum  is  perhaps  torn  or  burst,  and  needs  mending,  or  the  mice  are  eatinj 
it,  or  the  God  drags  along  his  burden  of  drums  in  a  cloth  bag.  Fallini 
from  its  aerial  haunts,  it  occasionally  drops  upon  the  earth,  and  in  so  doini 
damages  both  its  drums  and  itself;  hence,  it  is  shown  rubbing  or  holdin: 
with  both  hands  the  bruised  part  of  its  body.  It  may  also  have  tumblei 
in  Otafuku's  foot-bath,  or  be  shown  hiding  under  a  hat  from  a  shower  c 
beans,  like  an  ordinary  Oni. 

Or,  sometimes,  Raijin  fights  with  Tengns,  or  with  EUTEN,  or  peaceabl 
walks  about  with  the  latter.  Mis  son,  RAITARO,  is  often  his  companior 
and  the  story  of  his  life  as  adopted  son  of  a  poor  peasant  will  be  foun< 
under  the  name  of  the  latter — BIMBO. 

The  thunder  animal  jumps  from  tree  to  tree  in  storms;  it  is  fond  c 
eating  people's  navels,  and  the  only  protection  against  such  contingenc 
occurring  consists  in  the  use  of  a  mosquito  net,  which  the  animal  canno 
enter,  and  in  the  accessory  burning  of  incense,  which  it  abhors. 

Several  times,  however,  the  thunder  animal  was  caught  by  a  huma: 
being,  as  will  be  seen  in  the  stories  of  SUGARU,  and  SIIOKURO,  and  th 
Nihongi.  Both  Sugawaru  Michizane  and  Minamoto  Yoshihira  are  said  t 
have  become  transformed  into  the  Thunder  God  to  avenge  themselves  upoi 
their  enemies. 


as  ^ 
H    X 



\\hen  the  Mongols  attempted  to  invade  Japan,  they  were  repelled  in 
a  storm,  and  legend  has  it  that  only  three  men  escaped  to  tell  the  story. 
Raijin's  intervention  in  favour  of  Japan  is  often  depicted  in  this  event, 
when  he  is  shown  in  the  clouds  emitting  lightning  and  speeding  arrows  at 
the  invaders. 

In  central  Japan  the  Ptarmigan  is  called  Raicho  (thunder  bird)  (Weston, 
Japanese  Alps). 

Legend  of  SHOKUKO.  There  is  a  story  of  a  man  named  Shokuro,  of  the 
village  of  Oinura,  who,  to  earn  the  good  graces  of  Torn,  the  magistrate  of 
his  district,  promised  him  that  he  would  catch  the  Thunder  God.  He  had 
hit  upon  a  special  plan  which  consisted  in  attaching  a  human  navel  to  the 
end  of  a  kite,  and  Hying  the  latter  during  a  storm.  The  Thunder  God, 
being  fond  of  human  navels,  would  he  sure  to  pounce  upon  the  bait  and 
be  caught. 

The  only  difficult  part  of  the  business  was  how  to  obtain  the  navel 
of  a  live  person.  The  occasion  presented  itself  when  he  met  in  the  woods 
a  woman  named  O  CIIIYO,  whom  he  killed,  cut  out  her  navel,  and  threw 
her  corpse  in  a  ditch.  Kaminari  Sama  noticed  the  woman  in  the  ditch, 
and  came  down  upon  her,  when  he  was  struck  by  her  beauty,  and  taking 
from  his  mouth  a  navel  which  he  was  chewing,  he  restored  her  to  life, 
married  her,  and  took  her  with  him  into  the  sky. 

Hence  the  saying  which  couples  the  name  of  Kaminari  and  O  Chiyo. 
Some  days  later  Shokuro  was  on  the  war-path,  hunting  for  the  thunder, 
and  O  Chiyo  let  herself  be  caught  by  his  kite.  As  she  came  down  she 
recognised  her  murderer,  and  he  was  just  as  much  astonished;  she  then 
regained  her  own  navel.  Kaminari  Sama  came  down  in  a  rage,  only  to 
receive  a  severe  beating  from  Shokuro,  who  made  his  peace  with  O  Chiyo 
and  became  famous  in  his  village. 

720.  RAIGO  fft,  ij|?  was  a.  priest  of  ONJOJI,  whose  prayers  secured  a 
male  heir  to  Shotoku  Tenno  in  1097.  In  recompense,  the  Emperor  told 
him  that  he  would  grant  him  any  wish  he  might  express,  but  the  priest 
wanted  only  a  raised  platform  in  his  temple  whereupon  to  offer  prayers. 



This  was  a  privilege  of  the  Hieizan  temple,  and  the  Emperor,  afraid  of 
the  warlike  monks  seeking  prompt  revenge  upon  himself,  refused  to  grant 
Raigo's  request.  The  priest  starved  himself  to  death,  and  he  was  followed 
to  the  Kingdom  of  Shades  by  the  young  Prince.  Moreover,  his  spirit  was 
transformed  into  a  thousand  rats,  which  infested  the  palace. 

721.     RAIKO  $jl  fft.  -fa,  or  MINAMOTO  NO  YORIMITSU.     Legendary  warrior 

who    is    credited   with   the   wholesale    slaughter   of   the   Ogres,    Demons,   and 

Goblins   with   which    mediaeval  Japan    seems   to   have   been   infested.      RAIKO 

was  sleeping  one  day  in  the  autumn  of  988  when  a  beautiful   lady  appeared 

to    him    in   a   dream.      She   held   a   bow   and   arrow,   and    introduced   herself 

as   the  daughter,   SHOKWA,  of   the   famous   Chinese   archer   Yoyuki    (q.v.),   and 

said    that    her   father   had    entrusted    her   witli    the   secrets   of   archery,    to   be 

transmitted   to   the   most   worthy.      She    then   disappeared,    leaving   near   him 

the   weapons,   which   he   found   on   awakening.      His   most   celebrated  feat    is 

the  expedition   against  the  Shutendoji   (q.v.),   whom    he   located   after  a  long 

quest,    thanks   to   a   maiden   who  showed    him    in    the    mountains   a   heap   of 

flesh  and  bones,   the  mangled  remains  of  her  parents  and  of  the  Ogre's  last 

meal.     So  pleased  were  RAIKO  and  his  companions  that  their  glee  at  having 

at    last    found    the    whereabouts    of    the    monster    had    the    better    of    their 

manners.      Instead  of  condoling   with   the  girl,    they   started   dancing   around 

the   heap   of   bones,    albeit   such   deportment   could   hardly   be   expected   from 

them    in    their   disguise   as   travelling   priests.      After    which,    RAIKO    and    his 

four   retainers   destroyed   also    the  devils   of   the   OEYAMA,    who   killed   human 

beings  to  drink  their  blood  instead  of  ordinary  beverages. 

According  to  another  legend,  RAIKO  and  his  henchman,  WATANABE  NO 
TSUNA,  were  walking  in  the  plain  of  RENDAI  when  they  saw  in  the  sky  a  huge 
skull,  with  a  red  halo,  floating  amongst  the  clouds.  They  followed  the 
vision  up  to  the  plateau  of  Kagura  ga  Oka,  where  they  found  the  Yama 
Uba  dressed  in  white,  seated  at  the  door  of  her  "unnameable  master,"  whose 
eight  ancestors  she  had  served  during  two  hundred  and  seventy  years.  This 
repulsive-looking  hag,  with  her  breasts  falling  below  her  knees,  had  to  use 
an  ivory  wand  to  open  her  mouth  and  lift  her  eyelids.  She  refused  to 



KAIKO,    TUB    SI-IDEK    UEVII.    AM)    ON1S    (ll.S.T.) 
SHINRA   SABURO   (/'../.,!/.) 



direct  Raiko,  but  could  not  prevent  him  from  entering  the  subterranean 
palace,  in  the  first  cave  of  which  he  and  Watanabe  found  themselves 
surrounded  by  a  troop  of  ghosts,  Gakis  and  Bakemonos,  who  disappeared 
before  a  thin  angular  figure  with  a  face  two  feet  long,  naked  down  to  the 
waist,  with  fine  breasts  and  arms  like  threads,  showing  her  carefully 
blackened  teeth  in  an  unearthly  grin.  This  figure  itself  gave  way  before  a 
resplendent  female.  As  the  latter  came  near,  Raiko  felt  himself  wrapped 
in  a  net  of  warm  green  cobwebs.  Feeling  sure  that  lie  was  bewitched,  he 
thrust  right  and  left  with  his  sword,  severing  the  net,  whilst  at  the  same 
time  a  strange  shriek  was  heard,  and  the  point  of  his  sword  was  broken. 
In  front  of  the  two  warriors  stretched  a  trail  of  some  milky  fluid  which 
they  followed  right  into  the  bowels  of  a  deep  cavern,  the  bottom  of  which 
was  almost  filled  by  a  huge  spider,  in  the  middle  of  whose  body  glistened 
the  broken  point  of  Raiko's  sword.  Raiko  prayed,  specially  calling  to  his 
assistance  Shoki,  the  demon-queller,  and  succeeded  in  cutting  off  the  head 
of  the  spider,  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  in  diameter.  Out  of  the  ripped 
belly  of  the  brute  dropped  nineteen  hundred  and  nineteen  human  skulls,  of 
the  warriors  the  goblin  had  slain,  and  a  hundred  spiders  each  more  than 
three  feet  high.  A  different  story  of  the  slaughter  of  the  spider  will  be 
found  under  WATANABE  NO  TSUNA.  This  forms  the  plot  of  the  play 
Tsuchigumo,  and  the  subject  of  a  fine  illustration  in  Hokusai's  Givashiki. 

Another  familiar  episode  in  Raiko's  life  is  the  death  of  the  robber, 
KIDOMARU  (Yasusuke,  q.v.),  who  had  sworn  to  kill  Yorimitsu  because,  when 
he  was  in  prison,  the  latter  had  remarked  upon  the  strength  and  evil 
appearance  of  the  robber,  and  advised  his  closer  confinement ;  but  his  advice 
was  not  followed,  and  Kidomaru  escaped  during  the  night. 

The  legend  of  Raiko  is  very  commonly  met  with  in  old  Japanese  works, 
a  number  of  which  are  entirely  devoted  to  Yorimitsu's  exploits. 

722.  RAITARO  ft  -&  ||$.      The  son  of  the  Thunder  God.     See  RAIJIN 
and  BIMBO. 

723.  RAKANS  JH  ^|,  or  ARHATS.     The  original  meaning  of  the  word 
being   "deserving    worship,"    implies   the   conquering   of   all    human   passions, 



the  possession  of  supernatural  powers,  the  exemption  from  transmigration. 
It  is  applied  to  the  twelve  hundred  disciples  of  Sakyamuni  generally,  but 
more  particularly  to  five  hundred  of  them.  Eighteen,  however,  form  the 
specially  selected  class,  to  whom  the  generic  name  is  particularly  applied  in 
Chinese  Buddhism.  Japanese  artists  and  worshippers  have  further  reduced  this 
number  to  sixteen,  the  names  of  which  are,  according  to  the  Biitsu  dzo  dzni: 









All  these  worthies  have  halos  around  tlieir  shaven  heads,  long  eyebrows, 
large  ears,  often  with  ear-rings,  and  the  Buddhist  cloak  attached  to  one 
shoulder  and  leaving  the  other  bare  (for  attributes,  see  under  names),  and 
they  are  usually  represented  in  groups,  often  humorously  treated,  and  their 
precise  identification  is  often  difficult  or  even  impossible. 

The  guide  book,  Ycdo  ^leisho  7,ne  (Vol.  18),  gives  a  list  and  some 
illustrations  of  the  five  hundred  Rakans,  the  figures  of  which  stand  in  the 
temple  Rakanji,  in  the  Honjo  (Yedo). 

724.  RANK  A  Iff  E.  The  Chinese  Sage,  LWAN  PA,  shown  squirting 
water  from  his  mouth. 

RANHA,  of  Seito,  was  appointed  Shosho  in  the  Gokan  dynasty.  On 
his  first  audience  of  the  Emperor  he  was  offered  some  wine,  but  instead  of 
drinking  it  blew  it  to  the  south-west.  The  Emperor  asked  for  an  explanation 
of  his  disrespectful  conduct,  and  he  replied  that  he  perceived  that  his  house 
in  Sze  Chuen  was  then  on  fire,  and  that  he  was  extinguishing  it. 

725.  RANSAIKWA  jg  ^  jffl.  The  female  Sennin,  LAN  TS'AI  Ho 
(sometimes  also  said  to  be  an  old  man),  shown  walking  about  with  a  raised 
stick  and  with  only  one  shoe.  The  Taoist  books  say  that  RAXSAIKWA  did 



not  know  the  place  of  his  birth.  His  clothes  were  kept  together  by  a  black 
wooden  girdle  three  inches  wide,  ornamented  with  six  gems.  During  the 
winter,  when  his  bed  was  dug  in  the  snow,  he  wore  a  tattered  garment  of 
blue  cotton,  or  even  a  scantier  one  made  of  leaves,  whilst  during  the 
scorching  heat  of  summer  he  would  only  wear  padded  garments. 

He  begged  in  the  streets,  singing  and  beating  time  with  two  pieces  of 
wood  three  feet  long.  When  intoxicated  he  danced  in  the  roads,  and  if 
any  money  was  given  him  he  tied  it  witli  a  string  and  dragged  it  along 
the  ground.  He  was  taken  to  Heaven  by  a  stork.  Some  Chinese  figures  in 
the  Musee  Guimet  (Paris)  show  Ransaikwa  with  strings  of  cash  and  a 
three-legged  toad.  Compare  GAMA  SEXXIX. 

726.  RASHIBO   !f|   -p   Hf,    or    CIIUKUYOSIII    (Lo    TSZE    FAXU).      Chinese 
female  Sennin,    borne   through    the  air   on   clouds   in   a    boat.      She    is  said    to 
have  lived  during  the  reign  of  Gento,  in   llic  period  of  Kaigen,  and  ascended 
to   the  clouds   from    the   top  of  a    cedar   tree. 

727.  RASHINJIX    ||t   jit    A.'    or    Ciiii'UKi',    was   a   hermit  of    Hodaikan, 
where  a   golden   man  came  to  visit  him  one  day,  saying  that  he  was  a  sick 
dragon  and   wanted  some  elixir.      He  healed  him,  and   one   day,   as   he   was 
washing  his  feet  in  a  river,  the  same  dragon  came  and  carried  him  away   to 
Heaven.      Compare  BASUIKO  and  BO.MO. 

728.  RESSHI   $\\   -f-   (Lm    TSZE).      Another   Sennin    who  dwells   in   the 
aerial    regions,    amidst    which   he   travels   on    a   rain-cloud,   or   appears   in   a 

729.  RI-A  ?£»  (frf.     Sage  of  Shoku,  who  did  not  age,  and  spent  his  time 
begging  for  the  poor,  often  wandering  the  whole  night.     KOKYO  once  went  to 
visit  him  on  Mount  Seijo,  and  carried  a  sword  as  a  means  of  defence  against 
tigers,   but    Ri-A   reproved  him,  saying:    "What  do  you  fear  of  tigers  when 
in  my  company?"      He  thereupon   threw  the  sword  violently  to  the  ground 
and  broke  it. 

730.  RIHAKU  ^   Q   (Li  PEH),  or  RITAIHAKU  ^  J£   Q   (Li  TAI  PEH). 
The  most  celebrated  of  the  Chinese  poets  (699-762),  whose  genius  manifested 



itself  so  early  that  the  courtier,  Ho  CHE  CHANG,  declared  that  he  must 
have  been  an  Immortal  in  disguise,  and  he  was  said  to  be  an  incarnation 
of  the  planet  Tai  Peh  (Venus).  Hence  his  representation  amongst  the 
Rishis  (though  in  the  dress  of  a  scholar),  either  riding  on  a  dragon,  reclining 
upon  a  jar,  admiring  the  landscape  in  the  mountains,  or  deeply  intoxicated. 
The  latter  state  appears  to  have  been  of  frequent  occurrence  with  him,  and 
once,  when  called  to  the  court  of  Hiian  Tsung  (GENSO),  the  monarch,  was  so 
impressed  with  his  genius  that  he  had  him  served  by  his  own  concubine  and 
gave  orders  to  his  favourite  counsellor,  KAO  Li  TSZE,  to  remove  the  boots 
of  the  drunken  poet. 

A  satirical  verse  gave  his  enemy  the  Empress,  the  occasion  to  have  him 
banished,  and  his  subsequent  wanderings  led  to  his  admirative  poems  upon 
the  mountain  scenery  and  the  cascade  of  LUH,  which  he  is  sometimes  shown 
contemplating.  He  did  not,  however,  abstain  from  plotting  against  the 
Tsung  dynasty,  and  narrowly  escaped  deatli  by  the  sword  of  the  executioner. 

RITAIIIAKU,  according  to  another,  erroneous,  version,  was  summoned  to 
Court  by  the  Emperor  Daiso  (Tai  Tsung,  627  A.D.),  but  it  was  reported  that 
he  was  drowned  one  day  that  he  tried  to  walk  along  a  river  drunk.  Some 
years  after  he  was  found  playing  with  a  red  dragon,  which  he  rode  through 
the  green  mist  on  the  sea,  his  other  playmate  being  a  fairy.  The  trio 
ascended  a  mountain  and  disappeared. 

Although  history  is  not  clear  as  to  whether  he  ever  rode  on  a  dragon 
whilst  in  the  flesh,  he  is  often  sho\vn  on  such  a  creature,  which  bears  him 
heavenwards.  He  died  at  the  age  of  sixty-three. 

731.  RIHAPPIAKU     ^    A    tl,    Ri    PA   PEH.      The  Chinese   Li    Chen 
^  jflL,   of   Shoku,   who   lived   through   the   three    dynasties    of    Ka,    In,    and 
Shyu   to   eight  hundred   years   of   age.      His   name  is  a  pun  and  means  that 
he  could  travel  eight  hundred  Li  per  day.      After  compounding  an  elixir  in 
the  caves  of  Mount  Kuenlun,  he  returned  to  his  birthplace,  Shokuchu. 

732.  RIKO  ^  J|f.      Archer.      See  STONES. 

733.  RIKUZOKU  |^?  H|  (LuH  SO),  also  called  CHISHO.     Paragon  of  filial 
piety   of   Chinese   tradition.      When   he   was   but  six  years  old,   LUH   Su  was 



invited  to  the  house  of  a  rich  neighbour,  Yuen  Chow,  and  given  some 
oranges.  As  he  was  taking  leave,  his  host  saw  two  of  the  oranges  fall  from 
the  dress  of  the  boy,  and  inquired  into  the  occurrence.  Lull  Sii  explained 
that  his  mother  was  very  fond  of  oranges,  and  that  instead  of  eating  the 
fruit  he  had  secreted  it  in  his  robe  to  take  it  to  her. 

734.  RINNASEI    ffi.  ^tl   $j|.   or   RIX    K\VA   SEI.      The    Chinese  poet   Lix 
Hwo    CHING,    whose   verses   were   never   committed   to   paper,    as   he   did   not 
wish  them  handed  down  to  posterity.     He  lived  in  the  eleventh  century,  and 
is  usually  represented  with  one  or  two  cranes  under  a  plum   tree. 

Rinnasei  appears  to  be  identical  with  ^  HI  RINT  Yu,  the  Chinese 
LIN  Pu,  also  called  ^  $[  (Kunpuku)  who  likewise  threw  his  poems  away 
or  burnt  them  — but  his  friends  managed  to  save  some  three  hundred— 
and  who  was  pensioned  by  the  Emperor  Chen  Tsung.  This  poet  dug 
out  his  own  grave.  Rinnasei  is  sometimes  shown  with  Michizane, 
in  allusion  to  the  love  of  the  plum  tree,  common  to  both,  in  the  same 
way  as  Ono  no  Tofu  is  represented  in  Morikuni's  Kummosiie  Taisei,  with 
the  Chinese  caligraphist  Ogishi. 

735.  RINREISO  ^  f»t  fft    Lix    LIXG    Sr.       A    sage    blowing    creatures 
from    his    mouth.       There    were    twelve    celebrated    magicians    in    the   period 
of   Taikan,    in    the    reign    of    the    Emperor    Kiso    (Hwei    Tsung),    of    the   So 
dynasty.       One   day    they    made   a   competitive   display   of   their   magic,    and 
Reiso    blew    out    a    mouthful    of    water    which     was     transformed     into    five 
coloured    clouds    containing    a    golden     dragon,    a    lion,    and    sacred    cranes, 
which    were    afterwards    found    crying    and    jumping    in    front    of    a    shrine. 
Rinreiso,    was   originally   a   Buddhist    monk,    who,    after   becoming   an    adept 
of    the    Taoist    school,    tried    to    destroy    Buddhism,    and    led    the    Emperor 
into    the    practice    of    Taoism    and    magic.       He    is    numbered    among    the 
Sennins   since   his   banishment   and   subsequent    death    in    1120  A.D. 

736.  RIOTOSHIN    g    £5.      The    Rishi    Lu    YEX,   or    Lii   TUNG   PING, 
usually   shown    in    Chinese   dress   and   of   martial   appearance.      He   slays   the 
dragon  which  pestered  the  lands  of  Chiang   Huai,  or  crosses  a  river  upon  the 
magical    sword   with    which    for   some   four   hundred   years   he   destroyed    the 



malevolent  genii  of  China,  or  soars  above  the  sea  on  a  cloud.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  born  in  the  eighth  century,  and  to  have  been  initiated  by  the 
Sennin  SIIORIKEX  (Chung  Li  Kuan)  in  the  mountains  of  Lu  shan.  From 
SIIORIKEX  he  inherited  the  magic  sword  after  he  had  successfully  undergone 
ten  trials  to  prove  his  fitness  for  the  work  assigned  to  him. 

737.  RISHIS  fllj  J\_,  or  SEXXIXS,  in  Chinese,  SIEX  NUNG;  and  in  Japanese, 
Sennin  (UKAIKA  ^  ^  or  YA.MAIIITO  are  rarely  used  readings  of  the  same 
word).  Generic  name  of  Immortals  who  have  reached  that  stage  from  that 
of  man  through  meditation,  ascetism,  and  the  following  of  Taoist  teachings, 
which  endowed  them  with  wonderful  magic  powers.  They  are,  however, 
of  Buddhistic  origin,  and  are  divided  by  the  Chinese  into  five  classes, 
diversely  described  by  Mayers  (//.  101)  and  Eitel,  as  Deva,  Purucha,  Nara, 
Bhiimi  and  Preta,  and  to  which  might  be  added  another  one,  the  YL*  SIEN, 
upon  whom  the  immortality  and  transparency  of  body  were  conferred  by  the 
consumption  of  some  of  the  leaves  of  the  K'ien  trees  growing  in  the  moon. 
The  third  class,  Nara  Rishi's,  or  transformed  human  beings,  is,  however 
the  only  one  of  interest  here. 

The  name  Sennin,  as  at  present  written,  carries  with  it  the  meaning 
of  a  life  spent  away  from  the  rest  of  mankind  in  the  mountain  fastnesses 
affected  by  Buddhist  monks  up  to  the  present  day,  and  peopled  by  the 
imagination  of  the  Taoists  with  hosts  of  genii,  immortal  animals,  and 
mythical  trees.  This  state  of  abstraction  is  well  illustrated  in  a  netsuke 


in  the  author's  possession  :  an  old  man  with  a  bald  pate  and  long  beard, 
holds  a  scroll  upon  which  is  written  the  Chinese  poem  meaning : 

"  Under  the  shadow  of  the  pine  and  the  plum  tree,  sleeping  on  a 
high  rock,  UXKAKU  (cloud-man)  knows  not  how  run  the  years,  there  is  no 
calendar  in  the  mountains." 

The  number  of  Immortals  sacred  to  Chinese  legend  is  almost  past  count, 
but  eight  called  Pa  Sien  yV  fill  are  more  especially  meant  when  the  term  is 
used : 

SHORIKEN  (Chung  li  kuan).  CHOKWARO  (Chang  kwoh).* 

-  In  some  works  Chokwaro  is  written  in  full  <jj^  J|i  j'J|!  (or 


.  !•«    *1 




















RIOTOSHIX  (Lu  tung  ping).  SOKOKUKIU  (Ts'ao  kwoh  kin). 

TEKKAI  (Li  tieh  kwai).  KAXSIIOSHI  (Han  siang  tsze). 

RAXSAIKWA  (Lan  tsai   Ho).  KASKXKO  (Ho  sien  ku). 

They  are  not,  however,  the  most  popular  or  the  most  commonly  met  with 
in  art,  but,  with  the  exception  of  Chokwaro  and  Tekkai,  generally  give 
way  before  the  more  commonly  depicted  GAM  A  Sennin,  KAX/AX  and  JITTOKU, 
CHORIO  and  KOSEKIKO,  KIOYU  and  SOFT,  KIXKO,  Rosin,  SEIOBO  the  Queen  of 

More  than  fifty  are  described  in  Anderson's  Culalo^nc  of  the  Chinese 
and  Japanese  prints  in  the  British  Museum,  and  a  like  number  distributed 
amongst  the  leaves  of  the  popular  Afangtua  of  Hokusai.  Many  are  figured 
in  the  Ressen  Zen  Den  in  the  Butsu  dzo  Dzui;  Rcsscn  d.zu  San,  Sos/ii  Gwadcn, 
and  Wakan  Mcigiva  Yen ;  etc.,  amongst  the  five  hundred  worthies  depicted 
by  Bumpo  Sanjin,  they  fill  the  twenty-two  volumes  of  a  Chinese  book,  the 
Reki  Dai  S/iinscn  Tsukan ;  and  almost  any  illustrated  book  of  a  general 
character  contains  a  few.  As  nctsnkc,  most  of  the  productions,  now  rare 
and  priceless,  which  issued  from  the  hands  of  Shu/.an  appear  to  have  been 
Sennins,  and  since  then  hosts  of  Sennins,  more  or  less  naked  and  with 
more  or  less  characteristic  attributes,  have  been  wrought  in  wood,  bone,  and 
ivory  in  almost  exasperating  numbers,  often  with  stereotyped  expression, 
happily  relieved  by  the  wonderful  modelling  of  a  few  pieces.  It  seems  as  if 
during  the  latter  part  of  the  XVIIIth  century,  and  in  all  likelihood,  most 
of  the  nineteenth,  a  wholesale  manufacture  of  Sennin  netsuke  had  taken 
place  in  Japan  for  the  benefit  of  the  Western  amateur,  if  one  may  judge 
from  the  enormous  number  of  pieces,  and  also  of  types.  Many  of  these 
defy  indentification,  owing  to  the  multiplicity  and  varied  combinations  of 
their  attributes,  which  do  not  appear  to  follow  the  traditions  embodied  in 
the  old  illustrated  works,  whilst  others  faithfully  follow  the  lines  of  some 
XVIIIth  century  drawings. 

Characteristic  are  the  big  ears,  the  leaf  coat  over  the  shoulders  and  loins, 
generally  over  a  Chinese  dress  often  reduced  to  scanty  proportions,  although, 
Sages  are  usually  in  Chinese  dress  pure  and  simple,  and  the  leaf  coat  appears 
but  rarely  in  book  illustrations.  A  staff,  usually  knotted  and  crooked,  is 



also  a  conspicuous  attribute,  and  except  in  a  few  cases  a  beard  of  fair  size 
forms  another  apanage  of  the  self-respecting  Sennin.  A  fairly  complete  list 
of  the  more  common  ones  will  be  found  by  reference  to  the  chapter  on 
emblems  and  attributes. 

The  Sennin  Oshikio  (Wang  Tsze  Kiao)  has  left  for  the  use  of  later 
generations  a  prescription  quoted  by  Anderson  from  the  Gioku  Kan  Ko  and 
the  Wakan  sanzai  Dzuye*  the  efficacy  of  which  is  obviously  overrated:— 

Gather  from  a  chrysanthemum  the  young  shoots  on  the  day  of  the 
Tiger  in  the  third  month,  leaves  in  the  sixth,  the  flowers  in  the  ninth,  and 
the  remaining  stem  and  root  during  the  twelfth  month.  Dry  separately 
in  the  shade;  pulverise  on  the  day  of  the  Dog  equal  parts  of  each.  Make 
into  pills  with  honey,  or  mix  with  wine,  one  momme  (four  grammes)  of  the 
powder,  and  take  daily  three  times,  each  dose  being  divided  into  seven  parts 
the  size  of  a  small  seed.  After  a  hundred  days  the  body  will  become  lighter, 
the  white  hair  will  blacken  in  a  year,  and  in  two  years  new  teeth  will  have 
grown;  and  after  five  years'  steady  absorption  of  this  nostrum  an  old  man 
of  eighty  will  again  feel  young,  his  skin  will  be  supple  and  fair,  and  he 
will  never  age  again. 

Other  preparations  seem  to  have  been  efficacious  though  simpler  to 
concoct.  An  old  man  was  rejuvenated  by  eating  porridge  made  of  sesame 
seeds,  such  as  is  given  to  young  children;  another,  Shujushi,  became  able  to 
fly  by  drinking  a  broth  of  boiled  roots,  and  some  merely  eat  sulphur. 
Powdered  mother-of-pearl,  potash,  cinnabar,  realgar  and  orpiment,  all  of 
which  are  poisonous  to  modern  man,  were  the  daily  food  of  some  legendary 
immortals.  Pine  cones  and  needles  also  insured  longevity  when  taken  as 
regular  food  (Akusen).  Such  elixir  vita?  were  called  Tan,  or  Kin  Tan, 
and  in  its  most  perfect  and  potent  form,  the  elixir  of  nine  revolutions 
changed  men  into  cranes.  Hemp  seed  was  the  rejuvenating  medium  in 
the  case  of  Genkei  (Yuan  Chow),  and  there  seems  to  be  still  some  belief  in 
the  efficacy  of  cinnabar,  for  the  writer  has  seen  Chinese  peach  charms 
made  of  that  substance.  We  are  told  of  several  cases  when  the  use  of  the 
elixir  resulted  in  apparently  sudden  death,  but  the  disciples  always  beheld 

"  Section  VII :  .A  fjijf.     States  of  mankind  (p.  107  of  the  1906  reprint)  where  the  name  is  written  ^*  .A^- 



it   ^  a 

•<K&S:     -  *4  1 

r  i$». 

,••»  wf     >•§» 


W\^»K   i» 
-fel  jnfb%  KOSENKO 

™«»2.."   ffldi 

From  the  Res&en  Dzit  San 


the  holy  user  amongst  the  Genii  immediately  after  his  absorption  of  the 
drug.  In  the  case  of  Wei  Peh  Yang,  the  wizard  tried  the  stuff  on  his  dog, 
who  died;  he  and  his  brother  followed  suit;  a  third  brother  was  going 
to  bury  both  corpses  when  Wei  arose  and  revived  his  first  brother  and  the 

Five  or  eight  centuries  were  a  common  span  of  life  amongst  those 
Immortals,  and  even  at  the  end  of  such  periods  a  cloud,  or  dragon,  or  a 
phoenix  usually  took  them  up  to  the  sky  away  from  the  gaze  of  common 
mortals.  Although  their  quest  for  the  elixir  vita1  was,  of  course,  illusory, 
yet  to  their  alchemical  concoctions  may  perhaps  be  due,  according  to  Kakasu 
Okakura,  the  discovery  of  the  wonderful  range  of  Chinese  pottery  glazes,  and 
perhaps,  as  suggested  by  Edkins,  these  seekers  after  the  secret  of  everlasting 
life  were  also  the  forerunners  of  the  Arab  philosophers,  and  of  the  European 
alchemists  bent  upon  the  elusive  Recherche  de  I'Absoln,  and  from  whose 
involved  speculations  modern  chemistry  was  to  emerge. 

SENNIX  (female).  Besides  the  male  Immortals,  some  Taoist  books 
mention  eight  female  Immortals:  Kyuei,  Hanmo,  Sonkohi,  Chojo,  Oshito 
(plays  the  flute),  Tososei  (playing  a  wind  instrument),  Hikei  (playing  with  a 
long  Hosso),  and  Ryujo,  and  the  Ressen  dzu  san  contains  yet  a  larger  number, 
amongst  which  Shozoku,  Shin  Seijo  on  a  deer,  Kosenko,  Rogioku,  Nangyo 
Koshu,  Taiinjo  (q.q.v.). 

There  is  a  Taoist  legend  to  the  effect  that  seven  men  and  seven  women, 
disciples  of  Lao  Tsze,  were  made  immortals,  and  they  went  to  amuse  them- 
selves in  the  Eastern  Sea.  Riujin  attacked  them  and  took  from  them  the 
earthquake-subduing  compass,  and  the  staff  with  which  the  lame  member 
of  the  party  could  open  the  gates  of  Hell  to  liberate  the  souls.  Returning 
on  shore,  the  Sennins  upset  some  mountains  and  flung  them  in  the  sea;  the 
dress  of  one  of  them  touched  the  water,  and  the  waves  retreated,  leaving 
the  bed  of  the  sea  quite  dry,  when  the  Dragon  King  returned  his  spoils, 
and  a  female  Boddhisatva  that  passed  by  restored  the  order  of  things  by 
sprinkling  the  place  with  a  wet  willow  twig. 

738.     RITAIHAKU.     See  RIHAKU. 



739.  RIU  f|.     See  DRAGONS. 

740.  RIU   O   KIO.     See  RIUJIN. 

741.  RIUBI,   or   Liu   PEL     See  GENTOKU. 

742.  RIUJIN   jf|  31,   or    RIU    6.      The    Dragon    King   of   the   Sea,    who 
lives  in   the  submerged  Palace  called  the  RIU   Gu   Jo   castle.      He  is  usually 
represented   in    the   shape   of  a   very  old  man,  with  long  beard,   and  with  a 
dragon  coiled  on  his  head  or  back.      His  countenance  is  fierce;    he  carries  in 
hand    the    tide-ruling    gems,    such    as    in    the    illustrations    of   the   stories   of 
Hohodemi,   and  of  Ojin   and  Takeno  I'chi.     Fond  of  precious  things,  Riujin 
obtains  possession  of  the  world-famed  MUGEHOJIU   gem,  sent   to  Kamatari   by 
his  daughter;    he  captures  the   bell  which    later   became  associated   with    the 
name   of   Benkei,  after  the   Dragon   King  had  returned  it  to  the  upper  world 
as  a   token  of  his  gratitude  to  Tawara  Toda.     To  his  castle  Urashima  Taro 
journeys  on   the  back    of  a   tortoise,  and  a  picture  of  this    palace   is  reflected 
in  the  breath  of  a  yawning  clam,  as  the  castle  in  the  air. 

Riujin  easily  takes  offence,  and  to  his  anger  are  due  the  boisterous  seas, 
appeased  by  the  sacrifice  of  Tachibana  Hime  or  of  Nitta  Yoshisada's  sword 
or  Tsurayuki's  mirror.  See  also  MONKEY  and  JELLY  FISH. 

His  palace  and  the  legends  which  pertain  to  it  appear  to  have  a  Chinese 
origin,  according  to  Chamberlain.  In  the  clam's  breath  appears  the  palace 
itself  (AiR  CASTLE,  q.v.). 

Riujin's  attendants  or  messengers  are  depicted  with  curly  hair,  dressed 
in  Chinese  style,  with  sea  shells  or  scales  clinging  to  their  garments.  The 
two  more  commonly  met  with,  are  represented,  one  with  an  octopus  as 
headgear,  the  other,  like  Riujin  himself,  carries  a  dragon. 

Occasionally  the  minor  attendants  of  the  Dragon  King  are  represented 
like  onis,  with  small  horns. 

743.  RIUTO.      Chinese   sage    who,    being    too    poor    to    procure   oil    or 
candles,  studied  during  the  winter  nights  by  the  reflection  of  the   moonlight 
on  the  snow.      Ehon  Hokan  calls  him  SONKO  Jj^  J||. 

744.  ROCHISHIN    H    |?    $£.      KA    OSHO    ROCHISHIN.      One    of    the 



KIKO   — 

KOKKASICN    (<;.//..v.) 
ROSIII    (.!/.,;/.) 
KIUTO   (.-I.) 


hundred  and  eight  heroes  of  the  Chinese  novel,  Suikoden.  He  is  shown  in 
Hokusai's  Ehon  Suikoden  as  a  muscular  hairy  individual,  with  a  partly-shaved 
head  and  a  loincloth  as  his  only  garment.  Beside  him  is  a  staff  with  a 
forked  top;  he  is  sitting  on  a  bamboo-work  table,  on  which  sprawls  the 
body  of  a  kicking  personage,  whom  Rochishin  holds  by  the  scruff  of  the 
neck.  In  the  Kyogwa  Zukushi  of  Kuniyoshi,  he  stands  on  a  strong,  muscular 
and  bearded  figure,  lying  on  the  ground  on  broken  staves,  whilst  a  Buddhist 
priest  flies  away  in  the  background.  Two  boys  laughing  complete  the  scene. 
Both  these  are  allusions  to  his  unruly  life.  His  own  name  was  Rotatsu; 
whilst  a  petty  official  in  his  native  town,  he  killed  a  butcher  who  had  dared 
to  court  his  mistress,  and,  to  escape  punishment,  he  flew  away  to  some  other 
province,  where  he  became  a  monk,  changing  his  name  to  Rochishin.  His 
energies  were,  however,  too  great  for  an  ascetic  career,  and  he  was  invited 
to  resume  secular  life.  Selecting  as  a  weapon  an  iron  kanabo  weighing 
some  sixty  pounds,  he  then  became  the  head  of  a  troop  of  robbers,  his 
first  care  was  to  sack  the  monastery  whence  he  had  been  expelled,  and 
which  he  made  the  headquarters  of  his  band.  Later,  he  waged  war  against 
another  band  of  brigands. 

He  is  easily  recognised  by,  and  artists  rarely  neglect  to  show  the  five 
petals  flower  with  which  he  was  lavishly  tattoed,  and  to  which  he  owes 
his  nickname,  Ka  Osho.  He  is  also  shown  fighting  another  brigand  who 
had  eight  dragons  tattoed  on  his  body  and  is  called  Kiumon  Riu  Shishin, 
or  standing  upon  the  head  of  a  Nyo  which  he  has  broken,  or  uprooting 
a  large  tree. 

745.  ROBEN   jj£  ^.      Priest;    son   of  some  farmer  of  Shigu,   in   Omi, 
and  founder  of  the  temple  Toclaiji.     Once  when  he  was  but  two  years  old 
his  mother  placed  him  under  a .  tree,  when  an  eagle  pounced  upon  him  and 
carried  him  away  to  the  temple  Kasuga,  in  Nara,  the  high  priest  of  which, 
Gujen,  educated  him.      He  died  in  773. 

746.  RODOSHO     g    M    ^,    ^fter    he    mastered    Taoism,    threw    his 
clothes  upon  the  river  Woga   and   squatted   on   them,   trusting   to   the   wind 
to  direct  him.      He  is  one  of  the  Sennins. 



747.  ROGIOKU   ^  -R.      The   Chinese  female   rishi,   LAO  Yu,   depicted 
as  a  richly  dressed  woman  borne  in  the  air  by  a  phoenix. 

748.  ROHAN  H  $£.      A  very  strong  Chinese  living  at  the  end  of  the 
Shu  dynasty,  whose  story  is  given  in  Ehon  Kojidan.     According  to  the  Kokai 
Shimbnn,    Chilia    Rohan    built   a    stone   bridge   on   the   southern   side   of   the 
castle  of  Chotan.      Just  as  the  bridge  was  completed  a   man  named  Choshin 
ijj|  ^P,  passed  by  riding   on   a   donkey,   and   noticing   the   new   bridge,    went 
up   to   it,   shouting:    "Though    this   is   a   strong   stone   bridge,   erected    upon 
colossal  pillars,  yet  the  whole  structure  will   tremble  as  I  ride  over  it!" 

Rohan,  who  was  lurking  under  the  bridge,  heard  him,  and  grasped 
the  sides  of  the  bridge  with  both  hands  so  strongly  that  there  was  not 
even  a  tremor  as  Choshin  galloped  over  it.  And  for  a  long  time  marks 
left  by  Rohan's  fingers  and  by  the  four  feet  of  the  donkey  could  be  seen  on 
the  stone. 

749.  ROKKASEN  ^  Ufa  fllj.     The  six  poets.     See  POETS. 

750.  ROKO  JH  ffi.      Sennin   shown   on   a   tortoise   (Hokusai's   Mangwa, 
Vol.    3).       In    Ehon    Hokan,    it   is   only   said   of   him    that    "he    lived    upon    a 
Minogame,  and  read  books." 

Perhaps  he  is  identical  with  KOAN  (q.v.),  although,  of  this  Sennin,  the 
Ressen  Den,  II.,  33,  says  that  he  wore  no  clothes  and  rode  on  a  sacred 
tortoise  three  feet  long.  The  people  used  to  call  him  Manzai  because  he 
replied  to  an  inquirer  that  he  had  been  on  the  back  of  the  minogame  for 
about  three  thousand  years.  Kan  no  Buti  heard  of  him  and  called  him  to 
Court.  His  speech  was  as  smooth  as  the  flow  of  a  waterfall;  and  the 
Emperor  named  him  one  of  the  Go  sen  shin  with  Kiuyetsu,  Moki,  Kakuman, 
and  Riyei. 

He  disappeared  at  the  death  of  the  Emperor  Wu  Ti. 

751.  ROKUBUTEN   /^    t$   Jfc.      Generic    name  of  the   six   Buddhistic 
divinities:     The    Four    guardians    of    Heaven    (Shi    Tenno),    Taishaku,    and 



752.  ROKUROKUBI     |||   M   It-       Long-necked     goblin,     occasionally 
shown  as  a  female  with  three  arms.     See  BAKEMONO. 

These  creatures,  whose  Chinese  name  is  FEI  TEOU  ff|  gff  ff|  (Hitoban), 
live  in  the  country  Tatupouo  ^  ^  ^.  One  day  before  their  head  becomes 
able  to  wander  at  night,  a  red  mark  appears  all  round  their  neck;  their 
eyes  have  no  pupils.  In  the  time  of  \Vu  Ti  they  lived  in  the  Kingdom  of 
In,  to  the  South  of  China,  and  a  Chinese  general  had  a  wife  whose  head 
could  wander  at  night.  Some  of  these  monsters  lived  in  the  caverns  of 
Mount  Ling-nan,  feeding  on  reptiles  which  the  head  searched  for  at  night. 
The  Japanese  commentator  of  the  Wakan  Sansai  dzue  says  that  such 
creatures  did  not  exist  either  in  China  or  in  Japan.  Hearn,  however, 
relates  that  the  belief  in  the  actual  existence  of  Rokurokubi  had  not 
entirely  disappeared  at  the  close  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

753.  ROKUSUKE    A   |Jj,    of    Keyamura   ^   ^  ^t,    retainer   of   Taiko, 
is  a  strong   man    who  captured  a   Kappa.      In   prints   he   is   seen   surrounded 
by  a  number  of  these  creatures.     In  the  wars  of  Hideyoshi  against  Shimadzu 
(Satsuma),  the  soldiers  while  in  camp  spent  part  of  their  leisure  in  wrestling 
bouts,  and  Rokusuke  proved  the  strongest  of  all,  defeating  all  his  opponents. 
Later  in  life  he  was  called  Kida  Magohei  Muneharu. 

754.  ROKYO    £3    ffi.      Chinese    leech,   went   up   the    Mount   TAIGYO   to 
gather  simples,   and  met  three  strangers,  who  asked  him  whether   he   would 
like  to  live   long.      His  answer  being  in  the  affirmative,  they  invited  him  to 
accompany  them,  and  for  two  days  they  walked  about  gathering  plants  and 
learning    magic,   after   which   he   was   told   to   return   home,   when    he   found 
that  in   that  apparently   short   time   he   had   lived   two   hundred   years    (Ehon 

755.  RONIN  ff|    A.-      This   word   was   used    to    design   Samurai   who, 
through   the   death  of  their  master  or  some  other  untoward  occurrence,   such 
as   a   serious    offence,   had  become   "  disattached,"   and   led   a  wandering   life 
like  outcasts.      Ronins  had  neither  a  recognised  place  in  the  feudal  hierarchy 
nor    worldly    possessions,    except    their    trusty    swords,    but    they    played    a 



considerable  role  in  most  of  the  tragedies  recorded  in  Japanese  history  and 
fiction.  The  word  is  picturesque,  inasmuch  as  it  describes  the  "wave  man" 
tossed  to  and  fro  by  fate,  without  the  "shadow  of  a  big  tree,"  which  in  the 
Japanese  expression  means  a  protector.  In  the  sixties  and  seventies,  however, 
men  of  gentle  blood  became  ronins  of  their  own  free  will,  to  be  able  to 
study  western  ways  by  escaping  from  feudal  discipline. 

CHIUSHINGURA  fa  £5  $i|.  The  celebrated  story  of  the  FORTY-SEVEN 
RONINS,  also  called  the  revenge  of  Asano,  or  The  Loyal  League,  is  well 
known;  it  has  been  dramatised,  and  its  episodes  are  the  subject  of  numerous 
sets  of  prints  and  illustrations  of  all  kinds.  Amongst  the  English  translations 
are  those  of  F.  V.  DICKIXS,  the  extensive  story  given  in  MITFORD'S  Tales  of  Old 
Japan,  and  the  version  published  in  Japan  by  MURDOCH,  with  illustrations  by 
OGAWA  (q.q.v.). 

The  gist  of  the  story  is  as  follows:  ASANO  TAKUMI  xo  KAMI  (Yenya  in 
the  play)  had  been  appointed  to  receive  the  ambassadors  from  the  Emperor 
to  the  Shogun.  His  instructor  in  court  etiquette,  KIRA  KOTSUKE  NO  SUKE 
(MORONAO  in  the  play),  so  persistently  insulted  him  that  he  had  to  draw  his 
sword  in  the  palace.  Such  an  offence  was  punishable  with  death,  and  he  was 
therefore  obliged  to  commit  seppukit  in  April,  1701.  His  principal  retainer 
and  counsellor,  Oism  KURANOSUKE,  and  forty-six  of  his  companions  thus 
becoming  ronins,  swore  to  avenge  their  dead  master,  and  after  many  troubles 
succeeded  in  slaying  KOTSUKE  xo  SUKE,  after  which  they  all  committed 
harakiri  (1706).  Their  graves  in  the  cemetery  of  Sengakuji  receive  every 
mark  of  respect  to  this  day. 

As  a  simple  illustration  of  Chiushingura,  one  of  the  ronins,  Sadakuro, 
murderer  of  Yoichibei,  is  commonly  depicted  hiding  his  face  with  a  large 
dilapidated  umbrella. 

Ronins  adopting  as  their  special  religious  creed  certain  Buddhistic  tenets 
derived  from  the  Nichiren  teachings  were,  under  the  Tokugawa  rule,  con- 
sidered almost  above  the  law,  and  immune  against  arrest.  In  consequence, 
they  all  became  adepts  of  this  peculiar  sect.  A  conspicuous  figure,  both  in 
the  Chiushingura  and  on  less  recognisable  scenes,  is  the  ronin  beggar, 
Komuso.  playing  the  flute,  with  a  high  upturned  basket  in  lieu  of  headgear, 



two  holes  provided  in  the  front  allowing  him  full  view  of  his  surroundings 
without  his  identity  being  disclosed.  A  similar  headgear  was  also  worn  by 
actors  in  ancient  days. 

Interesting  details  upon  ronins  can  be  found  in  an  exhaustive  and  fully 
illustrated  record  of  the  customs  of  Japan,  the  Xippon  Fuzokusht,  of  which 
unfortunately  no  translation  or  excerpt  has  yet  been  made  in  any  European 

756.  RORAISHI  ^  5$r  np.      The   Chinese  paragon  of  filial  virtue,  LAO 
LAI    TSZE,    who,    when    seventy    years    of    age,    still    dressed    like   a    baby    in 
"clothes  of  five  colours"  to  amuse  his  parents,  and  played   like  a  child   with 
the  same  idea  in  view.      A   classical   occurrence,    frequently   depicted,    is    that 
in    which    he    entered    the    room    with  a  basin   full  of  water  and,  feigning   to 
slip,  tumbled  down,  thus  filling  his  elders  with  glee.     .     .     . 

757.  ROSEI   J|t    /{{.      Identified   with  CHAD  Lu  SHEXG.      He  heard  that 
the  Emperor  of  China  was  in   need   of   councillors,  and   set   out   on    the   road 
to  the  capital  hoping    to    be    accepted,  although    he    had   never    been    in    the 
company    of    the    higher    classes.       On    the    way    he    kept    grumbling    at    his 
poverty  and  lack  of  protectors.       He  met  near   Kanton    the    Rishi    Lu    Kung, 
who,  hearing  his  complaints,  gave  him  a  pillow  warranted  to  possess  magical 
properties.      Rosei    went   away,  and    in    the   evening,    whilst    waiting   for   his 
millet  to  be  cooked,  he  rested  himself   upon  the  pillow.      He  fell  asleep,  and 
had   a    dream,   which    is   variously  reported :    in  some  versions  it  is  said  that 
he  thought  he  had  become  a  Minister  of  State,   and   that   he   was   four   years 
in   office,  retiring  full  of  honours;    in  another,   he   dreams   that   the   Emperor 
took  such  a  fancy  to  him  during  his  administration  that  he  gave  him  one  of 
his  daughters  in  marriage,  that   he   finally  succeeded  to  the  throne,  and    that 
his   little  son,   three   years   of   age,    playing  in  the  gardens  of  the  palace  fell 
into  a  piece  of  ornamental  water.      His  cries  startled   him  so  that  he  awoke, 
and,    finding    that    his    millet    was    not    yet    ready,    he    understood    that    the 
rishi's  pillow  had  given  him  the  dream  as  a  warning  of  the  transitory  nature 
of    all    earthly    possessions,    and    instead    of    going    further    on    his    way    he 
trudged  back  home,  to  retire  in  meditation. 


Still  another  version,  which  is  more  Japanese  in  character,  makes  him 
dream  that  he  had  been  sent  for  by  the  Emperor  and  had  reached  a  high 
position.  His  enemy,  the  powerful  minister,  Juro  Sayemon,  wished  to  get 
rid  of  him,  and  invited  him  to  his  house,  but  only  to  try  and  boil  him 
alive  in  his  bath.  He  then  awoke,  thinking  himself  boiled  already,  and 
found  that  the  innkeeper  had  brought  him  a  dish  of  steaming  food,  the 
vapour  of  which  had  broken  his  sleep.  The  conclusion  is  always  the  same. 

Rosei's  dream  is  frequently  illustrated;  in  Hokusai's  Mangwa  he  is  shown 
dreaming  of  a  procession  of  retainers  coming  to  fetch  him  with  a  court 
palanquin.  In  netstike  he  reclines  on  a  pillow  or  a  small  table,  and  sometimes 
carries  a  fan.  See  DREAMS. 

758.  ROSHI  ^  ^f-  (LAO  TSZE).     The  ancient  philosopher,  the  venerable 
Prince     ^     J-.    ^    ^     (LAO     KUN),     founder     of     the     Taoist     system     of 
philosophy,  whose  mother  conceived  at  the  sight  of  a  falling  star,  and  carried 
him  eighty-one  years   in   her   body,   whence   he   issued   from   her   left   side   in 
B.C.   1321.     He  was  born   with  a  grey  beard,   with  a  white   and  yellow  face. 
He  had  large  eyes,  fine  eyebrows,  ragged  teeth  in  a  square  mouth,  a  double 
ridge  to  his  nose,  ten  toes  on  each  foot,  and  ten  lines  in  each  hand;    more- 
over,  his  ears,  of  enormous  size,  had  three  passages  each. 

It  is  perhaps  just  as  well  that  the  artistic  representations  of  ROSHI  do 
not  adhere  closely  to  this  remarkable  description.  He  is  usually  shown  as 
an  old  Chinaman,  seated  upon  the  ox  on  which  he  was  miraculously  carried 
to  Paradise;  often  playing  the  flute,  or  reading  a  rolled  book,  his  Tao  teh 
king,  or  handing  it  to  his  disciple,  Ing  ty. 

Another  common  presentment  of  Roshi  is  to  be  found  in  the  Three  Wine 
Tasters,  in  company  with  Shaka  and  Confucius. 

759.  RYOSHO    Q    faf  was  a  man  of  Kishyu  who,   in  the  reign  of  the 
Emperor    Chu,  of  the   En    dynasty,  during   the   revolts,  concealed   himself  for 
thirty  years  in  Ryoto,  after  which  he  went   to  the  southern  mountains.      He 
fished   in  one  brook  for  three  years  without  success,  refusing  to  abandon  this 
apparently  useless  occupation.     At  length  he  caught  a  carp,    in    the   stomach 
of  which  was  a  military  bell  (Ressen  Den). 


ROCHISHIN   (.•/.) 


SAIGYO   (»'./..«.) 

ROCHISHIN   (<4.) 
ROHAN    (//'./..«.) 

RYUJO   (//'./..«.) 
MATANO    NO    GORO    (7.A'.C.) 


760.  RYUAN  IflJ  j£  (Liu  NGAN)  was  no  other  than  the  King  HWAINAN 
vH  If]  ~F.i  who  became  immortal,  and  is  known  as  Hwai  Nan  Tsze.     He  was 
taught  by  the  sage   HATSUKO  A.   Q   the   art  of   compounding  an  elixir  vitae 
from  medicines  of  quicksilver,  and  with  him  he  ascended  to  Heaven  in  broad 
daylight.      His    dog    and    his    cock,    after    he    departed,    licked   the   kettle   in 
which   had   been    the  magic   broth,  and    followed   him    in   the   clouds  (Ressen 
Den,   II.}.      History   however   says    that,    ruined    by    his    magic    practices,    he 
became  a  traitor,  was  exiled,  and  committed  suicide. 

761.  RYUJITSU  $P  3K  and  GENTETSU  jff;  Hfc  were  friends  in  the  period 
of  Genwa,  of  To,  and  were  presented  with  a  flower-pot  by  the  fairy,  Nammei 
Fujin.     They  repaired  to  Mount  Xangaku  to  find  the  rishi,  TAIKYOKU-SENSEI, 
but  for  some  years  failed  to  meet  her.      Once,  in  the  snow,  they  met  an  old 
wood-cutter    with   a   bundle  on   his   back,    and    comforted  him  with   food  and 
wine,    when    upon    his    burden    suddenly    appeared    the    characters    Taikyoku, 
They   recognised    that   he    was    the    fairy    in    disguise,    and    showed    him    the 
precious    pot.      There    may    be    some   easy   confusion    of   Nammei    Fujin    with 
Fukiuhaku,  who  is  usually  depicted  as  a  scholar  contemplating  a  flower-pot, 
but  with  flowers  in  it. 

762.  RYU-JO  flj  ^C   (Liu    Xu)  was  the  daughter  of  RYUAXJO  f ij  %  _|: 
She  is  shown   travelling   in   the  clouds  on  a  white  swan.      In  her  ninth  year 
she   discussed   Taoism    with   a   fairy,   and   found    truth.      When  she  was  "old 
enough  to  have  a  pin  in  her  hair"  (twenty  years  old)  her  mother  sent  her  to 
a  man  as  his  wife,   but   a   swan    having   llown    from   the   sky  as  she  was  on 
her  way  to  be   married,  she  rode  on   its  back  and  flew  away  to  the  clouds. 
Sometimes  she  rides  a  wild  goose.      See  Wakan  Meigwa  Yen,  III.,  9. 

763.  RYU-KO  flj  H  and  his  wife,  HAN-FUJIN  $fc  ^  \. 

Ryuko  and  his  wife  having  mastered  thoroughly  the  mysteries  of  magic, 
decided  to  ascend  to  the  sky.  The  man  climbed  upon  a  large  tree,  called 
SOKYOKU,  and  was  able  to  fly  after  having  climbed  some  Jo  (jo  —  ten  feet), 
while  his  wife  ascended  slowly  like  a  floating  cloud. 

The  Ressen  Den  says:  Ryuko  (Hakuban  f£j  ^)  lived  in  the  time  of  the 
Shin  dynasty;  with  his  wife,  Han  Fujin,  he  studied  the  secret  learning  called 



Dojitsu  under  the  guidance  of  a  great  oni.  He  was  a  good  politician  and 
governor,  kind  to  the  poor,  and  his  merit  was  rewarded  by  the  general 
prosperity  of  his  province.  One  day  he  had  a  trial  of  magic  with  his  wife: 
he  set  fire  to  a  small  summer-house,  and  she  caused  a  storm  to  quell  the 
fire.  She  went  up  to  a  peach  tree  and  commanded  the  fruit  to  fall  into  a 
basket,  which  happened  as  she  willed  it,  but  Ryuko  was  not  so  successful ; 
he  then  spat  in  a  dish  full  of  water,  and  fishes  appeared,  but  Han  Fujin 
also  spat,  and  an  otter  came  out  of  her  saliva  to  eat  the  fishes.  The  couple 
went  to  the  Shimeizan,  where  they  found  several  large  tigers.  Ryuko  made 
them  lay  still,  but  his  wife  again  did  better,  compelling  the  brutes  to  fawn 
around  her  ankles:  she  bound  them  together  with  ropes  and  made  a  bed  of 
their  bodies.  Ryuko  then  ascended  a  tree  to  go  to  the  sky,  but  Han  Fujin 
had  merely  to  rise  from  her  bed,  and  she  sped  upwards  more  swiftly  than 
her  husband.  See  also  Ehon  0  Shuku  bai. 

The  episode  might  be  easily  confused  with  another  one  depicted  in  the 
Ehon  Shaho  Bukuro  (IV.,  8): — A  man  named  Heige  ^p  ^-  was  sent  by  the 
Emperor  Gio  §!§  to  destroy  a  monster  which  was  devastating  a  remote 
province.  His  wife  whom  he  had  left  at  home  became  love-sick,  and  dreamt 
one  night  that  at  last  her  husband  was  coming  back,  and  that  Seiobo  had 
sent  her  the  Furo-no-shi  (elixir  vita?).  In  the  morning  her  husband  arrived, 
and  she  found  near  her  pillow  a  box  of  pills;  she  took  one,  and  was  at  once 
wafted  aloft;  her  husband  took  one  of  the  remaining  pills,  and  followed  her. 
Both  went  through  the  clouds  to  the  Palace  in  the  Moon. 

764.  RYUSHIN  flj  J|  and  GENKEI  (gin  JH  Yuan  Chow)  lived  in  the 
period  Eihei,  of  the  Kwan  dynasty,  during  the  reign  of  Han  Ming  Ti.  In 
the  first  century  they  climbed  Mount  T'ientai  with  baskets  to  gather  simples, 
but  lost  their  way  for  thirteen  days,  and  would  have  been  starved  to  death 
but  for  a  peach  tree  which  suddenly  grew  at  the  summit,  and  was  then 
covered  with  fruit.  They  stayed  for  some  time  under  its  shadow,  and  a  fairy 
directed  them  to  a  cave  in  which  dwelt  two  sisters,  who  fed  them  on  hemp 
seeds.  The  two  wanderers  shared  their  couches,  but  after  a  short  stay  they 
found  that  they  were  both  a  couple  of  centuries  older. 



765.  SAGINOIKE  j&  &  fa  HEIKURO  ^  ^  g|$  MASATORA  j£  fit 
was   a   farmer   who   was    adopted    by    Saginoike    Kuroemon    because    of    his 
herculean    strength.       He    tried    his    strength    standing    upright    in    a    high 
waterfall,  and  could  break  a  sword-rack  made  of  deer-horn  with  one  hand. 

766.  SAIGIO   HOSHI    $J  ft  ?£  frfi,   SATO   HIOVE    XORIKIYO   (1115-1188), 
also  called  YOSIIIKIYO,  was  a   member  of  the   Fujhvara  clan,  descended  from 
Tawara  Toda  Hidesato,  but  deeply  devoted  to  the  Emperor  and  opposed   to 
Yoritomo.      In    one    of    his    poems   he   expresses   his   devotion    to   the   ruling 
dynasty   thus:    "The   paradise   is   in  the  south;    only  fools  pray  towards   the 
west,"    thus    expressing    his    respect    for    the   Emperor    and    contempt    of    the 
prevalent  habits  both  of  looking  westwards  whilst   praying,  and   of  attaching 
more  importance  to  the  Shogun's  orders  than  to  those  of  the  Emperor. 

Gokuraku  wa 

Minami  ni  aru  wo 
Shirazu  shite 

Xishi  wo  ogamu  wa 


Oroka  narikeri. 

He  renounced  all  his  dignities  in  1137,  at  the  age  of  twenty-three,  to 
become  a  travelling  priest.*  Leaving  the  court  of  Go  Toba  (Hoyen,  third 
year),  he  started  on  his  journey  with  a  big  hat  and  a  staff,  and  is  still 
pictured  with  these  attributes.  Boys  draw  him  in  contemplation  of  Fuji  in 
an  elementary  way,  by  means  of  two  strokes  for  the  mountain,  a  circle  for 
the  pilgrim's  hat,  and  a  short  stroke  protuding  from  it  represents  the  end  of 
his  staff. 

This  is  called  the  Saigio  ni  Fuji  or  Fuji-mi  Saigio,  and  is  found  in 
netsuke  in  the  form  of  a  mountain  with  a  little  man  at  the  foot  of  it. 

Saigio  is  often  inaccurately  said  to  have  been  the  first  travelling  priest 
to  go  on  the  first  day  of  the  new  year  from  door  to  door,  reciting  the 
poem  :— 

*  According  to  the  plot  of  the  Saigyo  Monogatari  (1677),  which  gives  his  name  as  Sato  Narikiyo,  he 
was  once  in  attendance  upon  the  Emperor,  who,  seeing  a  cock  scattering  the  flowers  of  a  plum  tree  with  its 
wings,  ordered  Sato  to  drive  away  the  bird.  An  unlucky  stroke  of  the  fan  killed  the  bird,  and  the  courtier,  deeply 
grieved,  went  home,  when  he  heard  that  his  wife  had  dreamt  that  she  was  a  bird  and  that  Sato  had  struck  her. 
This  strange  coincidence,  coupled  with  his  ardent  Buddhism,  led  him  to  become  a  wandering  monk.  The. 
remainder  of  the  play  is  full  of  fiction,  and  terminates  with  the  apotheosis  of  Saigyo 's  daughter. 



H  Kado  matsu  wa 
,£  Meido  no  tabi  no 

_  *,  Ichi  ri  zuka 
"  Medetaku  mo  ari 


a*.  Medetaku  mo  nashi. 

"In  our  dark  journey  through  this  earth  the  Kadomatsu  are  the  Ichirizuka 
of  the  road  (a  small  knoll  with  a  pine  tree,  erected  every  Ri  on  the  roads). 
Congratulations  there  are  after  each  year,  and  congratulations  there  are 

?  > 

not.     .     .     . 

This  occurrence  has  served  as  theme  for  jocular  poems  and  illustrations, 
but  the  true  author  of  the  poem  is  apparently  IKKIU,  who  lived  some 
centuries  later. 

Saigyo  once  composed  a  poem  upon  the  scenery  of  a  nameless  pool  in 
Oiso,  near  Yokohama,  which  has  since  received  the  name  Shigitatsu  Sawa: 
Pond  of  the  Flying  Woodcock.  When  travelling  through  Kamakura,  Saigyo 
was  invited  to  the  Palace  by  the  Shogun,  Yoritomo,  who  asked  him  to 
recite  some  of  his  famous  poems,  and  beseeched  him  to  communicate  some 
of  the  books  on  Archery  which  he  had  received  from  his  ancestors,  as  far 
back  as  the  celebrated  Fujiwara  Hidesato  (Tawara  Toda).  Saigyo,  how- 
ever, declined,  until,  strong  pressure  being  put  upon  him  to  comply  with  the 
Shogun's  wishes,  he  agreed  to  talk  the  whole  night  with  Yoritomo,  and  a 
number  of  writers  took  down  his  words  to  form  a  book  on  military  art.  As 
a  token  of  esteem  and  gratitude,  Yoritomo  gave  Saigyo  a  silver  cat  when 
he  left  in  the  morning,  the  monk  accepted  the  gift,  but  once  out  of  the 
Palace  he  gave  it  to  some  boys  who  were  playing  in  the  moat,  and  went 
his  way.  This  episode  is  frequently  depicted.  Saigyo  died  in  Kyoto,  in 
the  first  year  of  Kenkyu,  at  the  age  of  seventy- three. 

767.  SAIJOSEN  ^  ^C  fll]  was  a  clever  woman,  fond  of  embroidery. 
One  day  an  old  man  called  upon  her  and  requested  her  to  work  on  cloth  a 
pair  of  phoenix.  She  did  so,  and  as  the  old  man  looked  at  the  finished 
work  he  suddenly  closed  his  eyes  and  pointed  at  the  birds  with  his  finger. 
They  became  alive,  and  the  girl  and  the  old  man  mounted  upon  them  and 
disappeared  in  the  sky  (Ressen  dzu  San;  Ressen  Den}. 


(Matt  Carf'litt  follcftiim) 


768.  SAIJUN  ^  )ljj|.      The  Paragon  of  Filial  Virtue,  TS'AI  SHUN.     One 
day,  after  he  had  gathered  -a  basket  full  of  mulberries,  he  was  caught  by  a 
band  of  rebels  then  at  war  with   WANG   MENG,    who   stopped   him,   wanting 
to  know   why  he  had  collected  such  fruit.      He  replied   that  rice  was  scarce 
and  he  was  poor;    the  ripe  fruit  would  go  to  his  mother  and  he  would  eat 
the  rest.     The  men  gave  him  the  leg  of  an  ox  to  carry  home.     He  is  easily 
confused  with  Osui  and  Sosan. 

769.  SAIKEI  |pj  Jf|  was  a  pupil  of  Roshi   (Lao  Tsze),  and  ascended  to 
heaven  on  a  cloud,  bearing  in  his  hand  a  cane  and   a   charm  called    Yojofn 
(reviver),  with  which  he  resuscitated  the  dead. 

770.  SAISHI   -^  j£.      One  of  the   Paragons  of  filial  virtue,  the  Chinese 
woman  Ts'ui  SHE.      Her  great-grandmother  had  lost  all  her  teeth,  and  could 
not  eat  solid  food.      Saishi  fed  her  for  many  years  on   the  milk  of  her  own 

771.  SAIWO    H?   Hf.      A   Chinese    peasant    whose    story    is    commonly 
pointed   out   as   representing   the   inconsistency   of   wishes   and   earthly  events. 
He  had  a  horse  and  a  son ;    the  son  rode  the  horse  in  a  rocky  road  and  was 
thrown ;    then  Saiwo  hated  his   horse.      The  animal  went  far  afield  one  day, 
charged   with   curses,   and   came   back  with  another  horse;    then  Saiwo  gave 
him  back  his  love.     But  the  new  horse  was  bad-tempered,  and  kicked  down 
Saiwo's  younger  son,  and  the  peasant  thought  ill  again  of  his  old  horse  for 
bringing    home    such   a   mate;    however,    a   revolt    broke    out    near    by,    and 
Saiwo's   son   was   called   as   a   soldier,   but    he  was    in    bed    with    a   sore    leg 
caused  by  the  kick,  and  thus  escaped.      Saiwo  then  reconciled  himself  to  his 

772.  SAIYUKI    !J  jgf  f£   (Journey   to   the   West).      The   Chinese  story, 
SIYUKI,   of    the    adventures   of   Sanso   Hoshi   (q.v.),    adapted  into  Japanese   by 
Bakin  and  illustrated  by   Hokusai.     A   dramatised  version  has  been   made  of 
it,  an   episode  of  which  is  adapted  under  the  title,   "The  enchanted   palace," 
in  Mac  Clatchie's  Japanese  plays.      See  also  Stanislas  Julien's  works. 

773.  SAJI   ^  $§.      The  Chinese   magician,   Tso  TS'ZE,  adviser   of   TSAO 



TSAO.  An  episode  in  his  life  is  frequently  illustrated;  his  protector  had 
once  invited  some  of  his  courtiers  to  a  feast,  and  expressed  the  regret  that 
he  had  been  unable  to  obtain  any  carp  from  the  river  of  Sung  Kiang,  then 
considered  a  rare  delicacy.  Nothing  loth,  the  magician  called  for  a  fishing 
rod,  and  to  the  astonishment  of  the  party,  hooked  some  carp  in  a  transparent 
bowl  of  fresh  water.  His  master  desired,  however,  to  get  rid  of  him  when 
his  necromantic  powers  became  irksome,  but,  according  to  legend,  SAJI  was 
able  to  render  his  body  invisible,  and  thus  escaped  his  pursuers:- 

One  day,  meeting  the  bearers  of  his  master's  choice  fruit,  he  relieved 
them  miraculously  of  their  load,  and  the  minister  found  his  oranges  to  be 
mere  hollow  skins.  Saji  explained  that  this  was  a  parable:  If  the  minister 
found  the  oranges  empty  it  was  because  he  also  was  hollow  in  mind,  whereas 
when  Saji  opened  a  fruit  it  was  found  filled  with  luscious  pulp.  The  minister 
thereupon  had  him  beaten  and  ordered  his  death,  but  the  edge  of  the  sword 
turned  on  his  neck;  he  was  then  put  in  a  furnace  but  sprang  amongst  a 
passing  herd  of  goats;  all  the  goats  were  beheaded,  but  the  wizard  had 
taken  a  different  form,  and  put  back  the  heads  on  the  bodies,  with  such" 
hurry,  however,  that  some  of  the  ewes  had  goat's  heads  afterwards,  and  their 
descendants  can  still  occasionally  be  seen. 

He  ranks  amongst  the  Sennins,  and  is  sometimes  confused  with   KEXSHU 
(or   KENSHI,  q.v.). 

774.  SAKATA  NO   KINTOKI    BK    ffl    ^   B$-     See   under   KINTOKI,   or 


775.  SAKE   TASTERS,   The   THREE-.  g£  n$  H  |fc  SAKE  Sui  SAN   Kio 
ROSHI  (Lao  Tse),  SHAKA  (Buddha),  and  KOSHI  (Confucius)  are  often  represented 
partaking   from   a  jar   of   Sake,  the  taste   of   which  affects  them   in   different 
ways,   shown   by  the  play  of  their  expressions.      This  jocular  presentment  of 
the  three  chief  sages  of  Asia  is  intended  to  convey  a  philosophical  meaning: 
Although   the  liquor   is   taken   by  all   three   from   the  same   receptacle,  yet  it 
affects   them  in  different  ways;    so   the   truth,   one  and   unalterable,   may   be 
variously  expressed  by  religious  teachers,  although  its  religious  meaning  and 



its  philosophical  origin  are  one  and  the  same.     Also,  that  divers  expressions 
of  creed  may  spring  from  the  same  religious  idea. 

776.  SAKURA.      The   flowering   cherry   tree,  the  blossoms  of  which   are 
prized  as  the  national  flower   of    Japan.      Viewing   cherry    trees    in    bloom    is 
the    favourite    form    of    Hanami,    and    such    places    as   Yoshino     in    Yamato, 
Arashiyama      near    Kyoto,    Uyeno     in    Tokyo,     are    famous    for    their    trees. 
Mukojima,  also    in   Tokyo,   is  selected   for  flower  picnics,    in  which   the   more 
licentious  element  prevails. 

The  cherry  flower  floating  on  the  water  is  a  frequent  subject  in  decorative 
art.     See  EMBLEMS. 

777.  SAKURA  HIME.     Cherry  Princess;   the  heroine  of  a  play  of  which 
the  story  of  the  apostate  priest,  SEIGEM  (Kiyomizu),  forms  the  basis.     Seigen's 
desperate   love  for  the   Princess  caused    him    to  continuously  think  of   her,  to 
wear    a    garment    decorated    with    cherry    flowers,  and   to   forget   the  duties  of 
his    calling.       He    was    killed    by   the    servant    of   Sakura    Hime.      Seigen    is 

.depicted  in   the  tenth  volume  of  Hokusai's   Mangica  (p.   7.5). 

778.  SAMBASO    2E   ?$•   il-       Dance,    the    origin    of    which    appears    to 
have  been  a  religious  performance  which  took  place  at  Nara  in  807  to  stop 
the  progress  of  some  fissures,   suddenly   opened    in    the   earth,    belching   forth 
fire  and  smoke.     In  this  dance  the  performer  wears  the  mask  of  O  KIXA  and 
a  fan.      When  viewed  from   the  front  his   cap   is  conical  and  painted  black, 
with  the  red  disc  of  the  sun  and  twelve  divisions  representing  the   months; 
but   seen    sideways    it    appears  like  a   mitre.      (This,    however,    is   not    always 
the  case   in    netsuke,  the  cap  being  often  set  with   its  broader  side  forward.) 
His  dress  is  embroidered   with   the  emblems   of   longevity,    the   pine   branches 
and    crane    (see    MASKS).      One    performer   wears   a   white    mask    (Hakushiki) 
with  black  spots,  the  other  a  black  mask  (Kokushiki)  with  white  spots. 

779.  SAMBIKI    SARU.       The    three    mystic    monkeys    consecrated     to 
KOSHIN.      See   APES   (Mystic). 

780.  SAMBO  KOJIN   H  8  5nL  P       The   Kitchen   God,   the   terror  of 
evildoers,   shown    with    three   faces   and   four   hands.      He   is   also   called    the 



Spiritual  God  of  the  Three  Treasures.  A  curious  and  cryptic  presentment 
of  Sambo  Kojin  is  found  in  netsuke  in  the  shape  of  a  horse,  on  the  pack- 
saddle  of  which  are  closely  seated  three  passengers.  The  converse  happened 
in  current  language,  the  saddle  with  two  side  boxes  receiving  the  popular 
name  of  Sambo  Kojin. 

781.  SAMEBITO  $$£  A.-     The  shark  man,  who  was  rescued  by  TOTARO, 
whom   he   made   rich   beyond   all   dreams.      But   Totaro   was   insatiable,   and 
wanted   to   marry   a   girl   named  TAMANA,  whom   he  had  seen   in  the  temple 
of   Miidera,   near   Otsu.      He   asked   the   shark   to    give   him   some  jewels   for 
his  bride,  and  after  reproaching  him  for  his  greed  the  shark  wept  blood  into 
a  dish,  his  tears  crystallising  into  ten  thousand  rubies.     There  appears  to  be 
a    Chinese   parallel    to    this  story,  unless  indeed  both  are  identical   in   origin. 
HIAO  JIN  was  a  man-fish  who   once   landed  to  buy  some  bamboo  cloth,   and, 
being   unable   to   pay   his   debts   to  the  shopkeeper  who  had  lodged  him,    he 
asked  for  a  basin,  which  he  filled  with  tears,  but  each  tear  as  it  fell  became 
a    perfect    pearl,    and    the    shopkeeper    was    repaid    a    thousand-fold   for  his 

782.  SANADA  NO  YOICHI    \j£   09   H  iff.     At  Okuno,  near  Fuji,  the 
vassals   of   Yoritomo  had  assembled  for  a  hunting  party.      The   strong   man, 
MATANO  NO  GORO,  wanted  to  show  his  powers,  and  picked  up  a  rock,  some 
seven  feet  high,   to  throw  it  over  the  edge   of   the   cliff  on  the  top  of  which 
the  hunters  were  camping.      As  he  did  so  he  noticed   below   Sanada   Yoichi, 
a   youth  of  sixteen,   whose   strength   was  well  known  to  him  and  made  him 
jealous.      Seizing  the  opportunity  thus  offered,  he  threw  the  rock  at  the  boy, 
who    however    simply    received    it    on    both    hands    and    hurled    it    back    at 
Matano  no  Goro.     See  YORITOMO;  NITAN  NO  SHIRO. 

Sanada  no  Yoichi  is  also  shown  trying  to  cut  with  his  short  sword  the 
head  of  Matano  no  Goro,  whom  he  has  thrown  on  the  ground  (Buyu 
Sakigake  Zue). 

783.  SANETOMO   $ji  5Jf  ]j$j.      Son   of   Yoritomo   who   became   Shogun 
after  the  murder  of  his  brother  Yoriiye  by  the  Hojo.     In   1218,  when  he  was 



twenty-seven,  the  Emperor  promoted  him  to  the  rank  of  Third  Minister  of 
State,  and  it  was  decided  that  he  should  solemnly  proceed  to  the  temple  of 
Hachiman  (at  Kamakura)  to  return  thanks.  Some  of  his  friends  advised  him 
to  put  on  armour  under  his  ceremonial  robes,  as  it  was  feared  that  he  might 
be  assaulted,  and,  curiously  enough,  he  seeems  to  have  had  a  presentiment 
of  his  impending  fate,  for  he  composed  a  farewell  poem  to  his  plum  tree 
(compare  MICHIZANE)  and  gave  one  of  his  hairs  to  his  servant,  Hada  Kinuji, 
to  keep  in  memory  of  his  master — but  he  did  not  put  on  his  armour.  The 
high  priest  of  Hachiman  was  his  own  nephew,  Kugyo,  son  of  Yoriiye.  As 
Sanetomo  left  the  temple  in  the  evening,  Kugyo  beheaded  him,  shouting 
that  he  was  avenging  his  father.  He  then  ran  away,  snatching  some  food 
at  the  house  of  a  friend  without  releasing  his  hold  of  the  head.  ...  He 
was  caught  further  on  and  killed  on  the  spot,  but  he  had  flung  away  his 
ghastly  trophy,  which  was  never  found. 

784.  SANFUNE    jEl  JiL   ~F%    or   SANFUSHI.      Sennin   depicted    sailing    on 
an  umbrella,   and   watching  above  him  a  fan  to  which   is  attached  a   girdle. 
See  Hokusai's  Mangiva. 

785.  SANKAN.      Chinese    philosopher,    who    is    represented    riding  on  a 
horse    backwards    so    as    to    admire    the    scenery    away    from    which    he    is 

786.  SANSENJIN   2E  HI  JP$-      The  Three  Gods  of  War,  represented  as 
a  man  with  three  heads  and  six  arms  riding  on  a  boar.      See  BISHAMONTEN, 

787.  SANSHIN  5l  Jfh     Mythical  individual  who  has  only  one  head  but 
a  treble  body.     See  FOREIGNERS  (Mythical). 

788.  SANSHIU  H  ti"-     Mythical  men  with  triple  faces.     See  FOREIGNERS 

789.  SANYO  ^  ^.  or  HIMAN.     One  of  the  sons  of  Benten,  transformation 
of  Mahastamaprata,  and  also  named  Seishi   Bosatsu.      His   attribute   consists 
of  silkworms. 



790.  SANZO   HOSHI   H  ii  ?£  n  or  £  ^  (GENSHO).     The    Chinese 
priest,   HIUEN  THSANG  (YUAN  CHWAN),  who  in   629  went  to  India,  where  he 
remained   through   seventeen   years,   collecting  Buddhist   relics   and   some   six 
hundred  and  fifty-seven  volumes  of  sacred  writings,  which  he  brought  back 
to  China  in  646.     In  the  novel,  Saiynki,  legend  has  provided  him  with  three 
followers:   a  monkey  (Songoku),  a  boar   (Chohakkai),   and  a   demon.      He   is 
usually  represented  clad  in  white,  and  bears  on  his   forehead  the  Urna  mark 
of  the  Boddhisattvas.      During  his  travels  he  had  to  perform  a  hundred  and 
eight  deeds  as  tests  of  his  holiness,  and  his  monkey,  who  was  endowed  with 
magical    powers,    helped    him    in    this   matter    by    blowing   a   corresponding 
number  of   his   own   hairs,   which,   as   they   were   caught   by   the   wind,   were 
transformed  into  one  hundred  and  eight  doubles  of  Sanzo  Hoshi,  who  under- 
went the  series  of  trials  in  his  stead.     This  army  of  doubles  was  afterwards 
impeding    the    movements   of    Sanzo,   who,    thanks   to   the   good   offices   of  a 
friendly  Rishi,  was  able  to  restore  them  to  their  original  form  and  position. 

791.  SARASVATI.     See  BEXTEN. 

792.  SARUGAKU  ^  |§|  (see  BUGAKU).     War  dance  earlier  than  the  No. 

793.  SARD  KANI  KASSEN  ^  H  ^  H     The  feud  of  the  Monkey  and 
the  Crab.      See  under  MONKEY. 

794.  SARUTA  HIKO  XO  MIKOTO  ^  ffl  jg  fa.      Long-nosed  God  of 
Shinto,   whose  nasal  appendage  is  sometimes  said  to  have  been  seven  cubits 
long.      His  eyes  shine  like  mirrors,  and  he  is  always  shown  with  Uzume  in 
the  episode  of  the  retreat  of  Amaterasu,  when  Uzume   dances   with   bells   in 
front  of  the  cave  in  which  the  Goddess   was   hidden.      Uzume   again   proved 
useful  when  Xinigi  no  Mikoto,  the  first   Emperor   of   Japan,  descending   from 
Heaven  and  finding  the  road  blocked  by  Saruta  Hiko,  she  appeased  the  God 
and   made  him   give   way.      He   is  specially  celebrated    on    the    day    of    the 
Monkey,  and  accordingly  is  identified  with  Koshin  (q.v.). 

795.  SASAKI  MORITSUNA  f£  f£  ^  ^  $j,  of  Omi,  was  a  retainer  of 
Yoritomo.     He  went,  in  1184,  with  Minamoto  no  Noriyori  to  attack  the  Taira, 
then  encamped  at  Kojima,  on  one  side  of  the  straits  of  Fujito,  in  Bizen.     For 



many  days  the  two  forces  watched  each  other,  until  Moritsuna,  tired  of  the 
chiding  challenges  of  Taira  no  Yukimori,  started  himself  to  seek  a  ford. 
He  secured  the  services  of  a  fisherman,  and  once  the  location  of  the  ford  was 
ascertained  he  killed  the  man  to  prevent  him  from  turning  traitor.  The  day 
after  he  plunged  into  the  water,  and  was  soon  followed  across  the  Fujito 
straits  by  the  whole  army,  defeating  the  Taira.  Yoritomo  promoted  him 
in  rank,  but  at  his  death  Moritsuna  was  deprived  of  his  rank  and  estate  of 
Kojima  by  Yoriiye,  and  had  to  shave  his  head,  retiring  under  the  name 
Sainen.  In  1201,  Jo  no  Sukemori  started  a  revolt  against  Yoriiye,  who  then 
sent  an  order  to  Sainen  to  join  the  troops.  He  was  on  horseback  when  he 
received  this  command,  and  rode  hard  for  three  days  to  the  fortress  of 
Torizaka,  in  Echigo,  where  his  men  joined  him.  He  took  the  place,  and 
captured  a  lady  famed  for  her  strength  and  military  skill,  HAN-GAKU, 
daughter  of  the  rebel. 

796.  SASAKI  TAKATSUNA  #  #  fc  ^  JR.     See  KAJIWARA  KAGESUYE 
(Lin  GAWA  episode);    also  BATEISEKI. 


798.  SATSU   SHYU    KEN   j||  ^  jg    was   a   man   of  Seika,   in   Shoku. 
One  day  he  had  to  cross  a  river,   and  as  the  ferryman  was  away   he   rowed 
himself  across  and  put  three  cash  on   the  seat  for  his  fare.      He  washed   his 
hands,  and  saw  standing  in   the  water  a  god   with  a  jewelled   axe,  an   iron 
crown,  and  a  crimson  coat   (Ressen  Zen   Den,   VIII.). 

799.  SAYEMON  (ToGASHi).      See  BENKEI. 

800.  SAYO  HIME  f£  )$  M  (MATSURA).      Wife  of  the  general,   O  TOMO 
NO  SADEHIKO,  who  was  sent  to  Korea  by  Senkwa  Tenno  in  the  sixth  century. 
As  the  fleet  disappeared  from  view  she  climbed  the  Hire  furii  yama,  waving 
a  sash  to  her  departing  lord.     So  long   did   she   stay'  there  that  she  became 
changed  into  a  stone :   the  Bofu  seki,  or   Stone  of  the  weeping  wife. 

Soi.     SEIOBO  ^  3£  -0J:.      The  Chinese  Queen  of  the  Fairies,  Si  WANG 
Mu,  whose  palace  is,  according  to  Taoist  legends,  in  the  Kuen   lun   (Konron) 

305  .     „ 


mountains.  In  its  gardens  grow  the  peach  tree  of  the  genii,  the  fruit  of 
which  ripens  only  once  in  three  thousand  years.  Two  of  the  Chinese 
Emperors,  Muh  Wang  and  Wu  Ti,  were  honoured  by  Seiobo  with  some  of 
the  peaches  from  this  tree,  which  conferred  immortality  on  the  eater. 
According  to  a  Taoist  story,  when  Seiobo  went  to  the  court  of  Wu  Ti  (no 
B.C.)  to  present  him  with  ten  peaches,  TOBOSAKU  (q.v.)  stole  three  of  them. 
SEIOBO  is  shown  gorgeously  dressed,  accompanied  by  an  attendant,  who 
carries  the  peaches  in  a  tray,  or  standing  on  a  cloud  with  two  attendants 
carrying  respectively  the  peaches  and  her  fan.  In  Ehon  Shaho  Bukuro, 
Vol.  4,  a  man  named  Seiyei  Koshu  is  depicted  meeting  Seiobo.  This  episode 
may  be,  easily  confused  with  the  fanciful  story  of  the  visit  of  Wu  Ti  (Kan 
no  Buti)  to  the  fairy  on  the  mountains.  The  White  dragon  is  one  of  her 
familiars,  and  her  sister,  Seiobo  no  Shiji,  sometimes  is  depicted  with  her. 
She  comes  from  Heaven  surrounded  by  every  woman  who  has  "found  truth 
and  wandered  between  Heaven  and  Earth." 

She    is    also    called    KITAI    KIMBO,   and   is   perhaps   a   transformation    of 
Indra,   Mount   Kwenlun  representing  Mount  Meru  of  the  Indian   legend. 

802.  SEISHIN  FUJIN   J?§  jit  3$.  A   (TAICHEN  WANG  FUJIN),  or  TAISHIN 
o   FUJIN,  sister  of  Seiobo,  with   whom   she   is   sometimes   depicted,  playing  a 
musical   instrument  on  a  cloud.      She  also  accompanies,  on  a  white   dragon, 
the  Sennin  JOGEN  FUJIN  (Shang  Huen  Fujen),  who  rides  on  a  Kirin. 

803.  SEISHONAGON  fn  ^  $]  |f .     Court  beauty  and  poetess,  daughter 
of   Kiyowara    no    Motosuke,    who    fell    into    disgrace.      She    is   shown    raising 
a   blind   and   showing   the   winter  landscape   in    illustration  of   the  following 
episode.      Once  when  the  Emperor  was  passing  round  the   sake   cup   amongst 
his    courtiers   he   noticed   her   looking    through   a   door    at    the    freshly   fallen 
snow,  and  said:   "How  is  the  snow  of  Koroho?"     Nobody  understood  except 
Seishonagon,  who   raised   a   curtain,  showing   that   she  perceived  the  allusion 
to    Hakurakuten's    poem:     "The    snow    of    Koroho    is    seen    by    raising    the 

804.  SEITAKA   DOJI   fjjlj  B%  $P  H;  -J*   and   KONGARA  DOJI  ft  $S 
jJH  iff  ^p.     Attendants  of  the  God   FUDO,  and  with  him  guardian  deities  of 


SENKIO   (H.H.T.) 

SAIGYO   (H.S.T.) 

SO.NGOKU    (C..H..V.) 
SAN   SUKUMI    (M.E.) 

HOSHI    (H.S.r.) 


SIHTADASHI    SAMBASO   (.}/./;.) 


SA1SHI    (ir.L.S.) 


the  waterfalls.  SEITAKA  is  painted  red  and  Kongara  white.  A  figure  of 
Seitaka  in  the  Musee  Guimet  is  dressed  in  a  somewhat  primitive  manner  in 
a  "pagne"  of  plaited  straw.  Seitaka  is  a  female  deity,  and  holds  a  lotus. 

805.  SEI    SHOKO   tf  IE  £•      Deified   appellation   of  KATO   KIYOMASA 
(Nichiren  sect). 

806.  SEI  WANG  MU.     See  SEIOBO. 

807.  SEKION  ^  ^.      Son  of  Benten.      See  KWANTAI. 

808.  SEKISHOSHI      ^  ^  ^F     was    the    rain    master   in    the   period   of 
Shinno.     He  is  shown  as  a  Sennin  wearing  leaves  and  holding  in  his  hands 
a  cup  and  a  bottle.      He   seems   identical  with  a  sage  named  SEKISHO  SHIYO 
^  tffe  -p  Jfi|,  who  lived  in  the  time   of   the   Emperor   Ko,   and   eat   no   grain 
but  only  flowering  grasses. 

809.  SEMIMARU   j$   $i   (HAKUGA).      Blind   son    of   the   Emperor    UDA; 
who  taught  the  flute  to  Hiromasa. 

810.  SEXGEX  •£§>  faj,  or  ASAMA.     The  Princess  who  makes  the  blossoms 
of  trees  to  flower:    Ko  NO  HANA  SAKUYA  HIME,  the  Goddess  of  FUJI. 

811.  SENNINS.     See   RISHIS. 

812.  SENSHA    $ft   Tji,    or    KOMIO.      One   of   the   sons   of   Benten,    trans- 
formation of  Yakujo  Bosatsu,  and  corresponding  to  Bhaichadjyaradjasamudgata. 
His  attributes  are  a  wagon  loaded  with  bales  of  rice  and  also  a  boat. 

813.  SENTARO  fill   J£   IB-      The  man   who  did  not   want   to   die,  and 
was  sent  to  HORAI  SAN  by  JOFUKU. 

Sentaro  had  read  a  book  in  which  was  related  the  story  of  JOFUKU'S 
expedition  to  Japan  on  behalf  of  the  Chinese  Emperor,  SHIN  NO  SHIKO,  to 
find  the  elixir  of  life,  relating  how,  according  to  the  Koku  Shi  Riaku,  a 
man  named  HsO  Fu  landed  in  Japan  with  one  thousand  people  from  T'SIN, 
in  the  seventy-second  year  of  Kore  Tenno,  as  the  Chinese  Emperor,  T'sin 
She  Wang  Ti,  afraid  of  death,  had  heard  from  WANG  Su,  the  recluse  of  the 
Demon  valley,  that  in  the  island  of  Tsu  CHU  (Japan)  grew  a  certain  grass, 



one  leaf  of  which  was  enough  to  revive  a  corpse,  and  he  had  sent  Hsu  Fu 
to  fetch  some.  See  Balfour's  Chinese  Scrap  Book,  1887,  p.  26  and  seq.). 

Sentaro  thought  that  Jofuku,  who  had  become  the  patron  of  the  hermits  of 
Fuji,  could  help  him  in  his  realizing  wishes  for  everlasting  life,  and  in  answer 
to  his  prayers  Jofuku  appeared  to  him,  and  sent  him  on  a  paper  crane  to 
Mount  HORAI,  where  he  found  that  people  were  rather  tired  of  living  for 
ever,  and  sought  death  by  every  means  in  their  power  without  success.  Soon 
he  got  disgusted  himself:  the  first  amusement  and  joy  he  felt  at  eating  poisons 
without  bad  effects  paled,  and  he  began  to  wish  he  had  never  left  Japan 
and  his  earthly  life.  He  got  quite  home-sick,  and  decided  to  return  on  a 
paper  crane  again.  But  during  his  journey  indecision  beset  him ;  he  began 
to  regret  coming  back,  but  there  was  no  way  out  of  it,  and  his  indecision 
nearly  cost  him  his  life,  as  he  came  perilously  near  the  waves.  ...  A 
rat  running  upon  his  bare  shoulder  awoke  him — it  was  only  a  dream  after 
all.  This  last  part  of  the  story  is  often  found  illustrated  in  netsuke. 

The  fairy  tale  of  Sentaro  appears  to  be  an  imitation  of  the  \Vasobioye 
or  of  the  iMitsobioye.  A  lengthy  adaptation  of  it  will  be  found  in  T. 
Ozaki's  book. 

814.  SESSHIDO    ^   fjjjj   jj|    (with  tiger)  used   to   gather   mushrooms   on 
the   slopes   of   Mount   Hyakujo.     Once   he   met    there   an   old   sage   who    gave 
him  a  blade  of  sweet  grass  to  chew,  after  which  he  became  very  lively,  and 
the  tigers  of  the  mountains  used  to  come  and  play  with  him. 

815.  SESSHIU    H   ffi.      Celebrated    painter   of   the   second    half   of   the 
fifteenth  century,  born   in  Osaka  in   1420.      He  was  sent   to  the  monastery  of 
Hofukuji  to  undergo  training.     Having  been  tied  to  a  pillar  as  a  punishment 
for   some   offence,   he   painted   a   few   rats   on   the   floor   with   his   brush   held 
between  his  toes.      When  the  Abbot  came  later   to  set  him   free   the  worthy 
man   was   so   afraid  that  he  dared  not  come  near.      Some  say  that  a  couple 
of  the  painted  rats  scampered  away  when  the  Abbot  appeared. 

816.  SETA  NO  KARA  HASHI   $1  (5  0)  jf  $|.     The  bridSe  over  the 
Setagawa.      It  is  eight  hundred  feet  long,  near  lake  Biwa  and  the  Buddhist 



temple  of  Ishiyama.  Legend  places  upon  it  the  meeting  of  Fujiwara 
Hidesato  with  the  dragon  of  the  lake,  who  requested  him  to  kill  the  giant 
centipede,  MUKADE,  of  Mount  Mikami.  See  MASAKADO  and  TAWARA  TODA. 

817.     SEVEN  WORTHIES  OF  THE  BAMBOO  GROVE  ff  ^  ^  M 

(Chikurin  shichi  Kenjin).  The  Chinese  Chuh  lin  ts'i  hien,  frequently  met 
in  illustrations.  The  seven  poets,  literati  and  convivial  immortals,  who 
formed  this  group  were:— 

GENSEIIKI  PJC  f$  (Yuan  Tsi),  depicted  with  a  boy  attendant,  and  his 
nephew,  GENKAN  $}£  •id*  (Yuan  Hien),  with  fan  and  staff. 

It  is  said  of  Genshiki  that  he  turned  the  white  of  his  eyes  to  those  he 
hated,  and  the  blue  to  those  he  loved.  Another  legend,  very  similar  to  those 
of  Tanabata  and  of  Wu  lin  jin,  relates  that  he  boated  up  the  Milky  Way  up 
to  the  haunts  of  the  Spinning  Maiden,  and  met  a  strange  fisherman  who 
gave  him  the  stone  used  by  SHOKUJO  to  smooth  her  tresses  (C.J.R.  I.  14$). 
Compare  CHANG  KIEN. 

KEIKO  |f>lj  ffj"  (Liu  ling),  who  wished  a  grave-digger  could  always  follow 
him,  in  case  he  fell  dead  when  drunk;  carries  a  book. 

KIOSHIN  \n\  ^fr  (Hian  Siu),  with  an  unrolled  makimono. 

Oju  -p-  -$i  (Wang  Jung),  minister  of  Tsin  Hwei  Ti,  left  his  duty  for 
pleasure,  and  was  so  mean  that  the  fruit  of  a  famous  plum  tree  grown  on 
his  estate  was  stoned  before  being  sold,  to  prevent  it  being  grown  elsewhere. 

SANTO  jjj  ^fjp  (Shan  Tao),  minister  of  Ling  Wu  Ti,  shown  as  an  old 
man  with  a  staff;  was  a  patron  of  rising  talent. 

RIUREI  fjf  j^  (Ki  Kang),  was  a  student  of  the  black  arts,  which  he 
practised  under  a  willow  tree.  When  a  student,  a  spirit  with  a  tongue 
seven  ells  long  came  in  his  room  one  night,  and  Ki  Kang  then  blew  out 
the  lamp,  saying:  "I  am  not  afraid  but  disgusted  at  your  ugliness,"  and  the 
spirit  went  away.  He  was  sentenced  to  death  as  a  wizard,  and  showed  his 
indifference  by  tuning  his  guitar  as  he  walked  to  the  place  of  execution. 

818  SHACHIUSHO  fi  f$  |fl,  a  Sennin  (Seay  chung  chu).  Once  he 
wanted  to  cross  a  lake;  there  was  no  ferryman  or  boat  available,  and  he 
crossed  on  a  bamboo.  In  consequence,  he  is  usually  depicted  supported  on 



the    waves    by    a    branch    of    bamboo.       Compare    DARUMA;    KANSHOHI;    see 
Anderson's   Catalogue. 

Si 9.  SHAEN  Ifl  [HJ.  Chinese  student  who  became  one  of  the  Taoist 
worthies.  He  is  usually  depicted  reading.  He  was  too  poor  to  buy 
illuminating  materials;  he  gathered  glow-worms  in  gauze  bags,  and  pursued 
his  studies  by  the  light  they  emitted. 

Two  other  Chinese  read  their  books  by  night  without  a  light:  one, 
SHOKO,  by  moonlight,  the  other,  RIUTO,  using  the  reflection  of  the  light  upon 
the  snow  piled  high  near  his  window.  See  RISHIS;  see  Mangwa,  Vol.  3, 
and  Ehon  Kojidan. 

820.  SHAKA  ff  5JU.  The  Buddha,  Sakyamuni  ff|  ^  (>&  H  ^L)  being 
the  Chinese  name  of  Gautama  Buddha.  It  is  unnecessary  to  enter  here  into 
a  biographical  sketch  of  Shaka;  the  various  forms  in  which  he  is  most 
often  represented  in  art  are  given  in  the  Butsu  dzo  dzui,  the  four  principal 
ones  being  :— - 

Tanjo  no  Shaka,  the  erect  child  on  a  lotus,  with  the  right  hand  pointing 
towards  heaven,  the  left  towards  the  earth,  as  he  appeared  to  his  mother, 
Maya  Bunin,  and  to  his  father,  Jobon  (King  Sudohodhana). 

Shussan  no  Shaka,  returning  from  the  mountains,  with  a  slight  beard 
on  his  face;  his  head  is  partly  shaven,  and  surrounded  by  a  halo;  barefooted, 
he  affects  the  position  of  prayer,  with  clasped  hands;  his  dress  is  moved  by 
the  wind.  This  figure  is  the  only  one  commonly  met  as  netsuke,  usually 
of  red  wood,  perhaps  in  allusion  to  the  following  story:— 

When  Shaka  was  preaching  to  his  mother  in  the  Tosotsu  Ten  heaven 
for  ninety  days,  his  disciple,  Mokuren,  carved  from  memory  a  figure  of  the 
Master  out  of  some  red  sandal  wood  given  by  King  Udayana,  and  the 
statue,  placed  in  the  temple  of  Jetavana  Vihara  (GiJwn  Shoja),  went  out  to 
greet  Shaka  on  his  return. 

Shogaku  no  Shaka,  the  omniscient  and  all-wise,  seated  on  a  lotus,  with 
the  right  hand  held  up,  palm  forward,  in  the  teaching  gesture.  The  left 
hand  rests,  palm  upwards,  open  on  the  lap;  the  head  is  covered  with  short 



curled  hair,  which  a  French  writer  described  as  "les  colimacons  qui  pendant 
sa  retraite  vinrent  refraichir  le  front  du  Buddha." 

The  urna,  already  present  in  the  previous  form,  is  supplemented  by  a 
large  jewel  amongst  the  hair  above  the  forehead. 

Nehan  na  Shaka,  Buddha  with  closed  eyes,  lies  on  a  raised  platform, 
his  head  resting  on  a  lotus;  he  has  entered  the  Nirvana.  Legend  has  it  that 
when  Buddha  died  all  the  animals  wept  except  the  cat,  and  the  scene  is 
depicted  in  some  popular  Japanese  books. 

Amongst  the  presentments  of  the  Buddha,  Shaka  Nyorai,  the  healer,  is 
fairly  common,  identical  in  appearance  with  the  teaching  Buddha,  though 
in  the  Butsu  dzo  dzui  seven  healing  Buddhas  are  given,  some  of  whom  are 

Yama  Goshi  no  Shaka  (q.v.),  Buddha  between  two  mountains.  In  company 
with  Manjusri  and  Samantabhadra.  Shaka  forms  the  Buddhist  trinity. 

Other  incidents  in  his  career  are  sometimes  depicted,  but  the  most 
popular  form  in  which  Shaka  is  found  in  Japan  is  that  of  Amida  (Amitabha), 
whose  worship  filtered  eastwards  in  the  fifth  century,  and  whose  various 
forms  are  set  forth  in  the  Butsu  dzo  dzui.  Nine  are  particularly  distinguished 
by  the  mudras,  or  mystic  positions  of  the  hands  and  fingers.  Amida  presides 
over  the  Paradise  of  the  West  with  Kwannon  (q.v.),  and  a  pious  legend 
states  that  in  womanly  form  he  became  the  mother  of  Shotoku  Taishi, 
the  princely  protector  of  Buddhism  in  Japan  (572-621).  The  Empress  Komei 
Kojo  is  depicted  massaging  the  back  of  a  naked  beggar,  whose  form  the 
Buddha  had  taken  to  test  her  faith. 

821.  SHAKKIYO  ^J  ^.     A  sort  of  dance  in  which  the  performers  wear 
long   reddish  or  brown  hair,   reaching  to  their   ankles,  and  carry   peonies   in 
their  hand  and  headgear.     They  are  supposed  to  represent  lions  swarming  in 
the    valleys   of   sacred    mountainous   districts,    roaring    amongst    peonies,    the 
emblematic  representations  of  worldly  power. 

822.  SHAKUJO    H    ;fct      Staff    with    rings,    attribute    of    Jizo.      It    is 
said   to   have   been    invented   by   a    Buddhist    monk   to   give    warning   of   his 
approach  to  insects  and  worms  crawling  on  the  roads. 



823.  SHARI   ^  ^'Ij  (Relic,  Sanskrit,   SARIRA).     A   gem-like  water-worn 
stone,  chalcedony,  or  quartz,  the  size  of  a  small  pea,  which  Buddhists  believe 
to  be  found  in  the  ashes  of  any  holy  person   after  cremation.      They  were 
preserved  in  small  pagoda-shaped  shrines,  called  Sharito. 

In  earlier  periods  these  shrines  took  the  shape  of  Go-Rin,  or  five 
circles  tomb,  the  ultimate  evolution  of  which  is  the  Toro,  or  Daimio  lantern 
found  in  gardens.  It  consisted  of  five  divisions :  a  cube,  a  sphere,  a  cone,  a 
crescent,  and  a  flame,  representing  respectively  earth,  water,  fire,  air,  and 
the  Tama  (jewel  or  spirit).  The  tama  itself,  with  its  pyriform  shape  and 
its  grooves,  is  probably  a  representation  of  the  five  essences.  See  MIMIZUKA. 

The  shari  are  said  by  unbelievers  to  vary  in  size  and  number  in  direct 
proportion  to  the  offerings  made  to  the  priests  before  the  cremation  of  the 
body,  by  the  parents  of  the  deceased.  See  TANKWA. 

824.  SHARIHOTSU  ^  f  Ij  $J.     The  most  celebrated  of  the  ten  disciples 
of  Buddha  (Shaka),  shewn  with  a  halo  around  his  shaven   head   and   a   fan 
in  his  hands  (Butsu  dzo  dzui  4). 


826.  SHE  WANG  TI  j£  J|  ^f.      See  CHENG  (SHIN  NO  SHIKO). 

827.  SHIBA  KISHU  If]  J|  ^  i,  of  So,  told  fortunes  in  the  street.     He 
looked  like  a  girl,  but  had  a  beard  three  feet   long  as  black  as  lacquer. 

He  is  shown  seated  at  a  table  upon  which  are  the  divining  sticks  in  a 
tall  vase,  a  book,  and  a  few  other  implements. 

828.  SHIBA   ONKO    WJ    H)    $n.  (SzE   MA  KWANG).      Chinese  statesman 
of  the  eleventh  century,  under  the  Tsung  dynasty.      An  episode  of  his   boy- 
hood   has    contributed    considerably    to    his    celebrity,    and    is    often    found 
illustrated.      Several  Chinese  boys,  amongst  whom  Sze  Ma  Kwang,   watched 
one  day  the  evolutions  of  some  gold-fishes  in  a  huge  porcelain  jar,  over  the 
rim  of  which  they  were  leaning.     One  of  the  boys  overbalanced  himself  and 
fell   into   the  jar;    all   his   companions   ran    away   shrieking,    leaving   him    to 
drown,   with   the   exception   of   Sze   Ma   Kwang,    who    broke   the  jar   with   a 
stone  to  let  the  water  flow  away.     This  episode  is  represented  in  netsuke  in 



sword    guards,    etc.,    usually    with   the   water    and   fishes   escaping   from   the 
opening  in  the  jar,  through  which  protrudes  the  head  of  the  drowning  boy. 
Mayers  (Ch.R.M.)  gives  the  story  and  also  a  parallel  instance  of  presence 
of  mind  of  Wen  Yen   Po,  which  is,   however,  somewat  less   credible.      Shiba 
Onko  is  also  depicted  killing  a  two-headed  snake. 

829.  SHIBA  SHOJO    W]    H    Jg    #P.     The   ambitious   Chinese  Sze   ma 
Siang    Ju,    often    shown    writing    upon    a    bridge-post,    in    allusion    to    the 
following  story:    Near  his  home   was   a   bridge,  on  the   road   leading   to   the 
Capital,   and   once   he  wrote  upon  one  of  the  pillars:    "In  seven   years  from 
now,    I   shall  cross  this  bridge  in  a  carriage   drawn   by   four    horses."      This 
prophecy  was  fulfilled,  when  after  painstaking  studies  he  became  the  minister 
of  King  Ti  (Han).      He  soon  retired,   however,  to  his  native   province,  where 
he  fell  in   love  with   a  widow  who  eloped  with  him,  and  the  pair  gained  a 
precarious  livelihood  as  innkeepers  in   a   remote  province.      The  father  of  his 
wife  relented  after  some  years,  and  Shiba  Shojo   was  again  called   to  court, 
when    his    new   master   was   the   Emperor   Wu  Ti.      He  then    wished  to  take 
a  concubine  because  his  wife  had  grey  hair  (Ehon  Hokan,  etc.). 

830.  SHIBA  SHOTEI  f  ]  J|  ^  flj|  (SzE  MA  CH'ENG  CHENG)  lived  during 
the  period  Kaigen,  in  the  To  dynasty,  and  once  practised  incantation  in  the 
Hall   of   Longevity  (Choseiden),   where  he  slept  with  several  people.     During 
the    night    the    others    heard    a    low    voice    like    that    of    a    child    reading    a 
religious    book,    and    found   the   room    filled    with   a   dim    light.      One    man, 
BUNSEI,    who   was   nearest   to   the    wizard,    went    to   his   bedside   and    noticed 
on   Shiba's  forehead   a   small  sun,  which  nearly  illuminated  the  whole  room; 
he  also  found  that  the  sound  came  from  Shiba's  brain. 

Shiba  is  shown  sleeping  on  a  divan. 

831.  SHIBATA   KATSUIYE   ^    ffl    ffi    ^,   usually   depicted   breaking 
water-pots  in  a  castle,   was  Oda  Nobunaga's   brother-in-law,  and  one   of  his 
lieutenants.     After  the  death  of  his  leader   he   plotted  against  Hideyoshi,  but 
being    somewhat    dull-witted    was    easily    detected    by    Taiko,    who    attacked 
him  and  defeated  him.     Katsuiye  committed  seppuku  in  his  castle  of  Kita  no 
Sho,  in  Echizen,  after  killing  his  wife  and  daughter,  to  escape  capture.     The 



illustration  referred  to  alludes  to  the  following  story :  He  was  besieged  in  the 
castle  of  Chokoji,  and  could  not  get  fresh  water  from  a  spring  outside  the 
moat  as  his  besiegers  were  too  close.  His  soldiers  greatly  suffered  from 
thirst,  and  to  stimulate  their  courage  he  caused  them  to  be  brought  to  a 
chamber  where  a  few  pots  of  water  were  kept  for  emergency,  ordered  them 
to  have  a  long  drink  each,  and  then,  without  drinking  any  himself,  he  broke 
the  pots.  A  sortie  was  immediately  made,  and  he  won  a  victory.  Some 
versions  mention  one  pot  only. 

832.  SHICHI  FUKU  JIN  -fa  jjg  J$  (SEVEN  GODS  OF  LUCK).  This 
assemblage  of  household  divinities  has  been  variously  described,  and  to 
each  of  its  number  have  been  given  more  or  less  fanciful  attributions  by 
Western  writers  in  their  eagerness  for  classification,  although  the  Japanese 
themselves  give  but  scanty  information  as  to  the  properties  which  may  have 
originally  been  considered  peculiar  to  the  individual  gods.  Their  invention 
is  attributed  to  the  courtier  Dai  Oi'  no  Kami,  on  the  first  day  of  1624,  to 
explain  a  dream  of  the  Shogun  lyemitsu.  A  group  of  Shintoist  divinities 
appears  to  have  been  recognised  before  the  introduction  of  this  semi- 
Buddhistic  septet  of  worthies  which  totally  eclipsed  it  and  took,  from  the 
end  of  the  seventeenth  century  onward,  a  prominent  place  in  popular  worship 
as  well  as  in  art.  Endowed  with  human  failings  and  with  endless  pro- 
clivities for  enjoyment,  the  Gods  of  Luck  receive  at  the  hands  of  the  painter 
or  of  the  carver  pleasantly  humorous,  if  irreverent,  treatment:  the  luck- 
bringing  Daikoku  of  Indian  origin,  his  supposed  son,  Ebisu,  of  Shinto  descent, 
Fukurokujiu  the  ever-smiling  (which  Ehon  Kojidan  states  to  be  another 
presentment  of  the  Taoist  Lao  Tsze,  and  a  duplicate  of  Jurojin)  rub  shoulder 
with  the  rollicking  Hotei  and  the  musically-inclined  Benten,  both  of  which 
are  Buddhist  creations.  Bishamon  is  the  only  member  of  this  circle  who, 
warrior-like,  remains  stolid  in  appearance,  and  although  described  as  God 
of  Wealth,  he  is  but  rarely  depicted  in  comparison  with  the  other  six. 

Kishijoten  occasionally  takes  the  place  of  Jurojin  (Ehon  Kojidan). 
Kishimojin  also  forms  one  of  the  group  in  the  works  published  in  the  early 
part  of  the  XVIIIth  century. 


A  work  called  Hengakn  Ki  han  contains  lengthy  descriptions  of  the  Shichi 
Fuku  Jin.  It  has  been  translated  by  Puini  (//  sette  Genii  della  felicita),  and 
an  English  adaptation,  by  F.  V.  Dickins,  appeared  in  the  proceedings  of  the 
Asiatic  Society  of  Japan. 

833.  SHIGEMORI    ^    It    $£,    TAIRA    xo.      Eldest    son    of    Kiyomori. 
During  the  war  of  Heiji,  he  attacked  Nobuyori  at  the  Taikemmon  with  only 
three  hundred  men,  and  his  horse  having  dropped  and   his  helmet   got   loose, 
he  was  nearly  killed  by  Yoshihira,   but  was   rescued    in    time.      One   day   he. 
found  in  the   palace   a   huge   serpent,   and   cut    it    in    twain   with   his   sword. 
He  proposed  to  dig  a  canal  from  lake  Biwa  to  the  sea;    he  shaved  his  head 


and  took  the  name  Shoku.  He  fell  ill  in  the  third  year  of  Oho  after  quelling 
the  revolt  of  the  yamabushis  of  the  Enryakuji,  and  refused  the  help  of  Corean 
physicians;  he  only  had  his  room  surrounded  with  twelve  Buddhist  idols 
on  each  side,  in  front  of  which  lanterns  were  lighted  every  night,  and  forty- 
eight  women  sang  Buddhist  hymns;  hence  his  name,  "the  lantern  minister." 
He  died  at  the  age  of  forty-two,  in  1179. 

834.  SHIGETADA  jf|  fa.     See  HATAKEYAMA;    AKOYA;   SOGA  BROTHERS. 

835.  SHIIKI    ^  jjj|    (and   two   tigers)    went   from   India  to  Joyo   in  the 
period  of  the  Shin  dynasty,  in  the  reign  of  Bu,  and  asked  to  be  ferried  across 
a  stream.     The  boatman  reviled  him  because  his  dress  was  dirty,  and  refused 
to  row  him  across,  but  when  he  landed   on   the   north   side   of   the   river   he 
saw  the  sage  standing  at  the  landing-place  stroking  the  heads  of  two  tigers. 

836.  SHIH  TE  f£  ?§.     See  JITTOKU. 

837.  SHIKORO    BIKI    $&    <j|     means    armour-breaking,    and    refers    to 
episodes  in  which  a  warrior  clutching  the  lappets,  or  neck-piece,  of  another's 
armour,   the  latter's  fastenings  broke,  leaving  the  loose  piece  in   the  hand  of 
the  assailant.     The  best  known  shikoro  biki  episode  is  that  between  Kagekiyo 
and  Mio  no  Ya  at  Yashima;   others  took  place  between  Asahina  Saburo  and 
Soga    no    Goro,    between   Yoshiiye    and    Abe    no   Sadato,    between    Ashikaga 
Yoshiuji  and  Asahina   Yoshihide   (at  Mankodoro   Bridge  in   1211,    during   the 
Wada  rebellion). 


838.  SHIKKUGANJIN.       Divinity    master    of    the     Heaven    of     Desires 
(Kamadahta),    depicted   with   an   open  mouth,  a  fierce  expression,   and  round 
eyes.      From   his   image  in   the   temple   Hokkeda   (Todaiji)   wasps  are  said  to 
escape  in  war  time.      The  figure  holds  a  golden  sceptre. 

839.  SHIKU    KEI    WO    jjjft  ||   |t      A    Chinese    sage,    usually    shown 
walking  behind  a  group  of  cocks.      In   the   Ressen   Den    he    is   shown    feeding 
the  birds  with  maize,  and  his  name  is  written  jjjl  $$fe  ^  Shiku  chi  yo. 

He  was  a  man  of  Rakuyo  who  fed  fowls  for  over  a  hundred  years,  all 
of  them  having  their  own  names  and  coming  to  him  when  called.  He 
sold  the  lot  for  a  myriad  cash,  and  left  for  the  country  of  Go,  leaving 
all  his  treasures  behind  him. 

840.  SHIMAMURA   DANJO   TAKANORI    fcj|  ft  jj$  J£   r^i    fl'J    was  a 
retainer   of   Hosokawa  Takakuni.      In    Kioroku   IV.   (1532)  he  fought   against 
the   Daimio  of  Awa  (Miyoshi    -".  $-f)   in  the  straits  of  Amagasaki ;    defeated, 
he  drowned  himself,  and  the  Jimmei  ji  sho  says  that  the  crabs  found  in  the 
neighbourhood  present  on   their  back  the  face  of  a  warrior.     They  are  called 
Shimamura  Kani.      Compare    Heike  Kani. 

841.  SHINANSHA    ffi    ^J     iji.       The    south-pointing    carriage    of    the 
Chinese  Emperor  KOTEI,  son  of  YUHEI,  inventor  of  the  mariner's  compass. 

The  Ehon  Shaho  Bitkuro  illustrates  twice  the  Shinansha:  in  one  place  in 
connection  with  the  well-known  mariner's  compass,  and  describes  it  as  a 
vehicle  upon  which  a  figure  pointed  towards  the  south.  In  the  southern 
mountains,  says  the  author,  a  stone  is  found,  called  Jisseki  fljj$  ^fj,  and  if  an 
iron  needle  is  rubbed  upon  it,  and  then  placed  to  float  upon  water,  it 
will  point  to  the  North  and  South  with  its  two  ends  respectively. 

Kotei  (]H;  >3f)  made  use  of  it  to  build  the  Shinansha,  and  he  had  this 
carriage  with  him  to  guide  him  in  his  wars,  especially  against  Shuyu,  who 
could  magically  produce  clouds  and  fogs  around  his  army  (IV.  6,  V.  5). 

842.  SHIN  GEN  HEI  f  lj  jfc  ^.     Sage  writing  on  the  wall  of  a  temple. 
He  was  also  called  KAISENSHI  $J  ^  -p,  and  retired  to  Mount  Shunan.     Later 
he   visited   the   temple   Juneikan,  on  the  Mount    Howo,   and   on    the    wall   he 


wrote   the  characters  of  the  tortoise,  crane,   longevity,   and  regulation  (Ressen 
Den,   VII.,  16). 

843.  SHINNO  jj^  J|.     The  Chinese  SHEN  NUNG,  honoured  with  the  title 
of  Emperor,  and  to  whom  sacrifices  are  offered  under  the  name  of  SIEH  TSIH. 
He   is   shown   with    a    massive    head,    flowing    beard,   and    two   rudimentary 
horns,  chewing  a  blade  of  grass  and  wearing  the  coat  of  leaves  of  the  Taoist 
Rishis.      Sometimes   he   writes   on   a   tablet   the   ideograms   which    had    been 
revealed  to  Fun  Hi  on  the  back  of  the  dragon,  and  the  number  of  which  he 
extended  from  eight  to  sixty-four.      Legends  have  been   busily  woven  around 
his   name:    it  is   said   that   his   mother   conceived   at    the   sight   of   a   dragon, 
and   that   he   was  nurtured  by  wild  beasts  in  the  Lieh  Shan.      He    invented 
the  plough  and  the  harp,  founded  the  sciences  of  botany  and  medicine,  and, 
harnessing  eight  dragons  to  his  carriage,  he  traversed  the  earth  and  measured 
its    dimensions.       He    ranks    with    Full   hi    and    Ts'ang    Hieh   as   one   of   the 
inventors  of  the  art   of  writing. 

844.  SHINOZUKA  IGA  XO  KAMI  ^  ^  ffi  ^  ^'.     Retainer  of  Nitta 
Yoshisada.      When    the    latter    was   passing   through    the   district   of   Idsu    he 
was  pursued  by  Ichijo  Jiro,  who  wanted  to  grapple  with  him.     But  Shinozuka 
sprang  at  Echijo  and    hurled   him   away   a   distance  of  thirty  feet   or  so,   says 
the  Hachiman  Dcribosatsu. 

His  herculean  strength  served  him  well  in  1340,  when  he  was  besieged 
in  the  shiro  of  Kawae.  His  companion,  Ujiaki,  committed  seppitkii,  but 
Shinozuka,  defying  the  besiegers,  jumped  into  a  boat  and  single-handed 
weighed  the  anchor,  slept  in  the  boat,  which  the  wind  carried  safely  to 
Oki,  and  escaped  unscathed.  His  daughter,  IGA  NO  TSUBONE,  became  the 
wife  of  Masanori,  third  son  of  Kusunoki  Masashige. 

845.  SHINRAN  SHONIN    |g  flfc  J-.  A-      (1174-1263.)     Founder   of  the 
Shin  or  Monto  sect  of  Buddhism.     It  is  related  of  him  that  in   1232  he  found 
the   villagers   of   Toyano    reluctant    to    accept    his   teaching.      He   then   stuck 
in  the  ground  the  end  of  his  staff,  assuring   them   that   in  proof  of  the  truth 
of  his  assertions  the  stick  would  sprout  and   grow,  and,  like  the  pope's  staff 
in  Tannhauser,   it  shot  forth  leaves  and  twigs.      The  Jodoji   temple  shows  a 



peculiar  bamboo  wand  with  small  bent  twigs  which  is  said  to  be  the 
original  staff,  but,  according  to  Murray's  Guide,  the  temple  Zempukuji,  of 
Asakusa,  shows  in  its  courtyard  an  Icho  tree  of  huge  size,  which  it  is  said 
grew  from  Shinran's  staff,  when,  on  taking  leave  of  his  acolyte,  Rokai,  he 
stuck  the  staff  in  the  ground,  saying:  "Like  that  staff  will  grow  the  strength 
of  the  faith." 

846.  SHINRA   SABURO   f?  II  H  IR  (YOSHIMITSU).     Younger  brother 
of   Yoshiiye,    is   often    depicted   playing    some    musical   instrument   on   Mount 
Ashigara,  in  Mutsu.      Toyowara  Tokimoto  had  transmitted  to  him  the  secret 
of    the    tune,    "Taishoku-nyu   cho,"    instead    of    teaching   it    to   his   own   son 
Tokiaki.     The  latter,   afraid  lest  Yoshimitsu  might  die  in  the  war,  beseeched 
him   to  teach  him   the  tune,  and  Yoshimitsu  did  so,  seating  on  shields.     The 
instrument   used  is  generally  the  Sho. 

Yoshimitsu   took   his   name,    Shinra   Saburo,   from   the   temple    of   Shinra 
Myojin,  where  his  "name-changing''  ceremony  took  place. 

847.  SHINRETSU    |$  ||.      The   Sennin   TSAI    LWAX    (Sairan),   daughter 
of    We    MENG    (GOMO)    and    wife   of   WEX    SIAO   (Bunsho,    q.v.).      She    is    also 
called  Go  sairan  ^  ^  ^  (Resscn   Den,  IV.}. 

848.  SHIRAKA\YA   £j  yBT  Ho-o.     The  retired  Emperor  Shirakawa,  who 
lived   in   the  eleventh   century.      See  the  story  of   HEITARO  SOXE. 

849.  SHISHI  $jjj  =fr.      See  KARASHISHI. 

850.  SHISHIMAI   $jji  np  fl|,    or   DAI    KAGURA.      Lion    dance    performed 
with  a  shishi    mask    with   movable  jaw,   especially  about  the  New  Year.      It 
has  its  parallel   in  the    Chinese    lion   dance.      It   may  be  played   with   hands 
and  feet,  and   is  then  called  Ashi   mai. 

851.  SHITAKIRI    SUZUME    ^    I)]    ^.      Story    of    the    TOXGUE    CUT 
SPARROW   (q.v.), 

852.  SHI    TENNO     0  ;H  3£.      The   Four   Kings   of    Heaven,    or   Four 
Guardians,   who   keep   the   world   from    the    attacks    of    the    demons.      They 
correspond    to    the    Tchatur    Maharadja,    guardians    (Lokapala)    of    the   four 



corners  of  Mount  Meru,  whose  worship  was  introduced  in  China  by  Amogha. 
Their  duty  in  the  Indian  mythology  was  to  guard  the  universe  against  the 
attacks  of  the  Asuras.  They  are  :— 

To  the  North,  BISHAMON  or  TAMONTEN,  the  blue  god  Kuvera,  or  Danada, 
of  the  Brahmans. 

To  the  West,  KOMOKU,  with  the  large  eyes  and  spear,  sometimes  shown 
with  a  book  and  brush.  His  face  is  red ;  he  corresponds  to  the  Hindoo 

To  the  South,  ZOCHO  (Yirudhaka),  with  the  white  face,  and  represented 
as  a  warrior  with  the  spear  and  armour,  but  no  helmet. 

To  the  East,  JIKOKU,  with  a  green  face,  in  armour  and  carrying  a  sword 
or  a  dorge.  It  is  the  transformation  of  Drhitarachtra. 

The  same  name,  "Shi  Tenno,"  is  also  applied  to  the  four  principal 
retainers  of  nobles  and  generals.  See,  for  instance,  RAIKO. 

853.  SHITSUGETSU   fT  /J       Son  of  Benten.      See  HAXKI. 

854.  SHIUJUSHO   -^    Sp    ||.      The    Chinese    CHU    SHOW    CH'ANG    was 
separated  from   his   mother  when  he  was  seven  years   old    because   his   grand- 
mother was  jealous  of  her  daughter-in-law.      For  some  fifty  years  they  never 
met,  until,  having  risen  to  a  high  official  position,  he  resigned  it  to  seek  her. 
He   met   her   at    last,    in    the   reign   of   Chen    Tsung,    in    the    town    of    Tong 
Chow,  when  she  was  seventy-five  years  old. 

855.  SHIUME  OGATA  £  ,f .     See  JIRAIYA. 

856.  SHIYEI  ^f  ^  f|lj.      The    Sennin    TSZE   YIXG,    shown    riding    on    a 
winged  and  horned   carp. 

Shiyei  once  fished  a  red  carp,  the  colour  of  which  was  so  fine  that  he 
kept  it  in  a  pond  and  fed  it.  After  a  year  the  carp  was  ten  feet  in  length, 
and  had  horns  and  feelers.  Shiyei  knelt  by  the  pond  and  worshipped  the 
fish,  who  told  him  that  it  was  there  to  take  him  to  Heaven.  Forthwith 
the  rain  fell,  and  Shiyei  went  to  the  clouds  on  the  carp's  back. 

857.  SHIZUKA     pp.       Mekake    of     YOSHITSUNE,     sometimes     shown     in 
company  with  TADANOBU,  in  allusion  to  the  following  story:   When  Yoshitsune 


fled  to  Yoshino  he  had  to  leave  Shizuka  behind,  with  his  retainer  Tadanobu 
to  escort  her.  He  gave  her  as  a  parting  gift  a  Tzuzumi  (drum)  made  of 
fox  skin,  and  legend  has  it  that  a  fox  took  the  shape  of  Tadanobu  to 
reclaim  the  drum,  which  had  been  covered  with  the  skin  of  the  belly  of 
its  mother.  Hence  the  familiar  presentment  of  Tadanobu  as  a  fox  in 
warrior's  dress  or  as  a  fox  hugging  a  drum.  Another  version  says  that 
Tadanobu  was  really  a  fox-man  himself.  Shizuka  was  captured  by  the 
troops  of  Yoritomo  and  taken  to  Kamakura,  and  had  to  perform  before 
Yoritomo  in  the  temple  of  Hachiman  Bosatsu  the  Horaku  dance;  the  No 
play  of  the  Two  Shizuka  is  based  upon  this  episode.  She  gave  birth  to  a 
son,  who  was  buried  alive.  She  is  usually  depicted  with  long  hair  tied  in 
the  middle.  See  ASAZUMA. 

According  to  one  dramatised  version,  after  the  heads  of  Yoshitsune  and 
his  retainers  had  been  cut  off  to  be  sent  to  Yoritomo  for  public  exhibition, 
Shizuka,  helped  by  Hatakeyama  Shigetada,  substituted  a  wooden  head  for 
the  ghastly  relic  of  her  lover,  risking  her  own  life  in  the  act,  owing  to 
the  jealousy  of  Kajiwara  Kagetoki,  who  later  sent  his  henchman,  Bamba 
Chuda,  to  kill  Shizuka.  She  was  then  hidden  by  Koshida  Gounji,  whom 
legends  make  the  father  of  Tora,  of  Oiso  (q.v.). 

858.  SHODO  SHONIX  J§  i§  J:  A-  Founder  of  the  first  Buddhist 
temple  of  Nikko;  lived  from  735  to  817.  His  life  is  full  of  legend,  and  an 
account  of  it  from  a  Japanese  text  will  be  found  in  Satow  and  Howes'  Guide. 
The  most  interesting  episode  is  probably  that  whicli  led  to  the  construction 
of  the  sacred  bridge  of  Nikko,  One  day  he  saw  four  coloured  clouds  rising 
from  the  earth  to  the  sky,  and  proceeded  forward  to  see  them.  He  found 
his  road  barred  by  a  wild  torrent,  and  was  praying  for  some  means  to 
traverse  it  when  a  gigantic  apparition,  clad  in  blue  and  black  robes  and 
with  a  string  of  skulls  as  a  necklace,  called  to  him  from  the  other  bank. 
This  supernatural  being  said  that  he  would  help  him  as  he  had  once  helped 
Hiuen  Tsang  (Sanzo  Hoshi),  and  threw  over  the  torrent  two  blue  and  green 
snakes,  which  formed  a  bridge.  After  Shodo  Shonin  had  crossed,  the  god 
and  his  snakes  disappeared. 



859.  SHOGIO  BOSATSU  has  a  stone  statue  in  Tokyo  which  receives 
peculiar  treatment  at  the  hands  of  the  worshippers.  They  buy  little  bundles 
of  straw  tied  in  the  form  of  brushes,  and  dipping  them  in  water  rub  the 
image  of  the  saint,  after  which  the  straw  brushes  are  hung  as  ex  voto. 

Shogio  Bosatsu  is  one  of  the  saints  of  the  Nichiren  sect,  and  no 
explanation  is  given  for  this  curious  practice  of  keeping  this  image  constantly 

860.  SHOHAKU  ^  i$[  was  a  priest  of  noble  lineage  who  assumed  the 
name  Botankwa  (peony  flower)  for  some  unknown  reason. 

He  is  usually  depicted  sitting  on  a  bull  with  gilt  horns,  or  decorated 
with  peonies,  reading  a  book,  or  admiring  the  scenery.  Often  enough  he 
does  so  riding  with  his  face  towards  the  tail  of  his  mount,  like  the  Chinese 
poet  Sankan.  He  lived  in  Ikeda  (Settsu)  until  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  when  he  went  to  Idzumi  to  cultivate  his  taste  for  flowers,  incense- 
burning,  and  sake.  He  died  in  1527  at  the  ripe  age  of  eighty-four. 

He  is  one  of  the  celebrated  Rengashi,  or  writers  of  Renga,  short  poems, 
one  half  of  which  was  composed  by  one  poet  and  the  other  half  by  a  second 
writer.  His  name  is  sometimes,  though  rarely,  read  Shokaku. 

861.  SHOIDOJIN  $£SM  A.-     ^  sa»e  mending  his  clothes  with  rushes. 
SHOIDOJIN   wore  a  white   dress,  and   mended   it   with    rushes    when    it    fell    to 

862.  SHOJO.      Son  of  Benten.      See  KONSAI. 

863.  SHOJO  H[  >(§,.      Mythical  creatures  living  near  the  sea,  and  who 
evince    an     inordinate    taste    for    intoxicants.       Their    faces    are    human    in 
appearance,   but   with    long   straight   hair  of  a   red    hue,   from   which   a   dye 
can   be   prepared    when   fishermen   are   lucky   enough   to   catch   any   of   them. 
They  are  usually  shown  in  groups,  with  huge  sake  jars,  or  cups,  and  dippers; 
perhaps  asleep  near  a  jar,  or  busy  drinking,  or  even  frolicking  on  the  waves 
in   a   huge   sake   cup,   accompanied   by   the    long-tailed    tortoise;    intoxicated 
and  dancing  with  fan   in  one  hand  and  dipper  in  the   other,  etc. 



They  have  human  voices,  and  sometimes,  though  rarely,  are  made  to 
look  like  monkeys  with  human  faces  and  long  hair,  or  are  represented 
with  a  monkey's  face,  especially  in  Nara  netsuke.  According  to  some 
legend,  a  shojo  was  once  the  solitary  customer  of  a  Chinese  innkeeper,  but 
his  potations  were  so  deep  and  numerous  that  the  man  became  very  rich. 

864.  SHOKI    Hf    ^.      Sennin.      The    Chinese    Ch'uki    lived    in    Mount 
Tempei    in    the   latter   part   of   the   Kwan   dynasty,   and   played   the   flute   so 
skilfully  that  the  phoenixes  came  around  him  to  listen.      See  KOSHOHEI. 

865.  SHOKI    fjf  J^.      A    mythical    being,   the    Demon   Queller,    CHUNG 
KW'EI,  of  the  Chinese,  whose   legend    dates  back   to  the   early  period  of  the 
Tang  dynasty,  and  is  apparently  traceable  to  some  alteration  in  the  writing 
of  a  magical  formula.